Pastry


Pastry

:"This article describes Pastry in food. For the Distributed Hash Table system, see Pastry_(DHT)."

Pastry is the name given to various kinds of baked goods made from ingredients such as flour, butter, shortening, baking powder or eggs. It may also refer to the dough from which such baked goods are made. Pastry dough is rolled out thinly and used as a base for baked goods. Common pastry dishesinclude pies, tarts and quiches. [cite book|title=Professional Pastry Chef |author=Bo Friberg|publisher=John Wiley and Sons|id=ISBN 0471218251] [cite book|title=The World Encyclopedia of Food |author= L. Patrick Coyle|year=1982|publisher=Facts on File Inc|id=ISBN 0871964171] .

Pastry is distinguished from bread by having a higher fat content, which contributes to a flaky or crumbly texture. A good pastry is light and airy and fatty, but firm enough to support the weight of the filling. When making a shortcrust pastry, care must be taken to blend the fat and flour thoroughly before adding any liquid. This ensures that the flour granules are adequately coated with fat and less likely to develop gluten. On the other hand, overmixing results in long gluten strands that toughen the pastry. In other types of pastry, such as Danish pastry and croissants, the characteristic flaky texture is achieved by repeatedly rolling out a dough similar to that for yeast bread, spreading it with butter, and folding it to produce many thin layers.

Many pie recipes involve blind-baking the pastry before the filling is added. Pastry dough may be sweetened or unsweetened.

History

European traditions of pastry-making are oftenFact|date=July 2008 traced back to the short crust era flaky doughs that were in use throughout the Mediterranean in ancient times. These recipes were popularized in Western Europe by Crusaders returning home. However, the Romans, Greeks and Phoenicians all had filo-style pastries in their culinary traditions. There is also strong evidence that the ancient Egyptians produced pastry-like confections. These recipes were adopted and adapted over time in various European countries, resulting in the myriad of pastry traditions known to the region, from Portuguese "pastéis de nata" in the west to Russian "pirozhky" in the east. The use of chocolate in pastry-making in the West, so commonplace today, arose only after Spanish and Portuguese traders brought chocolate to Europe from the New World starting in the 1500s. Many culinary historians consider French pastry chef Antonin Carème (1784-1833) to have been the first great master of pastry making in modern times. Small cakes, tarts and other sweet baked goods are called "pastries".

Pastry-making also has a strong tradition in many parts of Asia. Chinese pastry is made from rice, or different types of flour, with fruit, sweet bean paste or sesame-based fillings. Since the 19th century, the British brought western-style pastry to the far east. Though it would be the French influenced Maxim in the 1950s that made western pastry popular in Chinese-speaking regions starting with Hong Kong. Still, the term "Western Cake" (西餅) is used to differentiate between the automatically assumed Chinese pastry. Other Asian countries such as Korea have traditionally prepared pastry-confections such as tteok, hangwa, yaksi, among others with flour, rice, fruits, and regional specific ingredients to make unique type desserts. And Japan also has specialized pastry-confections better known as mochi and manju. Pastry-confection that have their origins from Asia are clearly distinct from the western pastry-confections that are generally much sweeter to the palate.

Types of pastry

These are some of the main types of pastry dough:
* Shortcrust
* Sweetcrust
* Phyllo (filo)
* Flaky pastry
* Puff pastry
* Choux pastry
* Golnishka

Profession

Those who make pastries professionally are known as either bakers or pastry chefs, depending on whether they produce pastries for a bakery or a restaurant.

Golnishka

In Central Hungary, the Golnishka was refined to a high art as the Oren Golnishka. Originally, the Oren Golnishka was a jelly-filled doughy substance served to unsuspecting tourists. But over the years, the Oren Golnishka became a mainstay of proletariat fare. The Oren Golnishka has recently experienced a revival thanks to the inventive recipes of famed sous-chef Arturo Javitt. [Verification needed]

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pastry — Pas try, n.; pl. {Pastries}. 1. The place where pastry is made. [Obs.] Shak. [1913 Webster] 2. Articles of food made of paste, or having a crust made of paste, as pies, tarts, etc. [1913 Webster] {Pastry cook}, one whose occupation is to make… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • pastry — (n.) mid 15c., food made with paste, not originally limited to sweets, from M.E. paste (see PASTE (Cf. paste) (n.)), probably influenced by O.Fr. pastaierie pastry, from pastoier pastry cook, from paste (see PASTE (Cf. paste) (n.)); also borrowed …   Etymology dictionary

  • pastry — ► NOUN (pl. pastries) 1) a dough of flour, fat, and water, used as a base and covering in baked dishes such as pies. 2) a cake consisting of sweet pastry with a cream, jam, or fruit filling. ORIGIN from PASTE(Cf. ↑paste) …   English terms dictionary

  • Pastry — est un protocole P2P utilisant une table de hachage distribuée. Liens externes Site officiel Portail de l’Internet …   Wikipédia en Français

  • pastry — [n] baked product made with flour bread, cake, croissant, dainty, Danish, delicacy, doughnut, éclair, panettone, patisserie, phyllo, pie, strudel, sweet roll, tart, turnover; concepts 457,461 …   New thesaurus

  • pastry — [pās′trē] n. pl. pastries [see PASTE & ERY] 1. flour dough or paste made with shortening and used for the crust of pies, tarts, etc. 2. foods made with this, as pies, tarts, etc. 3. broadly, all fancy baked goods, including cakes, sweet rolls,… …   English World dictionary

  • pastry — /pay stree/, n., pl. pastries. 1. a sweet baked food made of dough, esp. the shortened paste used for pie crust and the like. 2. any item of food of which such dough forms an essential part, as a pie, tart, or napoleon. [1530 40; PASTE + RY] * *… …   Universalium

  • pastry — noun 1 (esp. BrE) mixture of flour and water ADJECTIVE ▪ crisp, light ▪ Bake until the pastry is crisp and golden. ▪ soggy (BrE) ▪ golden, golden brown …   Collocations dictionary

  • pastry — [16] The original word in English for ‘pastry’ in English was paste. This is still in use as a technical term, but in everyday usage it has gradually been replaced by pastry. This was derived from paste, modelled apparently on Old French… …   The Hutchinson dictionary of word origins

  • pastry — [16] The original word in English for ‘pastry’ in English was paste. This is still in use as a technical term, but in everyday usage it has gradually been replaced by pastry. This was derived from paste, modelled apparently on Old French… …   Word origins


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