- Progressive Judaism
Progressive Judaism is an umbrella term used by strands of Judaism which affiliate to the
World Union for Progressive Judaism. They embrace pluralism, modernity, equality and social justice as core values and believe that such values are consistent with a committed Jewish life. [ [http://wupj.org/Resources/ResourcesList.asp The World Union for Progressive Judaism | Resources List ] ] [ [http://www.upj.org.au/about-upj.asp?page=348 Union for Progressive Judaism (Australia, New Zealand, and Asia)] ] [ [http://www.saupj.org.za/judaism/intro-reform.html Our Philosophy (South Africa)] ] [ [http://www.saupj.org.za/pdfs/minhagsa.pdf Minhag South Africa] ] [ [http://www.liberaljudaism.org/pdf/Affirmations_of_Liberal_Judaism_2006.pdf Affirmations of Liberal Judaism (UK)] ] [ [http://www.reformjudaism.org.uk/about-us.html The Movement for Reform Judaism (UK)] ] [ [http://ccarnet.org/Articles/index.cfm?id=44&pge_id=1606 A statement of Principles for Reform Judaism (USA)] ] The movement includes more than 1.7 million members spread across 42 countries. [http://wupj.org/ (Accessed November 1, 2007)]
Progressive Judaism started its formal existence as a movement in 1926 when leading Liberal, Reform, and Progressive Jews in
North Americaand Europemet in England to discuss common interests. At the urging of Lily Montagu, they decided to unite and form the World Union for Progressive Judaism(WUPJ). Local movements retained their prior organizational structure and identity but now had a new umbrella organization which they used to support one another and coordinate efforts to support congregations in regions where Progressive Judaism was not yet well established. After World War II, the WUPJ also worked to rebuild the decimated progressive congregations of Europe. [Meyer, Michael. "Response to Modernity: A History of the Reform Movement in Judaism" (New York, USA: Oxford University Press, 1988), 336-345.]
Zionists within the progressive movement are represented by Arzenu, a Brit Olamit (political party) within the
World Zionist Organization. [ [http://www.arzenu.org.il/ Arzenu | Home ] ] A Zionist Youth movement, Netzer Olamihas affiliations with both the WUPJ and Arzenu. [http://wupj.org/Youth/NetzerOlami.asp (Accessed November 1, 2007).]
Relationship to Liberal, Reform, and Reconstructionist Judaism
Progressive Judaism represents a set of beliefs, goals, and organizational structure shared by Jews that variously call themselves "Liberal", "Reform", "Reconstructionist" or "Progressive".
In the first half of the 19th century, reform-minded Jews in Germany identified with the name "Reform". Early rabbinic reformers, such as
Abraham Geiger, had no desire to start a separate movement. They identified with the term "reform" and periodically met in synods, but did not formally organize into an independent denomination or rabbinic association.
The laity was more impatient with the process of reform. When the German government authorized the establishment of officially recognized separatist congregations, radical lay people in Frankfurt and Berlin formed their own congregations. In 1842 a radical group of lay people in Frankfurt formed the "ReformFreunde" (Friends of Reform). [Meyer, Response to Modernity, 122] In the summer of 1845, a group of lay people in Berlin, lead by Sigmund Stern formed the "Association for Reform in Judaism" and held
High Holidayservices using a liturgy designed by the association. In 1850 the association renamed itself the "Jewish Reform Congregation of Berlin". [Meyer, Response to Modernity, 128-131] . This attempt at congregational separatism, however, failed to flourish. No other official congregations were established [David Philipson, "The Reform Movement in Judaism" (USA:KTAV, 1967 (originally released in 1930), 257.] and prominent reformers, such as Abraham Geiger, refused to serve them. [Philipson, "The Reform Movement in Judaism", 268]
By the final quarter of the 19th century, the reform process slowed down to the point that younger members of the community accused their reform minded elders of being a "ham-eating orthodoxy". [Philipson, "The Reform Movement in Judaism", p. 386] . The next generation of reformers coalesced around a new name: "liberal". [Philipson, "The Reform Movement in Judaism", p. 387] . This time attempts at organization gathered momentum and gained rabbinic support. In 1898, German liberal rabbis organized into the "Union of Liberal Rabbis in Germany". In 1908 the liberal laity organized into the "Union for Liberal Judaism in Germany". Within a year had over 5000 lay and rabbinic members belonging to some 200 communities. [Meyer, Response to Modernity, 210] In the 20th century, the predominant terms in continental Europe are either "Liberal" or "Progressive".
In North America laity, rabbis and congregations began organizing much earlier than in Europe. In 1825, lay members of
Beth Elohimin Charleston, South Carolinafounded the "Reformed Society of Israelites". Although reform minded Americans identified as "Reform" Jews, the name never made it into their major institutions. In 1873 Reform congregations organized as the Union of American Hebrew Congregations(UAHC). Shortly after, in 1875, the Hebrew Union Collegewas establish to improve the quality of rabbis in the US.
As in Europe, there were significant disagreements among the reformers over the role of tradition. In 1883 a banquet was planned to celebrate the first graduating class of rabbis from
Hebrew Union College. The more radical element planned the banquet with a menu containing shrimp. Soon after this banquet, known as the Trefa Banquet, intensified the conflict between the radical and conservative reformers. [ [http://www.ajhs.org/publications/chapters/chapter.cfm?documentID=241 The "Trefa Banquet" and the End of a Dream] in Michael Feldberg (ed.), "Blessings of Freedom: Chapters in American Jewish History", The American Jewish Historical Society/ KTAV, 2002. ISBN 0881257567. Chapter 5.7 (or #52 online). Accessed November 2, 2007] The conflict further inensified in 1885 when a fierce debate broke out between Kaufmann Kohlerand Alexander Kohutover the nature of reform.
In response to debate, Kohler called a conference of reform-minded rabbis in
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Isaac Meyer Wise, the rabbinical head of Hebrew Union College, presided over the conference. The conference produced the Pittsburgh Platform. This platform was highly controversial and an organizational split between those more and less conservative. [Meyer, "Response to Modernity", 268] In 1887 a separate rabbinical school, the Jewish Theological Seminarywas founded. In 1889, the more liberal rabbis organized under the banner of the Central Conference of American Rabbis. In 1901, conservative rabbis organized as the Rabbinical Assembly. Ten years later, in 1913, conservative congregations banded together under the banner of the United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism.
In the 1930s, a third stream of non-orthodox Judaism began to develop in the USA -
Reconstructionist Judaism. Initially reconstructionist congregations belonged either to the Reform or Conservative movement - Mordacai Kaplan was deeply opposed to the formation of yet another American Jewish denomination. In 1955 the Reconstructionist Fellowship of Congregations was formed. This organization allowed reconstructionist congregations to share common concerns but required members to be dual affiliated with either the US Reform or Conservative movement. In 1961 the dual affiliation requirement was dropped and Reconstructionist Judaism became a full fledged third denomination on the American scene. [http://www.jrf.org/jrf-growth.html]
Thus, in the USA as in the UK, the reformers gathered under multiple denominational banners, today known as Reform,
Reconstructionistand Conservative Judaism. Despite the organizational split, US Reform, Reconstructionist and Conservative Jews have a common appreciation for democratic pluralism and the on-going historic process of change.Eugene B. Borowitz. "Liberal Judaism" (New York: Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 1984) 341 - 349.] In a US context, the term "Liberal" refers to this common vision, as contrasted with orthodoxy. [ [http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/israel_studies/v005/5.1tabory.htmlThe Tabory, Ephraim. "Influence of Liberal Judaism on Israeli Religious Life" in "Israel Studies" - Volume 5, Number 1, Spring 2000, pp. 183-203.] The article discusses the efforts of non-orthodox American denominations to increase the role of non-orthodox Judaism in Israeli society.] Common concerns and grassroots connections are also evidenced by interdenominational mailing lists such as Mail. Liberal-Judaism. [ [http://www.mljewish.org/policy.html Mail.Liberal-Judaism FAQ] Although views from all denominations are welcome, "The primary goal of the list is to provide a forum for discussions concerning issues of relevance to the more liberal movements (Reform, Reconstructionist, Conservative). "]
A common progressive identity
World War I, the US Reform, UK liberals, and their counterparts in continental Europe planned a meeting to discuss common goals. The meeting finally occurred after the war in 1926. The attendees debated the relative merits of "liberal" and "reform". Satisfied with neither, they settled on "progressive" rather than "reform" or "liberal". They also formed an organization using this common name, the World Union for Progressive Judaism. [Meyer, Response to Modernity, 336]
The more conservative half of the UK reform movement, UK Reform did not participate in these initial meetings. However, it later joined the WUPJ in 1930. [Meyer, Response to Modernity, 339] In the USA, both Reform and Reconstructionist [http://www.jrf.org/to/affiliations.html - affiliation with WUPJ listed at bottom of page under "Other JRF Affiliations"] Judaism belong to the WUPJ. The US Conservative movement, has never participated in or join the WUPJ [Eugene B. Borowitz. "Liberal Judaism", 341 - 349.]
Communities developed after 1926
Countries whose progressive community developed post 1926, generally identify with the name "Progressive". This includes all of
Oceania(Australia, New Zealand, Southeast Asia, etc), South America, the Former Soviet Union and Israel. Many of the European communities rebuilt after World War II with the help of the WUPJ also consider "Progressive", rather than "Liberal" or "Reform" their primary identity.
Beliefs and practices
Because the progressive movement believes in the continuous integration of Jewish tradition and non-Jewish insights, the specific beliefs and practices of Progressive Judaism have changed over time. [cite book|last=Meyer|first=Michael|title=Response to Modernity|publisher=Oxford University Press|location=New York|year=1988|pages=p. ix|quote=It is not possible to isolate a doctrinal essence of the Reform movement. While certain teachings, such as the historical nature of Judaism, progressive revelation, and universalized messianism, take firm hold once they appear, only the last is present from the start. Some tenets prominent at an early stage lose their significance or are even rejected in the course of time.] The commitment to personal and congregational autonomy also means that standards of belief and practice can vary widely from region to region, from congregation to congregation, and even from individual to individual.Fact|date=October 2007 Given this diversity, historian Michael Meyer prefers to characterize progressive Judaism by certain dynamic tensions. They include, but are not limited to: continuity versus reform, authority versus autonomy and universalism versus particularism. [Meyer, Response to Modernity, ix-x]
The intellectual roots of the reform, liberal, reconstructionist, and progressive Judaism lie in what is commonly called the
Reform movement in Judaism.
Rabbis, cantors and communal leaders
Rabbis, cantors and communal leaders for the world-wide progressive movement are trained in one of three rabbinic institutions:
Leo Baeck College,http://www.lbc.ac.uk/ (Accessed November 1, 2007)] [http://www.theredirectory.org.uk/org.php?n12 (Accessed November 1, 2007)] Abraham Geiger Collegehttp://www.abraham-geiger-kolleg.de/en/college/introduction.php (accessed November 1, 2007)] and Hebrew Union College. [ [http://www.huc.edu/chronicle/1999/four.html HUC-JIR - The Chronicle - 1999 ] ] While all three train rabbis for the world-wide progressive movement, each has a different regional focus: The Abraham Geiger Colleg focuses on providing leadership for communities in Germany, Central and Eastern Europe. Leo Baeck College, located in the UK, focuses on leadership for the UK Reform and UK Liberal. Hebrew Union College, with campuses in the USA and Israel, trains rabbis and communal service leaders for work in North American Reform and Israeli Progressive congregations. It also provides a year in Israel program for students at the Leo Baeck College and Abraham Geiger Institute.http://www.huc.edu/ (Accessed November 1, 2007)]
* [http://wupj.org/home/index.html The World Union for Progressive Judaism]
* [http://www.arzenu.org.il/ Arzenu] - the international umbrella organization for progressive religious Zionist organizations
* [http://wupj.org/Youth/NetzerOlami.asp Netzer Olami] , the international youth wing of the progressive movement, jointly sponsored by Arzenu and the WUPJ. [ [http://wupj.org/Youth/NetzerOlami.asp The World Union for Progressive Judaism | Netzer Olami ] ]
Progressive congregations identify themselves by joining one of the many regional organizations. The regional organizations set common goals and work together on joint projects through the
World Union for Progressive Judaism(WUPJ).
Regional organizations that are members of the
World Union for Progressive Judaisminclude:
* [http://www.upj.org.au/ Union for Progressive Judaism] comprised of congregations in
Australia, New Zealand, China, India, and Singapore. [ [http://wupj.org/Congregations/Australia.asp The World Union for Progressive Judaism | Worldwide Congregations | Australia, Asia and New Zealand ] ]
* [http://www.europeanregion.org/ European WUPJ] providing regional support to congregations in
Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Switzerland. Within the European region there are also subregional associations for Germany, Italy, Netherlands, and the UK. [ [http://wupj.org/Congregations/Europe.asp The World Union for Progressive Judaism | Worldwide Congregations | Europe ] ]
* [http://www.reform.org.ru/ WUPJ - Former Soviet Union] providing support for congregations in the
Former Soviet Union. [ [http://wupj.org/Congregations/FSU.asp The World Union for Progressive Judaism | Worldwide Congregations | Former Soviet Union ] ]
* [http://www.reform.org.il/Heb/Index.asp Progressive Movement in Israel] [ [http://wupj.org/Congregations/Israel.asp The World Union for Progressive Judaism | Worldwide Congregations | Israel ] ] comprising 23 congregations spread throughout Israel. [http://www.reform.org.il/Heb/Index.asp - number obtained by counting the congregations listed for each region in the combo box on this page]
* [http://www.saupj.org.za/ South African Union for Progressive Judaism] supports congregations in South Africa. [ [http://wupj.org/Congregations/SouthAfrica.asp The World Union for Progressive Judaism | Worldwide Congregations | South Africa ] ]
* [http://www.ujcl.org/english.html Union of Jewish Congregations of Latin America and the Caribbean] supports congregations in
Latin Americaand the Caribbean. [ [http://wupj.org/Congregations/LatinAmerica.asp The World Union for Progressive Judaism | Worldwide Congregations | Latin America and The Caribbean ] ]
Union for Reform Judaismsupports reform congregations in the North America. [ [http://wupj.org/Congregations/NorthAmerica.asp The World Union for Progressive Judaism | Worldwide Congregations | North America ] ]
* [http://www.jrf.org/ Jewish Reconstructionist Federation] , also a member of the WUPJ, supports Reconstructionist congregations in North America.
Since its origins in the 19th century, many of the beliefs and practices of Progressive Judaism have been criticized by
* [http://wupj.org The World Union for Progressive Judaism]
* [http://www.reform.org.il/English/default.htm Israel Movement for Progressive Judaism]
* [http://www.upj.org.au/ Union for Progressive Judaism (Australia, New Zealand and Asia)]
* [http://www.liberaljudaism.org/ The Union of Liberal and Progressive Synagogues - Liberal Judaism in the United Kingdom)]
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