- Ban (title)
Ban (IPA2|baːn) is a
titleused in several states in central and south-eastern Europebetween the 7th century and the 20th century.
The word "ban" derives from
South Slavic"ban" "lord, master, ruler", cognate with Persian "ban" "prince, lord, chief, governor" and Sanskrit"pati" "guardian, protector". The word is preserved in many modern-day place names.
Others believe the word originates from Sarmatian "bajan". According to one theory, the title of ban derived from the name of an Avar "
khagan", "Bajan". There are alternative theories concerning Illyrianorigin and the Illyrian name "Banius", which is to be found on Illyrian remains in Bosnia.
Uses of the title
The title was used for local land administrators in the southern Slavonic areas of
Croatiaand Bosnia in the early Middle Ages. The title was later on also used in the historical Kingdom of Croatia and the Kingdom of Hungaryand its dependencies.
The title was further on used in
Wallachiafrom the 14th century up to 1831 (where it was associated with the highest boyaroffice and the region of Oltenia), medieval Moldavia, the Kingdom of Serbiaand Kingdom of Yugoslaviabetween 1929 and 1941. The meaning of the title changed with time — the position of a ban can be compared to that of a viceroyor a high vassal such as a hereditary duke, but neither is accurate for all historical bans. The territory ruled by a ban was called "banat" or "banovina", often transcribed to English as "banate", "banat", "bannat", etc.
Ban was the title of local rulers in Croatia and Bosnia since the Slavic population migrated there in the 7th century. References from the earliest periods are scarce, but history recalls the Croatian bans Ratimir in the 9th century (827, under Bulgarian sway) and Pribina in the 10th century (in 949 and in 970).
The meaning of the title was elevated to that of provincial governor in the
medieval Croatian state(for example, Dmitar Zvonimirwas originally a ban in 1065).
Bans were also provincial administrators in the
Kingdom of Hungary, where each of the provinces was called "banat"; the Croatian word for province was "banovina". Bans usually administered regions outside the kingdom, but within the realm.
Croatselected Hungarian kings as kings of Croatiain 1102, the title of ban acquired the meaning of viceroybecause the bans were appointed by the king, though Croatia, remaining a Kingdom in personal unionwith Hungary, was not referred to as a "banovina" (banate). Croatia was governed by the 'viceroyal' ban as a whole between 1102 and 1225, when it was split into two separate banovinas: Slavoniaand Croatia. Two different bans were occasionally appointed until 1476, when the institution of a single ban was resumed, and lasted until 1918. One of the most distinguished bans in Croatian history was Toma II. Erdödy, great warrior and statesman in one person, Croatia owes him much for protecting her rights against the Hungarian nobility, his mostly known words in Latin are "Regnum regno non praescribit leges", 'a kingdom may not impose laws to a(nother) kingdom'.
When the medieval Bosnian state achieved a certain level of independence in the 12th century, its rulers were once again called bans, and their territory "banovina", likely because of the similar suzerain status that it had towards the king of Hungary. Nevertheless, the Bosnian bans weren't viceroys in the sense they were appointed by the king. Sometimes their title is translated as
duke. Later in the 13th century they gradually achieved more independence (though in some periods they were still vassals) and eventually proclaimed themselves kings in the late 14th century.
The region of Mačva (now in
Serbia) was also ruled by bans. Mačva was part of the medieval Hungarian kingdom though under various levels of independence; some of the bans were foreign viceroys, some were native nobles, and one even rose to the status of a royal palatine.
Ban was also the title of medieval rulers of parts of
Wallachia( Olteniaand Severin) since the 13th century. The Wallachian bans were military governors; their jurisdictions in Wallachia were called "banats". The main Wallachian ruler was titled voivod, the position bans aspired to.
The title "ban" was also awarded in the
Second Bulgarian Empireon several occasions, one example being the 14th-century governor of Sredets ( Sofia) Ban Yanuka. [http://liternet.bg/publish13/p_pavlov/konstantin_II_asen.htm]
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Ban was also the title of the governor of each province (called "banovina") of the
Kingdom of Yugoslaviabetween 1929 and 1941. The weight of the title was far less than that of a medieval ban's feudal office.
The word "ban" is preserved in many modern place names in the regions where bans once ruled.
The region of
Banat(sometimes called the "Temeswarer Banat") in the Pannonian plainbetween the Danubeand the Tiszarivers, now in Romania, Serbiaand Hungary, however got its name without ever being ruled by a "ban".
A region in central Croatia, south of
Sisak, is called Banovina or Banija. The origin of the names of Banova Jaruga, city in Croatia, and Banja Lukaand Banovići, cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina, could be also from the word "ban".
The term "ban" is still used in the phrase "banski dvori" ("ban's court") for the buildings that host the highest government officials. The Banski Dvori in
Zagrebhost the Government of Croatia, while the Banski Dvori in Banja Lukahost the President of Republika Srpska(first-tier subdivision of Bosnia and Herzegovina). The building known as "Bela banovina" ("the white banovina") in Novi Sadhost the parliament and government of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodinain Serbia(The building got this name because it previously hosted administration of Danube Banovina).
ources and references
* [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=ban&searchmode=none Etymology Online]
* [http://www.worldstatesmen.org/Croatia.html WorldStatesmen - Croatia, see also each other country above] (not completely worked in)
* Bans of Bosnia
* Bans of Croatia
* Bans of Mačva
* Bans of Danube Banovina
Ban of Craiova
Ban of Severin
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