Engineering education


Engineering education

Engineering education is the activity of teaching knowledge and principles related to the professional practice of engineering. It includes the initial education for becoming an engineer and any advanced education and specialization that follow. Engineering education is typically accompanied by additional examinations and supervised training as the requirements for a professional engineering license.

Technology education in primary and secondary schools often serves as the foundation for engineering education at the university level. (Douglas, Iverson & Kalyandurg, 2004). In the United States, engineering education is a part of the STEM initiative in public schools. Service-learning in engineering education is gaining popularity within the variety of disciplinary focuses within engineering education including mechanical engineering, construction science, computer science and engineering, electrical engineering, and other forms of related education.

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Africa

Kenya

Engineering training in Kenya is typically provided by the universities. Registration of engineers is governed by the Engineers Registration Act. A candidate stands to qualify as a registered engineer, R.Eng, if he/she is a holder of a minimum four years post-secondary Engineering Education and a minimum of three years post graduation work experience.[1]

All registrations are undertaken by the Engineers Registration Board which is a statutory body established through an Act of the Kenyan Parliament in 1969. A minor revision was done in 1992, to accommodate Technician Engineer grade. The Board has been given the responsibility of regulating the activities and conduct of Practicing Engineers in the Republic of Kenya in accordance with the functions and powers conferred upon it by the Act. Under CAP 530 of the Laws of Kenya, it is illegal for an engineer to practice or call himself an engineer if not registered with the Board. Registration with the Board is thus a license to practice engineering in Kenya.

South Africa

Engineering training in South Africa is typically provided by the universities.[2] The qualifications provided by these institutions must have an Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA) accreditation for the qualification for graduates of these institutions to be registered as Candidate Engineers.

The academic training performed by the universities is typically in the form of a four year B.Sc(Eng) or BEng degree. For the degree to be accredited, the course material must conform to the ECSA Exit Level Outcomes (ELO).

Certified Professional Engineers (PrEng) are persons that are accredited by ECSA as an engineering professional. Legally, a Certified Professional Engineers sign off is required for any major project to be implemented, in order to ensure the safety and standards of the project.

Asia

India

In India, there are several engineering colleges imparting undergraduate and graduate courses in engineering, applied engineering and sciences. The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and the National Institutes of Technology (NITs) are the renowned and reputed institutes in the country. Some other institutions that are on par with the IITs include: BITS-Pilani, Anna university, Delhi College of Engineering (DCE) Delhi, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology (NSIT) Delhi, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Punjab Engineering College (PEC) Chandigarh.

Indian Institute of Technology The Indian Institute of Technology (IITs) has fifteen centers located in Kharagpur, Bombay, Madras, Kanpur, Delhi, Guwahati, Roorkee, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, Jodhpur, Bhubaneswar, Ropar, Patna, Indore and Mandi. Also included in this list is Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad and IT-BHU.

With the plan to set up eight more IITs in the states of Rajasthan, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Punjab, and the conversion of IT-BHU to an IIT, the total number of IITs will be increased to 16.[2] Six of the eight proposed new IITs, namely, Rajasthan, Bihar (Patna), Andhra Pradesh (Hyderabad), Orissa (Bhubaneshwar), Gujarat (Gandhinagar) and Punjab, are functional as of June 2008 and admitting students for the 2008-'09 academic year.[3] All IITs are autonomous universities that draft their own curricula, and they are, with the exception of IIT Kanpur, members of LAOTSE, an international network of universities in Europe and Asia. LAOTSE membership allows the IITs to exchange students and senior scholars with universities in other countries.[4][citation needed]

Admission to undergraduate B.Tech and integrated M.Tech programs are through IIT-JEE (the Joint Entrance Examination) in which around 400,000 students appear annually out of which only 5,500 get selected. Admission to most postgraduate courses in IITs is granted through various written entrance examinations: GATE (for M.Tech.), JAM (for M.Sc.) and CEED (for M.Des.). The admission for Ph.D. program is based primarily on a personal interview, though candidates may also have to appear for written tests. The IITs are also well known for their special reservation policy, which is significantly different from the one applied in other educational institutions of India. For details of colleges in India see: Indian Institutes of Technology and Engineering colleges of India.[3]

National Institute of Technology The National Institutes of Technology (NIT) are premier colleges of engineering and technology education in India. They were originally called Regional Engineering Colleges (RECs). In 2002, the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, decided to upgrade, in phases, all the original 17 Regional Engineering Colleges (RECs) as National Institutes of Technology (NITs). There are currently 20 NITs, the latest being NIT, Agartala. The Government of India has introduced the National Institutes of Technology (NIT) Act 2007 to bring 20 such institutions within the ambit of the act and to provide them with complete autonomy in their functioning. The NITs are deliberately scattered throughout the country in line with the government norm of an NIT in every major state of India to promote regional development. The individual NITs, after the introduction of the NIT Act, have been functioning as autonomous technical universities and hence can draft their own curriculum and functioning policies.

The admission to undergraduate programs of all the NITs is done by the All India Engineering Entrance Examination popularly known as AIEEE. In addition to the NITs, a host of other well known national level reputed institutes like DCE, NSIT, IIITs, PEC, Thapar University, DA-IICT, BIT Mesra accept students from this examination. The examination is objective by nature and will be conducted by the Central Board of Secondary Education popularly known as the CBSE uptil 2008. More than eight lakh(800,000) students appeared in 2008 for around 9000 seats in the B. Tech and B. Arch programmes available in all the NITs put together. Academic Session 2009 onwards the NITs have been entrusted with the task of organizing the AIEEE right from setting the question paper up to the counselling of students through their own set up under one umbrella, which will automatically entail the administrative procedure of the whole process. Every year from 2009 an elected set of NITs selected on a rotation basis will take individual turns to conduct the exam at the national level just like the IITs do for the IIT-JEE.

Anna University Anna University was established on 4 September 1978 as a unitary type of University. It offers higher education in Engineering, Technology and allied Sciences relevant to the current and projected needs of the society.Besides promoting research and disseminating knowledge gained therefrom, it fosters cooperation between the academic and industrial communities.The University was formed by bringing together and integrating two well-known technical institutions in the city of Madras.

College of Engineering, Guindy (CEG)(1794) Madras Institute of Technology , Chrompet (MIT)(1949) and three Technological Departments of the University of Madras. Alagappa College of Technology (ACT)(1944) School of Architecture and Planning (SAP)(1957) Situated in the southern part of the city of Madras (Chennai), the University's main campus extends over 100 hectares abutting the Adyar River on the north and Raj Bhavan on the south. The Madras Institute of Technology at Chrompet constitutes the second campus of the University which extends over 20 hectares. Both the campuses have a variety of buildings serving the various needs of the University community. A third campus extending over 80 hectares is located at Taramani near the Instronic campus, Adyar. The Bioprocess Laboratory donated by SPIC is located at present in this campus and a few more centers of advanced studies, like National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT), Sugar Research Institute, Mechatronics Institute, Entrepreneurship Development Park, and Convention Centre will also be housed there in future.

Since December 2001,it has become a large, highly renowned affiliated University, having brought into its fold about 225 Self-financing Engineering Colleges six Government Colleges and three Government-aided Engineering colleges located in various parts of Tamil Nadu State.

Visvesvaraya Technological University (VTU)in Karnataka, a prestigious Indian university which is one of the biggest Technological University in India, having 159 colleges affiliated to it with Under Graduate course in 27 disciplines and Post Graduate Programmes in 67 disciplines. The intake of UG level is about 45000 students and about 7500 at the PG level. The University has 14 QIP Centres in various affiliated colleges and 14 Extension Centres offering PG Programmes. There are over 200 department across the affiliated colleges recognized as Research Centres. At present over 1000 students / faculty have registered for Ph.D. degree and over 180 students have registered for M.Sc. (Engg. by Research).

Indonesia

List of engineering schools in Indonesia

  1. Faculty of Engineering of Andalas University
  2. Faculty of Engineering of Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University

Malaysia

Activities on Engineering Education in Malaysia is spearheaded by the Society of Engineering Education Malaysia (SEEM). SEEM was established in 2007 and was launched on February 23, 2009. The idea of establishing Society of Engineering Education was initiated on April, 2005 with the setting up of a Pro-team Committee for SEEM. The objectives of this society are to contribute for the development of education in engineering education field, science and technology including teaching and learning, counseling, research, service and public relations. Services and guidance given by the association are;

i) Formation of the direction and responsibility of engineering education to national prosperity.

ii) Coordination purposes and engineering education programs in engineering educational institutions, industry and professional bodies and the public.

iii) Improvement of teaching materials and methods of implementation.

iv) Coordination of conferences, workshops and seminars in improving the quality of engineering education.

v) The addition of experts in the field of engineering education through publications and educational programs and research.

vi) Promotion of research collaboration between members of the engineering education.

SEEM secretariat is currently located at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) in Johor. UTM's commitment to engineering education is also recognized when RCEE (Regional Centre for Engineering Education) is set up for the region.

Pakistan

In Pakistan engineering certification is carried out by the Pakistan Engineering Council, a statutory body, constituted under the PEC Act No. V of 1976 of the constitution of Pakistan and amended vide Ordinance No.XXIII of 2006, to regulate the engineering profession in the country. It aims to achieve rapid and sustainable growth in all national, economic and social fields. The council is responsible for maintaining realistic and internationally relevant standards of professional competence and ethics for engineers in the country. PEC interacts with the Government, both at the Federal and Provincial level by participating in Commissions, Committees and Advisory Bodies. PEC is a fully representative body of the engineering community in the country.

Institute of Engineers Pakistan (IEP) The Institute of Engineers Pakistan is a purely professional body that aims to:

  • Promote and advance the science, practice, and business of engineering in all its branches throughout Pakistan.
  • Promote efficiency in the engineering practice and profession.
  • Regulate the professional activities and assist in maintaining high standard in the general conduct of its members.
  • Lay down the professional code of ethics and to make it mandatory for its members in their professional conduct.
  • Help in the acquisition and exchange of technical knowledge
  • Promote professional interest and social welfare of its members.
  • Encourage original research in engineering, conservation and economic utilization of the resources of the country.
  • Foster coordination with similar institution in other countries and educational institutions in Pakistan and abroad for mutual benefits.
  • To disseminate information and knowledge among engineers through lectures, conferences, seminars and publication of journal and papers.
  • Cooperate with various government agencies and industrial enterprises advising them in matters concerning the profession and practice of engineering and promotion of technical education.

Philippines

The Professional Regulation Commission is the regulating body for engineers in the Philippines.[citation needed]

Taiwan

Engineering is one of the most popular majors among universities in Taiwan[citation needed]. The engineering degrees are over a quarter of the bachelor degrees in Taiwan[citation needed].

Europe

Finland

Finland's system is derived from Germany's system. Two kinds of schools are recognized, the universities and the Ammattikorkeakoulus (literally vocational college, which are some times translated as University of applied sciences.

Traditionally, universities award only five-, to six-year Master's level degrees (Master of Science in Technology) called diplomi-insinööri, similarly as in Germany (Diplom-Ingenieur). The degrees are awarded by engineering faculties in universities (in Oulu and Vaasa) or by separate universities of technology (Helsinki UT, Tampere UT and Lappeenranta UT). The degree is a scientific, theoretical taught Master's degree. It qualifies for further study into Licentiate or Doctorate. Because of the Bologna process, the degree tekniikan kandidaatti ("Bachelor of Technology"), corresponding to three years of study into the Master degree, has been introduced.

The AMK's are municipally administered schools that traditionally award 3.5-, to 4.5-year vocational degrees called insinööri (amk). The aim of the degree is professional competency with less emphasis on scientific study. Although they may be called "Bachelor's degrees" in English, Finnish universities do not recognize them as equal to tekniikan kandidaatti, but require approximately one year of additional study. Recently, AMK's have also began awarding a higher AMK degrees (Master of Engineering), designed for AMK-engineers already involved in the working life (at least two years of professional experience). AMK's do not have the right to award Licentiates or Doctorates. Similarly, AMK-degree does not entitle one to apply for academic postgraduate studies without further preliminary studies at university.

France

In France, the engineering degree is delivered by "Grandes Écoles d'Ingénieurs" upon completion of 3 years of Master'studies. The Écoles typically recruit undergraduate students from CPGE (2 or 3 years after the Baccalauréat), even though some of them include an integrated undergraduate cycle. Hence graduate engineers in France have studied a total of 5 years after the baccalaureate. To be able to deliver the Master of engineering degree, an École Master 's curriculum has to be validated by the Commission des Titres d'Ingénieurs (Commission of the Engineering Title). It is important for the external observer to note that the system in France is extremely demanding in its entrance requirements (numerus clausus), and much more elitist than various other systems. In fact, being a graduate engineer in France is considered as being near/at the top of the social/professional ladder. The engineering profession grew from the military and the nobility in the 18th century. Engineers were educated at the Polytechnique which was established during the French Revolution in 1794 . Polytechnique is one of the grandes écoles that have traditionally prepared technocrats to lead French government and industry, and has been one of the most privileged routes into the elite divisions of the civil service known as the grands corps de l'état.

Inside a French company the title of Ingénieur refers to a rank in qualification and is not restricted. Therefore you can find sometimes Ingénieurs des Ventes (Sales Engineers), Ingénieur Marketing, Ingénieur Bancaire (Banking Engineer), Ingénieur Recherche & Développement (R&D Engineer), etc.

Germany

In Germany, the engineering degree is either delivered by Universities, Technical Universities or Fachhochschulen.

Students receive first a baccalaureate degree (3–4 years of studies) followed by a Master's degree (1–2 years of studies) according to the principles of the Bologna declaration, though traditionally, the degree received after completing an engineering education was the German Diplom-Ingenieur - the German language has adopted the French noun. Using the title Ingenieur is legally regulated and limited to the according academic graduates.[4] The engineering doctorate degree is the Doktor-Ingenieur.

The quality of German engineering expertise has long been much vaunted, especially in the field of mechanical engineering. This is supported by the degree to which the various theories governing aerodynamics and structural mechanics are named after German scientists and engineers such as Ludwig Prandtl. German engineers have also been praised at being very practical (i.e. skilled at physical work related to their discipline), ascribed to the high quality of the apprenticeship courses many German engineers go through as part of their education.[5]

The Netherlands

In the Netherlands there were two paths to study engineering. The HTS or higher vocational technical schools awarded a practically orientated degree and the title ing. after four years study. The universities offered a more academically oriented degree and the title ir. after five years study.

This changed in 2002 when the Netherlands switched to the Bachelor-Master system. This is a consequence of the Bologna process. In this accord 29 European countries agreed to harmonize their higher education system and create a European higher education area.

In this system the higher vocational technical schools award a bachelor degree and the title BEng or ing. after four years study. The universities with engineering programs award a bachelors degree and the title BSc after the third year. A university bachelor is expected to continue his education for one or two more years to earn his masters degree and the title MSc or ir. A vocational bachelor may be admitted to a university master degree program although often they are required to take additional courses. The higher vocational technical schools have started to develop master degree programs specifically for their students. This slightly awkward situation is expected to disappear due to the European harmonization process.

Romania

In Romania, the engineering degree and "engineer" title is delivered by Technical Universities upon completion of 4 years of studies. Additional master degree (2 years) and doctorate programs (4–5 years) provide the title of "doctor inginer". Students that started studies in Technical Universities before 2005 (when Romania adopted the Bologna declaration) need to complete a 5 years program to get the engineer title. In this case the master degree is obtained after 1 year of studies. Only people with an engineer title can be employed as "engineers". Still, some with competence and experience in an engineering field that do not have such a title, can still be employed to perform engineering tasks as "specialist", "assistant", "technologist" or "technician". But, only engineers can take legal responsibility and provide guarantee upon the work done by a team in their area of expertise. Sometimes a company working in this area, which temporarily does not have any employees with an engineer title must pay for an external service of an engineering audit to provide legal guarantee for their products or services.

Slovakia

In Slovakia, an engineer (inžinier) is considered to be a person holding master degree in technical sciences or economics. Several technical and economic universities offer 4-5 year master study in the fields of chemistry, agriculture, material technology, computer science, electrical and mechanical engineering, nuclear physics and technology or economics. A bachelor degree in similar field is prerequisite. Absolvents are awarded with the Ing. title always put in front of one's name; eventual ongoing doctoral study is offered both by universities and some institutes of the Slovak Academy of Sciences.

Sweden

An instutition offering engineering education is calladed "teknisk högskola" (intitute of technology). These schools primarily offers five year programmes resulting in the civilingenjör degree (not to be confused with the narrower english term "civil engineer"), internationally corresponding to a Master of Science in Engineering degree. These programmes typically offers a strong backing in the natural sciences, and the degree also opens up for doctoral (PHD) studies towards the degree "teknologie doktor". Civilingenjör programmes are offered in a broad range of fields: Engineering physics, Chemistry, Civil engineering, surveying, Industrial engineering and management, etc. There also are shorter three year programmes called högskoleingengör (Bachelor of Science in Engineering) are typically more applied.

Turkey

In Turkey, engineering degrees range from a Bachelor's Degree in engineering (for a 4 year period), to a Master's Degree (adding 2 years), and to a Doctoral Degree (usually 4 – 5 years).

The title is limited by law to people with an engineering degree, and the use of the title by others (even persons with much more work experience) is illegal.

The Union of Chambers of Turkish Engineers and Architects (UCTEA) was established in 1954 and separates engineers and architects to professional branches, with the condition of being within the framework of laws and regulations and in accordance with the present conditions, requirements and possibilities and to also establishes new Chambers for the group of engineers and architects, whose professional or working areas are similar or the same.

UCTEA is maintaining its activities with its 23 Chambers, 194 branches of its Chambers and 39 Provincial Coordination Councils. Approximately, graduates of 70 related academic disciplines in engineering, architecture and city planning are members of the Chambers of UCTEA.

United Kingdom

In the UK, like in United States and Canada, professional engineers are trained in universities but some can start in a technical apprenticeship (4–5 years) prior to enrolling in a university engineering degree. In addition those people who are unable to attend university can enroll in the Engineering Council UK examination program administered by the City and Guilds of London Institute. Some of these institutions have previously invested heavily in engineering subjects and have become globally renowned. All accredited engineering courses are assessed and approved by the Professional Institutions reflecting the subject covered; IMechE, IET, BCS, ICE, IStructE etc. The degree then counts in part to qualifying as a Chartered Engineer after a period (usually 4–8 years) of structured professional practice, professional practice peer review and, if required, further exams to then become a corporate member of the relevant professional body. The term 'Chartered Engineer' is regulated by Royal Assent its use is restricted only to those registered; the awarding of this status is devolved to the professional institutions by the Engineering Council.

In the UK, most engineering courses take 3 years for an undergraduate bachelors(BEng) and a 4 year period for an Undergraduate Masters. Students who read a 4 years engineering course are awarded an Masters of Engineering (as opposed to Masters of Science in Engineering)[6] Some universities allow a student to opt out after one year before completion of the programme and receive a Diploma if a student has successfully completed second year or certificate if only successfully completed year one. Many courses include an option of a year in industry, which is usually a year before completion. Students who opt for this are awarded a Sandwich degree.[7]

The BEng may be registered as an "Incorporated Engineer" by the Engineering Council after a period of structured professional practice, professional practice peer review and, if required, further exams to then become a member of the relevant professional body. The term 'Incorporated Engineer' is regulated by Royal Assent its use is restricted only to those registered; the awarding of this status is devolved to the professional institutions by the Engineering Council.

In the UK, the term "engineer" is applied to non-degree vocations such as technologists, technicians, draftsmen, machinists, mechanics, plumbers, electricians, repair people, semi-skilled and even unskilled occupations.

North America

Canada

In Canada, there are 40 institutions offering 239 engineering accredited programs delivering a Bachelor's degree after a term of 4 years. Many schools also offer graduate level degrees in the applied sciences. "Accredited" means that the engineers having successfully followed one of these programs have the possibility to obtain their licences. Alternately, Canadian graduates of unaccredited 3-year diploma, BSc, B.Tech, or B.Eng programs can qualify for professional license by association examinations. This specificity of the Canadian system as the engineers need a licence to engage in the profession. Some of the schools include: Concordia University, École de technologie supérieure, École Polytechnique de Montréal, University of Toronto, University of Saskatchewan, University of Victoria, University of Calgary, University of Alberta, University of British Columbia, McGill University, Dalhousie University, Ryerson University, University of Regina, Carleton University, McMaster University, University of Ottawa, Queen's University, University of New Brunswick, UOIT, University of Waterloo, University of Guelph, University of Windsor, Memorial University of Newfoundland, and Royal Military College of Canada just to name a few.[1] Every university offering engineering degrees in Canada needs to be accredited by the CEAB (Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board), thus ensuring high standards are enforced at all universities.[8] Engineering degrees in Canada are distinct from degrees in engineering technology which are more applied degrees or diplomas.

United States

ABET is the recognized accreditation authority granting universities that offer education in engineering and technology the right to confer degrees. Degree programs include a Bachelor's degree in engineering or sciences (4 years), to a Master's in the same fields (adding 2 or 3 years depending on the university), to a Doctor of Engineering which entails completing original research. Engineering Doctors often go on to teach in schools of engineering. Some engineering schools have agreements with 2-year colleges whereby the college provides the initial engineering education, and the engineering school automatically admits students for their last 2 years. In addition, many engineering schools have arrangements that allow students who spend 3 years in a liberal arts college studying math/physics subjects and 2 years in an engineering school studying core subjects to receive a bachelor’s degree from each school. Some colleges and universities offer 5-year master’s degree programs. Some 5-year or even 6-year cooperative plans combine classroom study and practical work, permitting students to gain valuable experience and to finance part of their education.[9]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Engineers Registration Board of Kenya. Registration of Engineers in Kenya, Engineers Registration Board of Kenya website.
  2. ^ Engineering Council Of South Africa. Registration Process, Engineering Council Of South Africa website, Bruma, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2008.
  3. ^ Engineering colleges in India -at Indian child.Com
  4. ^ German Article
  5. ^ Human Resource Management - Biswajeet Pattanayak, 3rd Edition, Page 41
  6. ^ "Prospective", Edinburgh university
  7. ^ "Sandwich degree", University of Sunderland
  8. ^ Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board Approved Schools Retrieved on 13 October 2009
  9. ^ U.S. Department of Labor. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement U.S. Department of Labor website, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 Edition.

References

External links