- Activating group
organic chemistry, a functional groupis called an activating group if a benzene moleculeto which it is attached more readily participates in electrophilic substitutionreactions. Benzene itself will normally undergo substitutions by electrophiles, but additional substituents can alter the reaction rate or products by electronically or sterically affecting the interaction of the two reactants.
Functional groups are typically divided into three levels of activating ability.
Deactivating groupsare assigned to similar groupings.
trongly Activating Groups
:-OH -O-Strongly activating substituents favor electrophilic substitution about the ortho and para positions.
This is illustrated by drawing the resonance structure's of aniline: [http://s60.photobucket.com/albums/h6/adamboygenius/?action=view¤t=scan0001.jpg]
Moderately Activating Groups
Weakly Activating Groups
:-CH3 -C2H5 -R
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