- Jude the Apostle
), though Protestants (for instance, the
New International Versiontranslation) usually identify him as "Jude son of James".
The Gospel of John also once mentions a disciple called "Judas not Iscariot" (, Jude is omitted, but there is a Thaddeus (or in some manuscripts of Matthew 10:3, "Lebbaeus who was surnamed Thaddaeus") listed in his place. This has led many Christians since early times to harmonize the lists by positing a "Jude Thaddeus", known by either name.
Biblical scholars reject this theory, holding that Jude and Thaddeus did not represent the same person.John P. Meier, " A Marginal Jew" volume 3, pp 130-133, 200 ("Christian imagination was quick to harmonize and produce Jude Thaddeus, a conflation that has no basis in reality."); Rudolf Pesch, "Simon-Petrus. Geschichte und geschichtliche Bedeutung der ersten Juengers Jesu Christ", "Paepste und Papsttum" 15, Hiersmann, 1980. p.36.] Scholars have proposed alternate theories to explain the discrepancy: an unrecorded replacement of one for the other during the ministry of Jesus to apostacy or death; the possibility that "twelve" was a symbolic number and an estimation; [ E. P. Sanders, " [http://books.google.com/books?id=Ng9JaKKaeCIC Jesus and Judaism] ", Fortress Press, 1985. ISBN 0-334-02091-3. p.102] or simply that the names were not recorded perfectly by the early church. [ Joseph Fitzmyer, "The Gospel according to Luke: Introduction, translation, and notes", Volume 2, The Anchor Bible, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1981-1985. ISBN 0385005156. p.619-620]
However many conservative Christian writers argue that, because the name "Judas" was so tarnished by
Judas Iscariot, it was natural for Mark and Matthew to refer to him by his alternate name. [For instance Otto Harpan, in "The Apostle" (Sands, 1962), quoted at [http://www.12apostlesofthecatholicchurch.com/jude.html 12apostlesofthecatholicchurch.com] ] .
Thaddeus the apostle is generally seen as a different person from
Thaddeus of Edessa, one of the Seventy Disciples.
Possible Identity with Jude brother of Jesus
Opinion is divided on whether Jude the apostle is the same as
Jude, brother of Jesus, who is mentioned in
Iconography of Saint Jude
St. Jude is traditionally depicted carrying the image of Jesus in his hand or close to his chest, betokening the legend of the
Image of Edessa, recorded in apocryphal correspondence between Jesus and Abgarus which is reproduced in Eusebius' "History Ecclesiastica, I, xiii". According to it, King Abgar of Edessa (a city located in what is now southeast Turkey) sent a letter to Jesus to cure him of an illness that afflicts him, and sent the envoy "Hannan", the keeper of the archives, offering his own home city to Jesus as a safe dwelling place. The envoy painted a likeness of Jesus with choice paints, or impressed with Abgar's great faith, Jesus pressed his face into a cloth and gave it to "Hannan" to take to Abgar with his answer. Upon seeing Jesus' image, the king placed it with great honor in one of his palatial houses. After Christ had ascended to heaven, St. Jude was sent to King Abgar by the Apostle St. Thomas. The king was cured and astonished. He converted to Christianityalong with most of the people under his rule. Additionally, St. Jude is often depicted with a flame above his head. This represents his presence at Pentecost, when he received the Holy Spirit with the other apostles.
St. Jude Thaddeus is invoked in desperate situations because his
New Testamentletter stresses that the faithful should persevere in the environment of harsh, difficult circumstances, just as their forefathers had done before them. Therefore, he is the patron saintof desperate cases. (The epithet is also commonly rendered as "patron saint of lost causes".)
Many Christians have unfortunately reckoned him as Judas Iscariot and thus avoided veneration. Therefore he was also called the "Forgotten Saint". The Order of Preachers (the
Dominicans) began working in present day Armenia soon after their founding in 1216. There was a substantial devotion to St. Jude in this area at that time, by both Roman and Orthodox Catholics. This lasted until persecution drove Christians from the area in the 1700s. Devotion to Saint Jude began again in earnest in the 1800s, starting in Italyand Spain, spreading to South America, and finally to the U.S. (starting in the area around Chicago) owing to the influence of the Claretiansand the Dominicansin the 1920s. Novenaprayers to St. Jude helped people, especially newly arrived immigrants from Europe, deal with the pressures caused by the Great Depression, World War II, and the changing workplace and family life.
Saint Jude is the patron saint of the
Chicago Police Departmentand of Clube de Regatas do Flamengo(a popular football (soccer)team in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). His other patronages include desperate situations and hospitals. One of his namesakes is St. Jude Children's Research Hospitalin Memphis, Tennessee, which has helped many children with terminal illnesses and their families since its founding in 1962. His feast dayis October 28( Roman Catholic Churchand Lutheran Church) and June 19( Eastern Orthodox Church). A common Roman Catholic prayer is:
An alternative prayer is : cquote|Saint Jude, Hope of the Hopeless, Pray for me.
To encourage devotion to St. Jude, it is common to acknowledge in writing favors received. He is frequently thanked in the personals column of many daily newspapers such as the "
Daily Telegraph", " Private Eye" and other newspapers.
* [http://www.domestic-church.com/CONTENT.DCC/19980901/SAINTS/STJUDE.HTM Saint Simon and Saint Jude] - article by Catherine Fournier, on a Catholic web page Domestic.com
* [http://roswell.fortunecity.com/price/449/actthad.htm The Acts of Thaddeus]
Sites which are shrines to Saint Jude:
* [http://www.shrineofsaintjude.com/ Dominican Shrine of St. Jude, Chicago, IL]
* [http://www.shrineofstjude.org/ The National Shrine of St. Jude, Chicago, IL]
* [http://www.stjudeshrine.org/ St. Jude Shrine, The Nationwide Center of St. Jude Devotions, Baltimore, MD]
* [http://www.stjudekoothattukulam.org/ St.Jude Shrine, Koothattukulam, Kerala,India]
* [http://www.verapolyarchdiocese.org/shrine_st_jude_thevara.htm St. Jude's Shrine, St. Joseph's Church, Thevara, Kerala,India]
* [http://www.kureekadstjude.org/ St.Jude Shrine, Kureekad,Chottanikkara, Kerala,India]
* [http://www.stjudesshrinejhansi.org/index.html ST JUDE'S SHRINE, JHANSI-284 001, INDIA]
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