Four Commanderies of Han


Four Commanderies of Han

The Four Commanderies of Han (漢四郡, 한사군) are Lelang, Lintun, Xuantu and Zhenfan commanderies in northern Korean Peninsula and part of the Liaodong Peninsula.[1][2] set up by Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty in early 2nd century BC after his conquest of Wiman Joseon. The commanderies were set up to control the populace in the area as far south as the Han River, with a core area at Lelang near present-day P'yongyang[3], which was previously under the control of Gojoseon. The accurate positions of the commanderies other than Lelang commandery are still under debate.

The Chinese presence existed for 400 years. As its administrative center in Lelang, the Chinese built what was inessence a Chinese city where the governor, officials, merchants, and Chinese colonists lived. Their administration had considerable impact on the life of the native population and ultimatedly the very fabric of Gojoseon society became eroded.[4] Goguryeo, a later founded kingdom, slowly began conquering the commanderies and eventually absorbed them into its own territory.[5]

List of four Commanderies of Han

  • Lelang Commandery (樂浪郡, 낙랑군, BC. 108 ~ AD 313):[6] 25 prefectures, 62,812 households, population of 406,748.
  • Lintun Commandery (臨屯郡, 임둔군, BC 107 ~ BC 82)
  • Xuantu Commandery (玄菟郡, 현도군, BC 107 ~ AD 302):[7] 3 prefectures, 45,006 households, population of 221,845.
  • Zhenfan Commandery (真番郡, 진번군, BC 107 ~ BC 82)

A commandary that was separated out of Lelang Commandery in the later years of its history is the Daifang Commandery (帶方郡, 대방군, AD 204 ~ AD 313)

Other descriptions: the Tongdian,[8] the Records of Three Kingdoms,[9] the Book of Later Han[10]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.chinaheritagequarterly.org/scholarship.php?searchterm=011_contested_domains.inc&issue=011
  2. ^ http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_ntNpkmx8qQJ:www.culturahistorica.es/lim/complicity_nationalisms.pdf+Han+commanderies+are+disputed&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgISWInTlcODCkDr1fbLgDQKHQsMK2jlLHHWY5PL5o9w9mAnAI3Dq1cIED0LaaINFLDAE58hVOtDx5p30Fi7xKplamYYTwCUbPoBwz6ejdS8ogYrD5Fj_tDU0xSFMMfUBjotL20&sig=AHIEtbSSALQDPjXMO1lKG-T9U2XUtHO42g
  3. ^ http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/Korea.html
  4. ^ Carter J. Eckert, el., "Korea, Old and New: History", 1990, pp. 14
  5. ^ ROBERT WILLOUGHBY (2008). BRADT TRAVEL GUIDE NORTH KOREA, THE. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 8. ISBN 1841622192. http://books.google.com/books?id=-bHkI4cEc1QC&pg=PA8&dq=chinese+official's+tombs+dotted+around+modern+pyongyang+contained+paintings&hl=en&ei=9_crTaY9wffwBt7_tI0J&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=chinese%20rule%20continued%20uncertainly%20for%20four%20&f=false. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 
  6. ^ 《前漢書》卷二十八〈地理志〉第八:“樂浪郡,武帝元封三年開。莽曰樂鮮。屬幽州。戶六萬二千八百一十二,口四十萬六千七百四十八。有雲鄣。縣二十五:朝鮮;□邯;浿水,水西至增地入海,莽曰樂鮮亭;含資,帶水西至帶方入海;黏蟬;遂成;增地,莽曰增土;帶方;駟望;海冥,莽曰海桓;列口;長岑;屯有;昭明,高部都尉治;鏤方;提奚;渾彌;吞列,分黎山,列水所出,西至黏蟬入海,行八百二十里;東暆;不而,東部都尉治;蠶台;華麗;邪頭昧;前莫;夫租。”Wikisource: the Book of Han, volume 28-2
  7. ^ 玄菟郡,武帝元封四年開。高句驪,莽曰下句驪。屬幽州。戶四萬五千六。口二十二萬一千八百四十五。縣三:高句驪,遼山,遼水所出,西南至遼隊入大遼水。又有南蘇水,西北經塞外。上殷台,莽曰下殷。西蓋馬。馬訾水西北入鹽難水,西南至西安平入海,過郡二,行二千一百里。莽曰玄菟亭。Wikisource: the Book of Han, volume 28-2
  8. ^ 通典 邊防 朝鮮 武帝元封三年、遣樓船將軍楊僕從齊浮渤海、兵五萬、左將軍荀彘出遼東、討之。朝鮮人相與殺王右渠来降。遂以朝鮮為真蕃、臨屯、楽浪、玄菟四郡。今悉為東夷之地。昭帝時罷臨屯、真蕃以并楽浪、玄菟。
  9. ^ 《三國志》卷30 魏書 烏丸鮮卑東夷傳 穢 自單單大山領以西屬樂浪、自領以東七縣、都尉主之、皆以濊為民。後省都尉、封其渠帥為侯、今不耐濊皆其種也。漢末更屬句麗。Wikisource: the Records of Three Kingdoms, volume 30
  10. ^ 《後漢書》卷85 東夷列傳 濊 至元封三年、滅朝鮮、分置樂浪・臨屯・玄菟・真番四郡。至昭帝始元五年、罷臨屯・真番、以并樂浪・玄菟。玄菟復徙居句驪、自單單大領已東、沃沮・濊貊悉屬樂浪。後以境土廣遠、復分領東七縣、置樂浪東部都尉。the Book of Later Han, volume 85

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