Geographic profiling


Geographic profiling

Geographic profiling is a criminal investigative methodology that analyzes the locations of a connected series of crimes to determine the most probable area of offender residence. Typically used in cases of serial murder or rape (but also arson, bombing, robbery, and other crimes), the technique helps police detectives prioritize information in large-scale major crime investigations that often involve hundreds or thousands of suspects and tips.

While the use of spatial analysis methods in police investigations goes back many years (think of detectives gathered around a large city map with pins stuck in it), the formalized process known today as geographic profiling originated out of research conducted at Simon Fraser University's School of Criminology in British Columbia, Canada, in 1989. The theoretical foundation is in environmental criminology, particularly Crime Pattern Theory, routine activity theory, and rational choice theory. The Vancouver Police Department instituted the world's first geographic profiling capability in 1995, but the technique has now spread to several U.S., Canadian, British, and European law enforcement agencies. Originally designed for violent crime investigations, it is increasingly being used on property crime.

Tools employed by geographic profilers include specialized software systems, such as [http://www.ecricanada.com/rigel/ Rigel] or [http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/NACJD/crimestat.html/ CrimeStat] . System inputs are crime location addresses or coordinates, often entered through a geographic information system (GIS). Output is a jeopardy surface (three-dimensional probability surface) or color geoprofile, which depicts the most likely areas of offender residence or search base.

Geographic profiling is a sub-type of offender or criminal profiling (the inference of offender characteristics from offence characteristics). It is therefore related to psychological or behavioral profiling. If psychological profiling is the "who," geographic profiling is the "where." All certified geographic profilers are members of the International Criminal Investigative Analysis Fellowship (ICIAF), a professional profiling organization first begun by investigators trained by the FBI in the mid-1980s.

External links

* [http://www.sfu.ca/icurs/ Institute for Canadian Urban Research Studies]
* [http://www.txstate.edu/gii/ Texas State University Center for Geospatial Intelligence and Investigation]

References

* Brantingham, P. J., & Brantingham, P. L. (1984). "Patterns in crime". New York: Macmillan.
* Canter, D. (2003) "Mapping Murder: The Secrets of Geographic Profiling". London: Virgin Publishing.
* MacKay, R. E. (1999, December). Geographic profiling: A new tool for law enforcement. "The Police Chief", pp. 51-59.
* Rossmo, D. K. (2000). "Geographic profiling". Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Offender profiling — Offender profiling, also known as criminal profiling, is a behavioral and investigative tool that is intended to help investigators to profile unknown criminal subjects or offenders. Offender profiling is also known as criminal profiling,… …   Wikipedia

  • CrimeStat — Primary File page of CrimeStat CrimeStat is a Windows based spatial statistic software program that conducts spatial and statistical analysis and is designed to interface with a Geographic Information System. The program is developed by Ned… …   Wikipedia

  • Список эпизодов сериала «4исла» — «4исла» (англ. Numb3rs)  детективный телевизионный сериал, созданный Николасом Фалаччи и Шерил Хьютон. Премьера телесериала состоялась 23 января 2005 года, 18 мая 2010 года CBS закрыл сериал …   Википедия

  • Crime mapping — Mapping of homicides in Washington D.C. Crime mapping is used by analysts in law enforcement agencies to map, visualize, and analyze crime incident patterns. It is a key component of crime analysis and the CompStat policing strategy. Mapping… …   Wikipedia

  • List of criminology topics — This is a list of terms and topics related to criminology and law enforcement. A acquittal actual bodily harm addiction age of consent age of criminal responsibility aging offender allocute alloplastic adaptation American Academy of Forensic… …   Wikipedia

  • Zodiac (film) — Infobox Film name = Zodiac image size = caption = Theatrical poster director = David Fincher producer = Mike Medavoy Brad Fischer Arnold Messer James Vanderbilt Ceán Chaffin writer = Book: Robert Graysmith Screenplay: James Vanderbilt narrator =… …   Wikipedia

  • Environmental criminology — Criminology and Penology Schools Chicago School · Classical School Conflict Criminology Environmental Criminology Feminist Schoo …   Wikipedia

  • Spencer Reid — Dr. Spencer Reid Criminal Minds character Matthew Gray Gubler as Dr. Spencer Reid First appearance Extreme Aggressor 1x01, September 22, 2005 …   Wikipedia

  • List of Numb3rs episodes (season 1) — Numb3rs Season 1 DVD box Country of origin United States No. of episo …   Wikipedia

  • Race (classification of humans) — Race Classification Race (classification of humans) Genetics …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.