Historic Adventism

Historic Adventism
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Historic Adventism is an informal designation for conservative individuals and organizations affiliated with the Seventh-day Adventist Church who seek to preserve certain traditional beliefs and practices of the church. As a general rule, Historic Adventists feel that the church leadership has shifted or departed from key doctrinal "pillars" ever since the middle of the 20th century. Specifically, they point to the publication in 1957 of a book entitled Seventh-day Adventists Answer Questions on Doctrine; which they feel undermines historic Adventist theology in favour of theology more compatible with evangelicalism.[1]

Historic Adventists have tended to promote their message through independent ministries, some of which have had a strained relationship with the official church.[2][3]"Last Generation Theology" shares some elements with Historic Adventism, yet considers itself to have "expanded" the beliefs of Historic Adventism to their logical conclusion.[4]Prominent figures in historic Adventism include M. L. Andreasen, Herbert Douglass, and Colin and Russell Standish. Historic Adventists are seen as at the opposite end of the Adventist theological spectrum from Progressive Adventists.

Historic Adventism has been erroneously applied by some to any Adventists that adhere to the teachings of the church as reflected in the church's fundamental beliefs such as the Sabbath or the Spirit of Prophecy. They misapply those who hold to mainstream traditional Adventist beliefs as synonymous with Historic Adventist.[1]



Teachings on Christian perfection and personal holiness were present in the religious revival of the Great Awakening in America and were evident in early Adventist movements such as the "Holy Flesh movement" in Indiana around the turn of the 19th century which Ellen White quickly rebuked."[5] They were also evident in some teachings on holiness by medical doctor John Harvey Kellogg, and Jones and Waggoner of 1888 fame.[6]

Joseph Bates was one of the three primary founders of Seventh-day Adventism (along with James and Ellen White). Like many in the early church he focused more on following the requirements of Gods law over salvation by grace.[7]

Following the 1919 Bible Conference, in which Ellen White's inspiration was discussed during 2 days, some defended against what they felt were attacks on her such as Holmes and Washburn, who wrote open letters decrying the alleged "new theology" and the "omega" apostasy of the Adventist church.[8]

Keith Lockhart has described the "Golden Age" of Adventism (from a sociological point of view) as the fundamentalist era of the 1920s–1950s. It is to this time period the expression "historic Adventism" most accurately applies, not to 19th century Adventism.[9] Along with Malcolm Bull, he claims "Adventist fundamentalism" emerged in the 1880s, became dominant in the 1920s, and survives to the present day amongst conservative groups." They also claim "elements of fundamentalism were re-invoked", becoming discernible in the 1990s.[10]

"But what many authors take to be historic Adventism is in fact a creation of the twentieth century — a synthesis that took place in the 1920s and remained dominant until the 1960s. It was, moreover, a synthesis that in itself represented an accommodation to the newly formed fundamentalist movement".[11]

Adventist-Evangelical dialogues

It is widely accepted that present historic Adventism emerged in response to the Adventist-Evangelical discussions which occurred in the spring of 1955 to the fall of 1957. These dialogues were initiated by evangelicals Donald Barnhouse and Walter Martin, who sought clarification on what Adventists believed and took issue with a number of teachings which at the time were generally thought to characterize Adventist theology. The most significant of these being: Arianism; man's sinful nature taken by Christ in His incarnation; an incomplete atonement at the time of Christ's death on the cross; salvation by obedience to the law; and extreme sectarianism.[12] At least one author considers the various streams existed earlier, as some Millerites came from churches holding Arian views, but this event polarized them.[13]

The Adventist leaders who met with Walter Martin presented a fuller description of mainstream Adventist theology, and described the more fundamentalist views as merely the beliefs of a few. (Le Roy Edwin Froom described them as the "lunatic fringe".) In particular, the Adventists asserted that the belief that Christ took Adam's sinful nature after the fall and an incomplete atonement were not part of mainstream Adventist doctrine. Adventist historian George Knight felt it was not a complete picture, because a majority of Adventists prior to 1950 had held to these teachings concerning the nature of Christ and the atonement.[14]

Martin and Barnhouse were satisfied with the responses given by the Adventist delegation, and concluded that the Adventist church was a legitimate Christian body. Meanwhile, Adventist theologian M. L. Andreasen, who was aware of these proceedings, opposed them openly. Andreasen represented the many Adventists at the time who believed that Christ had taken upon Himself Adam's fallen nature and that some aspects of the atonement were not completed at the cross. (Those Adventists who believed Christ had taken a fallen nature still believed that Jesus was sinless and committed no actual sins). Some of these Adventists continue to oppose the theological direction taken by the church leadership on these issues and the more fundamentalist elements are known today as "Historic Adventists."

Herbert Douglass has stated,

"most, if not all, of the so-called 'dissident' or 'independent' groups of the last 45 years are direct results of the explicit and implicit positions espoused by [Questions on Doctrine] on the atonement and the Incarnation."[15]

According to historian George Knight,

"Official Adventism may have gained recognition as being Christian from the evangelical world, but in the process a breach had been opened which has not healed in the last 50 years and may never heal."[16]


Desmond Ford convinced Robert Brinsmead his perfectionism was incorrect in about 1970.[17] During the 1970s, what is now the Adventist Review carried articles by editor Kenneth Wood and associate editor Herbert Douglass rejecting Questions on Doctrine and arguing for a final perfect generation.[17]

The General Conference addressed this controversy over "righteousness by faith" by holding a conference in Palmdale, California in 1976.[17] Ford was the "center of attention", and the resulting document known as the "Palmdale statement"DjVu.[18][19] However the controversy increased, and critics of the "new theology" of Ford and others formed their own institutions.[17]

Julius Nam has written,

"However, the theological heirs of Andreasen have found such developments deeply troubling. Since 1971, several independent ministry groups have arisen within the Adventist church that have self-consciously embraced Andreasen’s postlapsarian views and the accompanying theology of the final generation, which they believe is supported by the writings of Ellen White. Since their inception, these groups have warned against the evangelicalization of Adventism and have issued calls to the church at large to return to the Adventism of the pre-Questions on Doctrine era. Like Andreasen, they have seen the Adventist-evangelical conferences and the publication of Questions on Doctrine as the beginning of the end-time apostasy. From the perspective of these groups, the prelapsarian view advocated by Questions on Doctrine and embraced by many Adventists is another sign of the apostasy that continues in the church. They view Adventism as a movement that is to be deliberately separate from other groups such as evangelicals. Their vision of Adventism is a movement that is preparing the final generation of Christians who will ultimately overcome sin."[20]

The 1975 book Perfection: The Impossible Possibility (Nashville: Southern Publishing Association, 1975) edited by Douglass, contained essays by Douglass and C. Mervyn Maxwell supporting historic views, and Edward Heppenstall and Hans LaRondelle supporting the mainstream view.


Historic Adventist theology differs from mainstream Adventist theology in the areas of Christology, hamartiology (sin), soteriology (salvation) and eschatology (end times). They often use the term "new theology" as a pejorative term for perceived doctrinal shifts in the church.[21]

With regards to Christology, Historic Adventists believe that Jesus Christ possessed a fallen nature in common with all the children of Adam but with a propensity to sin. This view of Jesus' nature was prevalent in Adventism prior to the 1950s, but is now a minority position among theologians and mainstream Adventism.[22]

Sin is defined in terms of personal trangressions of the commandments, over against an inborn corruption of the human nature inherited from Adam.[23][24]

Historic Adventists tend to place more emphasis on sanctification than justification.[24] Following Andreasen, they define the atonement in terms of God’s work to cleanse our character from sin as well as payment of the penalty for sin. The work of Christ in the heavenly sanctuary is regarded as a continuation of the work of atonement begun on the cross, rather than the application of the benefits of an already completed atonement. [25]

"Eschatological perfectionism" is the teaching that a final generation of believers must achieve a state of complete sinlessness (or Christlikeness) in the final period just before the second coming of Jesus (see Last Generation Theology)and most Historic Adventists hold to that teaching. This belief in sinlessness arose particularly from M. L. Andreasen's interpretation of the investigative judgment doctrine, which is one of the pillars of adventism and found in The Great Controversy by Ellen G. White.[12][26]

Historic Adventists generally place more emphasis on the writings of Ellen G. White as a doctrinal authority compared to mainstream Adventists, some considering her writings as infallible and having near-equivalent status to the Bible.[1]

Historic Adventists have a differing perspective on the 1888 Minneapolis General Conference arguing that Ellen White supported the perfectionistic theology of Jones and Waggoner.[27]

Some historic Adventists are advocates of the King James Only movement, which promotes sole use of the King James Version of the Bible. (A classic book in this movement, Our Authorized Bible Vindicated (1930), was written by an Adventist, Benjamin G. Wilkinson. One critique is by Alden Thompson.[28])

Last Generation Theology

Last Generation Theology (LGT) or "final generation" theology is a belief system held by some conservative members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, which claims that perfection will be achieved by some people in the last generation before the Second Coming of Jesus. It is closely related to "historic Adventism", but as one supporter claims, it differs in that it forms an extension or development of "historic" Adventist beliefs, or takes them to their logical conclusion.

Like mainstream Adventist theology, it teaches that Jesus Christ was not only the Substitute for man but the Example for man, but insists that Christians will have to cease from sin after the close of probation just before the Second Coming, and confesses that the close of the age has been delayed by unconsecration in Christians but can be accelerated through their living of holy lives.[citation needed]


Mainstream and progressive Adventists have criticised the use of the term "historic". It is observed that numerous doctrinal positions that were common among the Adventist pioneers are generally not held by those who profess to be "historic Adventists", such as semi-Arianism, which time of day the Sabbath should begin, certain understandings of Systematic Benevolence, the "shut door", and the personhood of the Holy Spirit.[27] It is argued that the over-valuing of "historic" beliefs leads to an unhelpful neglect of "new light" and "present truth", which Adventists have always held as defining beliefs.

Walter Martin labeled most of the historic Adventists he encountered as "legalists," "worshippers of Ellen White" and the "lunatic fringe."[29] The term was earlier used by LeRoy Edwin Froom when Adventist leaders met with Martin.[30]

Adventist historian Milton Hook describes it as "Adventist fundamentalism". He cites the aggressive preaching style of George Burnside who attacked Roman Catholics and "apostate" Protestants. Hook claims this turned many away, and some of the remaining merely "loved a religious dogfight", and converts "often generated dust storms of intolerance and became clones of militant dogmatism among their peers." He states this style of evangelism was once the norm amongst Adventist preachers, and had roots in 19th century Methodism in the United States.[31]

Andy Nash wrote that while working at the Adventist Review, he was "often perplexed about how our ability to function at the magazine was disrupted by some folk on the conservative extreme". In response to articles on worship, they would get many critical letters which were based more on tradition than on the Bible. They would airbrush jewelry out of photos to placate some readers.[32]

Historic Adventists look favourably on a past era of the church. Phil Dunham, a fairly conservative author himself, critiqued "nostalgia about the good old days of 'historic Adventism.' In some people's minds it seems to be a time of the most unblemished and unassailable doctrinal positions, the highest possible moral standards, the deepest spiritual maturity, the best snowlike purity, the utmost in readiness to be translated.[…] But the way we often use the expression 'historic Seventh-day Adventism' is built on an idealized and unrealistic notion of what our early church was really like."[33]

"These days a lot of well-meaning people yearn for the supposedly purer days of the past. They feel that if they could just retrieve historic Seventh-day Adventism and bathe in its supposedly clearer waters, they'd be better able to resist last-day influences.
'Back then,' they assert, 'people had a higher level of spirituality—and a lower rate of problems. Back then apostasy was somehow banned, or at least kept at bay.'
Not true. Not true for historic Seventh-day Adventism. Not true for the historic church of Christ—the New Testament church. Not true for the seventh-day church in the wilderness—historic Judaism. Not true even for the First Church of Eden, because its entire two-member congregation ran and hid in naked apostasy.
No, you can't just change your group's name, or meet in a Grange Hall someplace, to escape apostasy. The seeds of apostasy grow not in a name or a place or a time—but in the hearts of every person on this planet since Adam and Eve.[…]"[34]
Historic Adventist roadside billboard. Text reads, "SATURDAY the True Lord's Day Changed by Antichrist Dan. 7:25

Responses to criticism

In response, some historic Adventists have claimed that they are loving in their evangelism and deny that the charge of fanaticism applies to them. They quote statements by Ellen White to support their view. For instance:

"Men will misrepresent the doctrines we believe and teach as Bible truth, and it is necessary that wise plans should be laid to secure the privilege of inserting articles into the secular papers; for this will be a means of awakening souls to see the truth. God will raise up men who will be qualified to sow beside all waters. God has given great light upon important truths, and it must come to the world."[35]
"We must take every justifiable means of bringing the light before the people. Let the press be utilized, and let every advertising agency be employed that will call attention to the work. This should not be regarded as nonessential. On every street corner you may see placards and notices calling attention to various things that are going on, some of them of the most objectionable character; and shall those who have the light of life be satisfied with feeble efforts to call the attention of the masses to the truth?"[36]

Methodist scholar Donald Dayton expressed some sympathies for historic Adventists in his paper presented at the Questions on Doctrine 50th anniversary conference.[37]

Official church reaction

The Seventh-day Adventist Church has officially reacted to two organisations which espouse "historic Adventist" theology. In 1998, the General Conference established a committee to evaluate the beliefs and activities of Hope International, the Hartland Institute (USA) and Remnant Ministries (Australia). The committee produced a report expressing "serious concerns with respect to the nature and purpose of Hope International and associates."[3]

The conclusion of the report stated that "by rejecting the authority of the world church in session when their interpretation of Scripture and the Spirit of Prophecy differs from that of the church, [Hope International and associates] have set their authority above that of the world church and operate in a manner that is consistent with offshoot movements." The report also contained a significant threat: "If Hope International and associates cannot bring themselves into harmony with the body of the world church, clearly evidenced within 12 months, the Seventh-day Adventist Church may need to consider whether there exists a “persistent refusal to recognize properly constituted church authority or to submit to the order and discipline of the church” (Church Manual, p. 169)."[3]

According to one article, the policy of the Adventist church in North America is that members of Hartland or Hope International may not hold any church office.[38]

Organizations and people

Para-church ministries

Historic Adventists have established a number of independent ministries and parachurch organizations which assist in the articulation and defense of their views. Two primary historic Adventist organizations located in the United States are Hope International and the Hartland Institute.[39]

Hope International, currently led by Ron Spear, runs a publishing ministry and a health center..

Hartland Institute comprises an educational college and school associated with Colin Standish (who founded the organization) and his brother Russell. It publishes their books [1] and others, as well as Last Generation magazine.[40] Russell edits The Remnant Herald.

Remnant Ministries was founded by Russell Standish[41] and is based in Australia.[42]

Concerned Brethren

The term "Concerned Brethren" describes a Adventist movement in Australasia[43] (not to be confused with the Brethren churches, a Christian movement entirely separate from Adventism). The description was used of a group of retired ministers opposed to Desmond Ford's teachings, particularly during his time as head of theology at Avondale College, and who urged for his dismissal.[44] The name derived from their signature or self-designation on a letter in the 1970s,[citation needed] although the stream of thought had been discernible earlier.[45] According to E. Bruce Price, "'Concerned Brethren' was abbreviated to 'CB' as a term of derision for those opposing Dr. Ford’s new theology."[44][46] According to the Standishes, "Hope International is to the United States what the Gazeley meetings are to Britain, and the Concerned Brethren are to Australia and New Zealand."[44]

The group was led[47] by James William Kent (1890 – May 5, 1983, Australia, aged 93), a "veteran Australian evangelist and administrator"[48][49] who chaired a meeting of "concerned" individuals in Sydney in 1974.[50] On 3–4 February 1976 a group of 16 men (11 "senior ministers", all retired, and 5 laymen) including Kent and George Burnside (1908–1994), a New Zealand evangelist[46][51] (described as the "foremost anti-Ford pamphleteer")[52] was given a hearing by 20 men from the Biblical Research Institute in the Australasian Division (now the South Pacific Division).[53] According to one author, Ford's understanding of righteousness by faith was the main issue,[47] while the report describes "concern about the teaching of theology at Avondale College, particularly in the area of the Sanctuary, the Age of the Earth, and Inspiration".[54] In response, the Institute affirmed its support for Avondale in its report.[54]

In March 1977, Kent and others met with Ford and church administrators. They were informed this would be the last time they could meet with church leaders as a group.[55] Kent and Burnside were banned from preaching in the churches on December 18, 1978 because of their continued opposition to Ford.[46] A. C. Needham replaced Kent as unofficial leader around this time, as the latter approached his 90th birthday.[56]

According to Arthur Patrick, "Looking back on the painful saga of the 'Concerned Brethren' from 1974 to the present, it is apparent that a better application of essentials for effective pastoral care may have alleviated some of the controversy."[57] Also, "Following the conflicts that gained intensity in the 1950s, during the 1970s the Adventist Church in Australasia made significant progress in better understanding and presenting 'the everlasting gospel;' but it failed to win the support of certain older members. In addition, viewpoints similar to those of the Concerned Brethren were promulgated by a variety of independent groups."[58] He has described them as "loyalists".

Adventist Laymen's Fellowship

The Adventist Laymen's Fellowship (ALF) was founded in 1979 to counter the growing Desmond Ford movement in Australia. They held a series of weekend meetings at Vision Valley, outside Sydney, to which local and overseas conservative Adventist speakers were invited and to which several thousand Adventists attended over several years. Early speakers included Colin Standish, Ralph Larson, George Burnside, Austin Cooke, Mervyn Maxwell, Leroy Moore, Dennis Priebe and others. They also published a magazine for several years named Landmarks. The ALF succumbed to theological unorthodoxy and disbanded about 1986.[citation needed]


Historic Adventists have a particularly strong commitment to publishing, and often disseminate free literature to promote their views to the mainstream church and wider public. Historic Adventist publishers have been criticized for using misleading titles and concealing their links with Seventh-day Adventism.[59]

  • Our Firm Foundation[60] is a monthly magazine published by Hope International. Alden Thompson has described it as "the theological heir to the perfectionism of the 'old' Adventist Review (era of Kenneth Wood), though its strident criticism of mainstream Adventism has alienated many who would share its theological perspective."[61] The Standishes consider it "the finest English language message paper in the entire denomination."[44]
  • Anchor is a historic Adventist magazine which was first published in April 1985. It was first edited by H. H. Meyers, and later by Ron and Ula Cable; published from Queensland, Australia.[62]
  • Pilgrim's Rest or Waymarks are self-published by Vance Ferrell. Alden Thompson describes the publication as "A strident 'Adventist' voice (Vance Ferrell), literally from the wilderness (of Tennessee). Pilgrim's Rest has been active in stirring up traditional elements in Adventist [sic] against the 'compromising' mainstream Adventist institutions, especially the General Conference and Adventist colleges."[61][63] Ferrell also set up SDADefend.com and EllenWhiteDefend.com.[64]
  • Quo Vadis (archives) is a magazine edited by Kevin Paulson. The title is taken from the Latin expression.

Other notable historic Adventist people

Former historic Adventists

Transition to non-Adventist

  • Australian Robert Brinsmead promoted the "Awakening Movement" in the 1960s before transitioning to a strong evangelical Adventist focus, and then later rejecting many Adventist and orthodox Christian beliefs.[17][68]

Transition to standard Adventism

Transition to progressive Adventism

  • Woodrow W. Whidden II, who has described himself as "a self-confessed former post-Fall perfectionist".[70] See his interview by Julius Nam, in which he describes historic Adventists and his relationship with them.
  • Martin Weber[71]

See also


  1. ^ a b c Corson, Ron (November 2002). "Progressive and Traditional Adventists Examined". Adventist Today (Loma Linda, CA: Adventist Today Foundation) 10 (6). ISSN 1079-5499. http://www.atoday.com/issue_pdf.php?pdf=2002-06.pdf. Retrieved 2007-11-20. 
  2. ^ "Hope International and Hartland Institute are expressions of historic Adventism."
  3. ^ a b c Report on Hope International and Associated Groups, Adventist Review, 2000.
  4. ^ Interview with Larry Kirkpatrick by Julius Nam
  5. ^ 2nd Selected Messages, p. 36-38., Ellen White
  6. ^ Patrick, Arthur (c. 1999). "Later Adventist Worship, Ellen White and the Holy Spirit: Further Historical Perspectives". Spiritual Discernment Conference. SDAnet AtIssue. http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/discern/flesh.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-15. 
  7. ^ Benjamin McArthur, "Early Adventism’s Leon Trotsky". Spectrum 33:2 (Spring 2005); alternative link. A review of George R. Knight, Joseph Bates: The Real Founder of Seventh-day Adventism. Review and Herald, 2004
  8. ^ http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/books/1919bc/hal-3.htm
  9. ^ Diller, Lisa Clark (January 2008). "Bull’s and Lockhart’s Challenge to Adventist Progressives" ([dead link]Scholar search). Adventist Today (Loma Linda, CA: Adventist Today Foundation) 16 (1). ISSN 1079-5499. Archived from the original on January 30, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080130074441/http://www.atoday.com/magazine/2008/01/bull%E2%80%99s-and-lockhart%E2%80%99s-challenge-adventist-progressives. Retrieved 2008-01-01. 
  10. ^ Seeking a Sanctuary, p104
  11. ^ Bull and Lockhart, Seeking a Sanctuary, p90–91, as quoted elsewhere
  12. ^ a b Kenneth Samples. "From Controversy to Crisis: An Updated Assessment of Seventh-day Adventism". Christian Research Institute. http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/cri/cri-jrnl/web/crj0005b.html. 
  13. ^ Lowell Tarling claims this
  14. ^ Questions on Doctrine: annotated edition 2005
  15. ^ as quoted on http://qod.andrews.edu/index.html
  16. ^ George Knight, 2003 annotated edition of Questions on Doctrine
  17. ^ a b c d e "Righteousness by Faith" entry in Historical Dictionary of Seventh-day Adventists by Gary Land
  18. ^ Adventists: Heirs of the Reformation, chapter 1 of The Shaking of Adventism by Geoffrey J. Paxton
  19. ^ "Christ Our Righteousness" (DjVu). Adventist Review (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald) 153 (22): 4–7. ISSN 0161-1119. http://www.adventistarchives.org/docs/RH/RH1976-22/index.djvu?djvuopts&page=4. Retrieved 2007-10-23. 
  20. ^ Julius Nam (2007). "The Questions on Doctrine Saga: Contours and Lessons". Paper presented to QOD 50th anniversary conference. http://progressiveadventism.com/2007/11/02/the-questions-on-doctrine-saga-contours-and-lessons/. 
  21. ^ eg. Colin D. Standish and Russell R. Standish (1989). Deceptions of the New Theology. Hartland Publications. ISBN 978-0923309183. 
  22. ^ Questions on Doctrine, annotated edition (2003). Andrews University Press. pp. 516–526. 
  23. ^ Gerhard Pfandl. Some Thoughts on Original Sin. Biblical Research Institute, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists 
  24. ^ a b Woodrow Whidden (2007). Question On Doctrine: What Should Be the Enduring Theological Legacy? 
  25. ^ Questions on Doctrine, annotated edition (2003). Andrews University Press. pp. xix-xxi. 
  26. ^ Anthony A. Hoekema (1962). The Four Major Cults. Eerdmans. pp. 124, see also note 127. 
  27. ^ a b Whidden, Woodrow (1997). "Ellen White on the Humanity of Christ (chapter 10)". Review and Herald Publishing Association. http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/books/wwhc/hoc10.htm. 
  28. ^ Alden Thompson, critique (RTF). March 24, 1995
  29. ^ Walter Martin Interview, Adventist Currents, Vol. 1, No. 1, July, 1983, conducted by Douglas Hackleman.
  30. ^ CRI Journal - CRJ0005B
  31. ^ Hook, Milton (2008). Desmond Ford: Reformist Theologian, Gospel Revivalist. Riverside, California: Adventist Today. pp. 40–41. ISBN 0-9786141-9-4.  Publisher's page. See also other parts of the chapter and book
  32. ^ Andy Nash, "Meet @ the Text: The Case for a Strong Adventist Center". Adventist Review 187 (April 15, 2010), p18–21. Article featured on magazine cover
  33. ^ Philip W. Dunham with Maylan Schurch, Blinded by the Light: The Anatomy of Apostasy. Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald, 2001, p93–94
  34. ^ Dunham, p67
  35. ^ Ellen G. White, Letter 1, 1875.
  36. ^ Ellen G. White, Evangelism, p. 130.
  37. ^ "Some Reflections on Adventist Identity by a 'Sympathetic Outsider' on the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Publication of Questions on Doctrine" by Donald Dayton. Questions on Doctrine 50th anniversary conference, 2007. Accessed 2008-04-16
  38. ^ "Living with the Remnant" by Debra Lloyd Foote. Adventist Today 6:4
  39. ^ Seeking a Sanctuary
  40. ^ "Hartland Institute of Health and Education" in Historical Dictionary of Seventh-day Adventists by Gary Land, p.124
  41. ^ Presenters at the Questions on Doctrine 50th Anniversary Conference
  42. ^ Adventist Review: Hope International
  43. ^ "Hope International and Associates—Another Perspective" by C. Mervyn Maxwell (previously known as the "Four Legitimate Hungers" Letter)
  44. ^ a b c d The Sepulchers Are Whited by the Standish brothers, p1, 142
  45. ^ Patrick, 2007 QOD Conference Paper
  46. ^ a b c "Church Growth Experiments in Secular Australia" by E. Bruce Price in Here We Stand: Evaluating New Trends in the Church edited by Samuel Koranteng-Pipim. Berrien Springs, Michigan: Adventists Affirm, 2005. ISBN 0-9677622-1-9 (publisher's page). Chapter republished in Samuele Bacchiocchi's Endime Issues Newsletter No. 130
  47. ^ a b "Advance and Retreat: The 1970's" chapter in The Shaking of Adventism
  48. ^ Adventist Review June 9, 1983, p24. See articles by Kent catalogued in the Seventh-day Adventist Periodical Index (SDAPI). The Standishes (who have a "historic" point of view) call Kent, "in our judgment the greatest Seventh-day Adventist orator we have ever heard."
  49. ^ Birthdate from The Greatest of All the Prophets, p379
  50. ^ The Gathering Storm and the Storm Burst, 77
  51. ^ Stanley Wood, "A[ustralian] M[issionary] College Notes". Australasian Record (April 24, 1933), p3. A[lbert] Mitchell, "Wedding Bells". Australasian Record (March 2, 1936), p7. Bruce Manners, "Burnside: A Life of Evangelism". Australasian Record (April 30, 1994), p10. Above as cited by Hook, p65 footnote 6. Loma Linda University Library has a file on Burnside (see here). See also articles by Burnside cataloged in the Seventh-day Adventist Periodical Index. Full name and lifespan from The Greatest of All the Prophets, p139. Burnside was converted by Kent. See also his mention in the Longburn Adventist College centenary book
  52. ^ Tarling, 204
  53. ^ All names are recorded in The Greatest of All the Prophets, 384–86
  54. ^ a b Notice of the action of the Australasian Division of the Biblical Research Institute. As reproduced in The Greatest of All the Prophets by the Standish brothers, p384
  55. ^ Adventism Challenged by the Standishes, p280, as quoted on a website
  56. ^ The Gathering Storm and the Storm Burst, 86
  57. ^ "Ellen White and South Pacific Adventism: Retrospect and Prospect" by Arthur Patrick
  58. ^ Twenty-Five Years After Glacier View | Adventist Today
  59. ^ "Busy Extremists". Concerned Christians Growth Ministries Inc.. http://www.ccgm.org.au/Articles/ARTICLE-0074.htm. 
  60. ^ "Hope International" in Historical Dictionary of Seventh-day Adventists by Gary Land, p.137–38
  61. ^ a b Thompson, Alden. "The Future of Adventism: Where's The Church Headed?". AldenThompson.com. http://people.wwc.edu/staff/thomal/unpub/futur_adventism.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-31. 
  62. ^ The Evangelical Dilemma by Colin Standish, Russell Standish, and H. H. Meyers, p79
  63. ^ "Walla Walla College Criticized" in Adventist Today comments on the publication
  64. ^ Seeking a Sanctuary, 342
  65. ^ "Historic Adventism: Remembering to Trust and Obey" by Ralph Larson. Adventist Today 2:1 (January 1994)
  66. ^ Seeking a Sanctuary, probably p342. See also the interview with Julius Nam
  67. ^ "Sunday, holy Sunday? Pastor resurrects Sabbath debate with $1 million reward" by Joe Kovacs. WorldNetDaily. Posted October 13, 2001. Accessed 2008-04-29
  68. ^ Where is Robert Brinsmead? by Larry Pahl; Adventist Today 7:3 (May/June 1999)
  69. ^ I Used to Be Perfect: A Study of Sin and Salvation by George Knight
  70. ^ http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/books/wwhc/hoc10.htm (p. 79)
  71. ^ May be documented in his book Who's Got the Truth

Offline resources:

  • Issues: The Seventh-day Adventist Church and Certain Private Ministries (Silver Spring, MD: North American Division, c.1992) See also Adventist Review Nov 5 1992, p1-16; "General Conference releases Hope International report". Record 26 August 2000, p6
  • Tarling, Lowell R. (1981). "[The Controversy over] Righteousness by Faith in Australia 1972–1979". The Edges of Seventh-day Adventism: A Study of Separatist Groups Emerging from the Seventh-day Adventist Church (1844–1980). Barragga Bay, Bermagui South, NSW: Galilee Publications. pp. 203–21. ISBN 0 9593457 0 1. 
  • Weber, Martin. Who's got the truth: Making sense out of five different Adventist gospels. Columbia, MD: Calvary Connections, 1994. A valuation of the views of Morris Venden, George Knight, Jack Sequeira, Ralph Larson, and Graham Maxwell about the gospel
  • J. R. Zurcher. Touched With Our Feelings, and (What Inspiration Has to Say About) Christian Perfection
  • Colin Standish, Historic Adventism; publisher's page
  • Woodrow W. Whidden II. Ellen White on Salvation
  • Roy Adams, The Nature of Christ: Help For a Church Divided Over Perfection. 1994

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