- Anthony Salvin
name = Anthony Salvin
caption = Anthony Salvin
17 October 1799
Sunderland Bridge, County Durham, England
17 December 1881
Fernhurst, Sussex, England
Tudor style architecture
Restoration of castles, country houses and churches
New houses and churches
occupation = Architect
nationality = English
Anthony Salvin (
17 October 1799– 17 December 1881) was an English architect. He gained a reputation as an expert on medieval buildings and applied this expertise to his new buildings and his restorations. He restored castles and country houses, and built a number of new houses and churches.Holder, Richard, (2004) 'Salvin, Anthony (1799-1881)', " Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford University Press[http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/24585] , Retrieved on 2 March 2008.]
Early life and training
He was born in
Sunderland Bridge, County Durham, as the only child of General Anthony Salvin, a soldier, and his second wife Elizabeth (Eliza) Mills. He was educated at Durham Schooland then became a pupil of John Paterson of Edinburghwhile he was working on the restoration of Brancepeth Castlein County Durham. In 1821 Salvin moved to London. He had an introduction to Sir John Sloan but did not enter his office. According to his nephew he entered the office of John Nash. In 1824 he was elected as a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. Soon after this he went on a sketching tour of Great Britain. On 26 July 1826 he married his cousin, Anne Andrews Nesfield. With her he had six children, two of whom died in infancy.
Salvin's first major commission was Mamhead Park in
Devonfor Robert William Newman. This was designed in the Tudor style to a symmetrical plan. It was adapted from a plan by Charles Fowlerand this placed restrictions on his design. His next design was for Moreby Hall in the East Riding of Yorkshirefor Henry Preston where he was free to develop a complete design in the Tudor style, again on a symmetrical plan. At Scotney Castlein Kenthe designed for Edward Hussey an asymmetrical design in the Tudor style. In 1831 Salvin embarked on what is considered to be his most important early domestic work at Harlaxton Manorin Lincolnshirefor Gregory Gregory. Salvin's design combined elements from Montacute Housein Somersetand Hengrave Hallin Suffolk. However before the building was complete, Salvin was replaced as architect by William Burn. In 1835 Salvin spent five weeks in Germany.
In 1836 Salvin entered a design in Tudor style in the competition for the new
Palace of Westminsterwhich had possibly been inspired by his visit to Germany. However this was unsuccessful, as was his entry for the competition to design the Ashmolean Museumin Oxford. He won the competition for the design of the Carlton Clubin Pall Mall, Londonbut the club decided not to proceed with his plan. After losing a further competition, this time to design the Army and Navy Club, Salvin did not enter any more competitions.
Most of Salvin's designs for major houses continued to be in the Tudor style. These include
Keele Hallin Staffordshirefor Ralph Sneyd, and Thoresby Hallin Nottinghamshirefor Sydney Pierrepont, 3rd Earl Manvers. There were exceptions, including Penoyre in Brecon, an Italianate villa-style house for Colonel John Lloyd Vaughan Watkins and Oxon Hoathin West Peckham, Kentin the French empire style for Sir William Geary.
A major part of Salvin's work was to restore, refit and create castles. In 1835 he refaced
Norwich Castle, in 1844 he repaired the ruins of Newark Castle and in 1845 he repaired the ruins of Carisbrook Castle. In the early 1840s the Queen's Gate of Caernarvon Castlecollapsed and in 1844 Salvin repaired it and rebuilt some of the other masonry of the castle. In 1951 he surveyed the Beauchamp Tower of the Tower of Londonand, after working on this he restored the Salt, the Wakefield and the White Towers and the Chapel of St Peter ad Vincula. Following this he was instructed by Prince Albert to carry out work on Windsor Castle. This included replacing sash windows with lancets and mullioned windows and rebuilding the Clewer Tower. Salvin designed Peckforton Castlein Cheshirefor John Tollemache, 1st Baron Tollemacheas a re-creation of a castle of the time of Edward I. In 1852 he started work on the restoration of Alnwick Castlein Northumberland. This included replacing one of the towers with a larger tower, the Prudhoe Tower, creating a porte-cochère, replacing windows and replanning the interior.
Salvin also restored and repaired 20 old churches and three cathedrals, and built 34 new churches. In the early 1840s he had worked on
The Holy Sepulchre, Cambridgeand following this he was made an honorary member of the Cambridge Camden Society. He arranged for the removal of buildings around the south transept of Norwich Cathedraland reordered its choir. He also made alterations to Durham and Wells Cathedrals. In all he designed at least 34 new churches. Salvin's restorations were not to the liking of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, particularly his removal of "unwanted fabric" from churches. Other work carried out by Salvin included rebuilding the keep of Durham Castlefor student accommodation, and work on restoring Trinity College, Cambridge.
In 1857 while working on
Warwick Castle, Salvin suffered a stroke but recovered from it. In 1860 his wife died and he designed a new house for himself, Hawksfold at Fernhurst, Sussex. In 1863 he was awarded the royal gold medal of the Royal Institute of British Architectsand in 1879 he retired from formal practice. He died at Hawksfold in 1881 and was buried at Fernhurst. His estate was valued at over £78,000.
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