- Titan (rocket family)
caption=The Titan rocket family.
Expendable launch systemwith various applications
Glenn L. Martin Company
title=Titan 1 Chronology
work=Titan 1 ICBM History Website
United States Air Force
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
unit cost=US$250-350 million
variants with their own articles=
Titan I Titan II Titan III Titan IIIB Titan IV
Titan Iwas the first version of the Titan family of rockets. It began as a backup ICBMproject in case the Atlas was delayed. It was a two-stage rocket powered by RP-1and Liquid Oxygen. Using RP-1 and LOX meant that the Titan I did not have a quick launch sequence. It took about fifteen minutes to load LOX on the first missile at a complex, raise it topside and launch it, with the other two missiles following at about eight minute intervals. Titan I was operational from early 1962 to mid-1965.
Titan I Missile Units
* 568th Strategic Missile Squadron,
Larson AFB, Moses Lake, Washington
* 569th Strategic Missile Squadron, Mountain Home AFB, Mt Home,
* 851st Strategic Missile Squadron,
Beale AFB, Marysville, California
* 850th Strategic Missile Squadron,
Ellsworth AFB, Rapid City, South Dakota
* 451st Strategic Missile Wing (formerly 703rd)
Lowry AFB, Denver, Colorado
Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM)
Most of the Titan rockets were the
Titan II ICBMand their civilian derivatives for NASA. The Titan II ICBM had one W-53 warheadwith a 9.0 megaton yield, making it the most powerful ICBM on-standby in the US nuclear arsenal. These were deployed in three squadrons of 18 missiles each, in Arizona, Kansas, and Arkansas. All of the ICBM Titan II missile sites have been decommissioned since 1987 but the Titan Missile Museumon Interstate 19south of Tucson, Arizona, has preserved one deactivated launch site. The Titan II was a hypergolicly-fueled two-stage ICBM that was used by the U.S. Air Forcefrom the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s. The Titan II used a hypergoliccombination of nitrogen tetroxideand hydrazinefor its oxidizer and fuel.
pace launch vehicles
The most important use of the civilian Titan II was in the NASA
Gemini programof manned space capsules in the mid-1960s. Twelve Titan IIs were used to launch two U.S. unmanned Gemini test launches and ten manned capsules with two-man crews. All of the launches were successes.
Also, in the late 80s some of the deactivated Titan IIs were converted into space
launch vehicles to be used for launching U.S. Government payloads. The final such vehicle launched a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program(DMSP) weather satellite from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, on 18 October 2003. [http://spaceflightnow.com/titan/g9/031018launch.html] .
Titan IIIwas a modified Titan II with optional solid rocket boosters. It was developed by the U.S. Air Force as a heavy-lift satellite launcher to be used mainly to launch U.S. military payloads such as DSP early-warning, intelligence (spy), and defense communications satellites. The powerful Titan IIIC used two large strapped-on solid-fuel rockets to increase its launch thrusts and payload weight. One other variant, the Titan IIIE, was used to launch some NASAscientific probes such as the Voyagers to the outer planets and the Viking landers to Mars, all four flights using a Centaur upper stage.
Titan IIIBand its variants (23B, 24B, 33B, and 34B) were Titan III cores with an Agena D upper stage. This combination was used to launch the KH-8GAMBIT series of spy satellites. They were all launched from Vandenberg AFB, Calif., into polar orbits. The payload was about 7,500 lb (3,000 kg).
Titan IVis a "stretched" Titan III with non-optional solid rocket boosters. It could be launched either with the Centaur upper stage, with the IUS (Inertial Upper Stage) or without any upper stage. It was almost exclusively used to launch U.S. Military payloads, though it was also used to launch NASA's Cassini probeto Saturn in 1997. Titan IV was the most powerful unmanned rocket in the United States, and was extremely expensive to operate. By the time the Titan IV was operational the requirements of the Department of Defence for a heavy booster had declined due to improvements in the longevity of military satellites, and the fall of the Soviet Union. As a result, when including the cost of ground operations and facilities for the Titan IV at Vandenberg AFB, the unit cost was very high.
Liquid oxygen is dangerous to use in an enclosed space, such as a
missile silo, and cannot be stored for long periods in the booster oxidizer tank. Several Atlas and Titan I rockets exploded and destroyed their silos. The Martin Companywas able to improve the design with the Titan II. The RP-1/LOX combination was replaced by a room-temperature fuel whose oxidizer did not require cryogenicstorage. The same first stage rocket engines were used with some modifications. The diameter of the second stage was increased to match the first stage. The Titan II's hypergolic fuel and oxidizer ignited on contact, but they were highly toxic and corrosive liquids. The fuel was hydrazineand the oxidizer was nitrogen tetroxide.
There were several accidents in Titan II silos resulting in loss of life and/or serious injuries. In August 1965, 53 construction workers were killed when hydraulic fluid used in the Titan II caught fire in a missile silo northwest of
Searcy, Arkansas. The liquid fuel missiles were prone to developing leaks of their toxic propellants. Nine airmen were killed at a site outside Rock, Kansas, in the late 1970s when a missile in its silo leaked propellant. Later, another site, at Potwin, Kansas, leaked fuel and was closed, but there were no fatalities. In September 1980, at another Titan II silo (374-7) near Damascus, Arkansas, a technician dropped a wrench that broke the skin of the missile. Leaking rocket fuel ignited and blew the 8,000 lb nuclear warhead out of the silo. It landed harmlessly several hundred feet away. [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,952781,00.html "Light on the Road to Damascus"] "Time" magazine, 29 September 1980 accessed 12 September 2006] This marked the beginning of the end for the Titan II as an ICBM. The 54 Titan II's were replaced in the U.S. arsenal by 50 MX "Peacekeeper" solid-fuel rocketmissiles in late 1980s. 54 Titan IIs had been fielded along with some 1000 Minutemen from the mid-1960s through the mid-1980s. Most of the decommissioned Titan II ICBMs were refurbished and used for Air Force space launch vehicles, with a perfect launch success record.
Current status of Titans
As of 2006, the Titan family of rockets is obsolete. The high cost of using
hydrazineand nitrogen tetroxide, along with the special care that was needed due to their toxicity, proved too much compared to the higher-performance liquid hydrogenor RP-1-fueled vehicles, with a liquid oxygenoxidizer. The current owners of the Titan line ( Lockheed-Martin) decided to extend its Atlas family of rockets instead of the more expensive Titans, along with joint ventures to sell launches on the Russian Proton and the new Boeing-built Delta IV class of medium and heavy-lift launch vehicles. The next-to-last Titan was launched successfully from Cape Canaveral on 29 April 2005. The final Titan launched successfully from Vandenberg AFB on 19 October 2005, carrying a secret payload for the National Reconnaissance Office. There are approximately twenty Titan IIs at AMARC in Tucson, Arizonaset to be scrapped or used as monuments. [ [http://cgi.govliquidation.com/auction/view?id=1650637&convertTo=USD Government Liquidation ] ]
A replica of a Titan II rocket is the centerpiece of the
Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Centeraerospace museum in Hutchinson, Kansas.
:"For the specifications, please see the articles on each variant."
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MuJqCdaTS7U Video of a Titan II missile launch]
* [http://www.sonicbomb.com/v2.php?vid=military/titanl.wmv&id=219&ttitle=Titan%20ICBM Video of a Titan I missile launch]
* [http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap051027.html Photo of the last Titan launch] , at the
APODarchive. See also
* [http://www.fas.org/spp/military/program/launch/titan.htm Titan missiles & variations]
* [http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=2543 Explosion at 374-7]
Titan Missile Museum
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Delta (rocket family) — Delta Family The Delta rocket family. Role Expendable launch system with various applications … Wikipedia
Soyuz (rocket family) — Soyuz A Soyuz U on the launch pad, ahead of the Soyuz 19 (ASTP) launch on 1975 07 15 Function Carrier rocket Manufacturer OKB 1 TsSKB Progress Country of o … Wikipedia
Saturn (rocket family) — The Saturn family of rockets were developed by a team of mostly German rocket scientists led by Wernher von Braun to launch heavy payloads to Earth orbit and beyond. Originally proposed as a military satellite launcher, they were adopted as the… … Wikipedia
Minotaur (rocket family) — Minotaur I rocket launching Mightysat 2.1 The Minotaur is a family of American solid fuel rockets derived from converted Minuteman and Peacekeeper intercontinental ballistic missiles. They are built by Orbital Sciences Corporation. Two variants… … Wikipedia
Mu (rocket family) — The Mu, also known as M, was a series of Japanese solid fuelled carrier rockets, which were launched from Uchinoura between 1966 and 2006. Originally developed by Japan s Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Mu rockets were later… … Wikipedia
Long March (rocket family) — A Long March rocket (simplified Chinese: 长征系列运载火箭; traditional Chinese: 長征系列運載火箭; pinyin: Chángzhēng xìliè yùnzài huǒjiàn) or Chang Zheng rocket as in Chinese pinyin is any rocket in a family of expendable launch systems operated by the People s… … Wikipedia
Titan — most often refers to: *A class of deities who preceded the Olympians in Greek mythology. See Titan (mythology). *The largest satellite of the planet Saturn, named after the Greek characters. See Titan (moon). Mythology*Helios, Greek sun deity… … Wikipedia
Titan IV — infobox rocket caption = Launch of a Titan IVB launch vehicle. (USAF)name = Titan IV function = Heavy expendable launch system manufacturer = Lockheed Martin country origin = United Statescpl = $432 million (USD) cpl year = 1999height = 44m alt… … Wikipedia
Titan III — infobox rocket imsize = 175 caption = MOL mockup launch by a Titan IIIC on Nov. 3, 1966 from LC41 Cape Canaveral, FL. (USAF) name = Titan IIIC function = Medium/Heavy launch vehicle manufacturer = Martin country origin = United States height = 42 … Wikipedia
Titan IIIB — infobox rocket caption = Titan 23B launching KH 8 reconnaissance satellite from Vandenberg AFB, CA. (USAF) name = Titan IIIB function = Medium launch vehicle manufacturer = Martin country origin = United States height = 45m alt height = 147.00 ft … Wikipedia