Bulgarian conjugation


Bulgarian conjugation

This is a paradigm of Bulgarian verbs, that is, a set of conjugation tables for the model regular verbs and for most irregular verbs.

The tables include only the simple tenses. The compound tenses and the renarrative forms can be easily put together by using the appropriate tense of "съм" + past active aorist/imperfect participle, "ща" + "да" + present tense or the constructions "ще"/"няма да"/"нямаше да" + present tense (see the main article for more information).

The pronouns "аз, ти, той, ние, вие" and "те" are used to symbolise the three persons and two numbers. Note, however, that Bulgarian is a pro-drop language and so it is the norm to omit subject pronouns when not needed for contrast or emphasis. Note also that the subject, if specified, can easily be something other than these pronouns. For example, instead of "той", we can have "тя", "то", or a noun phrase. Instead of "ние", we can have "ти и аз", "той и аз" etc., or a noun phrase that includes the speaker. The same comments hold for "вие" and "те".

A verb's conjugation is determined by its third-person singular present tense form, so in this article this form will be called "conjugation determiner". The stress is also a very important factor in the conjugation. Most of the verbs given here are imperfective and transitive, because perfective and intransitive verbs lack some forms.

In the following verb forms, the part coloured in black is the conjugation determiner or what remains from it, the part coloured in red is an ending attached to the conjugation determiner, the part coloured in blue is any stem change in the conjugation determiner.

First conjugation verbs

†Some of the verbs from this type form the past passive participle irregularly - with т, instead of н (пят), others have double forms - нагрят and нагрян.

††Verbs from types 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13 and 16 can form the verbal noun from the imperfect basis, from the aorist basis or from both (it's an inherent characteristic of each verb). Here is given the formation from the aorist basis, because it's more complex. Verbs from types 5, 9, 11, 14 and 15 can form the verbal noun only from the imperfect basis.

econd conjugation verbs

Auxiliary verbs

"съм", to be

*"отща", "поща" and "прища" follow the same pattern.

Irregular verbs

"мога", can, to be able

* "вям", "доизям", "доям", "заям", "изпоям", "изям", "надям", "наям", "недоям", "отям", "оям", "подям", "полуизям", "понаям", "попреям", "поям", "преям", "приям", "проям", "разям" and "самоизям" follow the same pattern.

"дам", to give

†"дойда" is a perfective verb, only imperfective verbs have adverbial or present active participles and verbal nouns.††"дойда" is an intransitive verb, so it can't have a passive participle.
*"зайда", "надойда", "подойда" and "придойда" follow the same pattern.

"отида", to go

"позная", to know, to be acquainted with, to guess

††"раста" is an intransitive verb, so it can't have a passive participle.

*"враста", "дораста", "зараста", "израста", "надраста", "нараста", "обраста", "отраста", "подраста", "позараста", "поотраста", "попораста", "пораста", "прераста", "прираста", "прораста", "разраста" and "сраста" follow the same pattern.

"държа", to hold, to keep

*"втъка", "дотъка", "изтъка", "натъка", "поизтъка", "претъка", and "разтъка" follow the same pattern.

"бележа", to mark

*"закълна", "покълна̀" and "прокълна" follow the same pattern.

"меля", to grind, to mill, to mince

*"домеля", "замеля", "измеля", "намеля", "помеля", "посмеля", "премеля" and "смеля" follow the same pattern.

"коля", to butcher

*"доколя", "заколя", "изколя" and "наколя" follow the same pattern.


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