Shanghai World Financial Center


Shanghai World Financial Center

Infobox Skyscraper
building_name = Shanghai World Financial Center
上海(秀仕)环球金融中心


caption = Shanghai World Financial Center in June 2008
location = Flagicon|China Shanghai, China
coordinates = coord|31|14|12|N|121|30|10|E|region:CH_type:landmark|display=inline,title
status = Completecite web|title=China's tallest and timely arrival|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7585913.stm|date=28 Aug 2008|work=BBC]
groundbreaking = 27 August 1997
constructed = 1997 – 2008
opening = 30 August 2008
use = Office, hotel, museum, observation, parking garage, retail
roof = convert|492.0|m|ft|1|abbr=on
top_floor = 101
elevator_count = 31
cost = ¥ 8.17 billion RMB (US$1.20 billion)
floor_area = convert|377300|m2|sqft|-2|abbr=on
architect = Kohn Pedersen Fox
engineer = Leslie E. Robertson Associates RLLP
contractor = China State Costruction Engineering Corp. and Shanghai Construction (Group) General Co.
developer = Mori Building Co.
owner =
management =
references = cite web
url = http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=7609
title = Shanghai World Financial Center - SkyscraperPage.com
accessdate = 2008-04-10
] cite web
url = http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2007-09/15/content_6108904.htm
title = Shanghai tops out world's third-tallest building
accessdate = 2008-04-10
] cite web
url = http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=130957
title = Shanghai World Financial Center - www.emporis.com
accessdate = 2008-04-10
]

The Shanghai World Financial Center (Abbr: SWFC; zh-stp|s=上海环球金融中心|t=上海環球金融中心|p=Shànghǎi huánqiú jīnróng zhōngxīn) is a supertall skyscraper in Shanghai, China. It is a mixed use skyscraper which consists of offices, hotels, conference rooms, observation decks, and shopping malls on the ground floors. Park Hyatt Shanghai is the hotel component containing 174 rooms and suites. On opening, this hotel will become the highest in the world, surpassing the Grand Hyatt Shanghai on the 53rd to 87th floors of the neighboring Jin Mao Tower. [cite news| title=Park Hyatt Shanghai To Open In 2008 | url =http://www.chinahospitalitynews.com/2007/11/19/5085-park-hyatt-shanghai-to-open-in-2008/ | work =China Hospitality News]

On 14 September 2007 the skyscraper was topped outcite news| title=Shanghai skyline gets new tallest landmark | url =http://www.shanghaidaily.com/article/?id=331219&type=Metro | work =Shanghai Daily] at convert|492.0|m|ft|1|sp=us cite web|url=http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=130957 |title= Shanghai World Financial Center |accessdate=2008-09-05 |date=2008 |publisher=Emporis ] and became the second tallest building in the world; as well as the tallest structure on mainland China, including Hong Kong. It is currently the world's tallest completed building by roof.

On 28 August 2008, the SWFC officially opened for business. On August 30 the Observation Deck opened with a view from 3 levels. The highest view will be at convert|474|m|ft|0|abbr=on above sea level.

History

Designed by Kohn Pedersen Fox, the 101-story tower was originally planned for construction in 1997, but work was temporarily interrupted by the Asian Financial Crisis in the late 1990s and later to accommodate design changes by the developer. The building of the tower is financed by several multinational firms, including Japanese, Chinese, and Hong Kong banks, as well as by the Japanese developer and as-yet unnamed American and European investors. American investment bank Morgan Stanley is coordinating the financing for Mori Building.

Architecture

The most distinctive feature in the design of the building is an aperture at the peak. The original design specified a circular aperture, convert|46|m|ft|0|abbr=on in diameter, to reduce the stresses of wind pressurecite news | first=Arthur | last=Lubow | title=The China Syndrome | date=2006-05-21 | publisher=The New York Times Company | url =http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/21/magazine/21bejing.html?pagewanted=all# | work =The New York Times | accessdate = 2008-05-22] , as well as serve as a subtext for the design, since "Chinese mythology represents the earth with a square and the sky with a circle". It also resembled a Chinese moon gate due to its circular form in Chinese architecture. However, this initial design began facing protests from some Chinese, including the mayor of Shanghai, who considered it too similar to the rising sun design of the Japanese flag. Pedersen then suggested that a bridge be placed at the bottom of the aperture to make it less circular. cite web|url=http://www.pbs.org/wnet/innovation/transcript_episode1.html |title=Innovation - Life, Inspired . About the Episodes . Show Transcript / PBS |accessdate=2008-05-22 |date=2004 |publisher=Educational Broadcasting Corporation and Carlton International ] On 18 October 2005, KPF submitted an alternative design to Mori Building and a trapezoidal hole replaced the circle at the top of the tower, which in addition to changing the controversial design, will also be cheaper and easier to implement according to the architects. [ [http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=shanghaiworldfinancialcenter-shanghai-china Shanghai World Financial Center (facts)] ] There are 3 observation decks in Shanghai World Financial Center. The height of its lowest observation deck (观光大厅) is convert|423|m|ft|0|abbr=on, on the 94th floor, the second is convert|439|m|ft|0|abbr=on high, on the 97th floor, named "Observatory Bridge" (观光天桥), and the highest (观光天阁) is convert|474|m|ft|0|abbr=on high, on the 100th floor. [SWFC Official Website - Observatory Introduction Movie] .

The skyscraper's roof height is set at 492 m, and has temporarily claimed the highest roof in the world. Before construction resumed on the roof, tower height was scheduled to be convert|509.2|m|ft|0|abbr=on so the building would hold the title of the world's tallest building (structural top) over the Taipei 101, but a height limit was imposed, allowing the roof to reach a maximum height of 492 m. Architect William Pedersen and developer Minoru Mori have resisted suggestions to add a spire that would surpass that of Taipei 101 and perhaps the Freedom Tower, calling the Shanghai WFC a "broad-shouldered building". The SWFC boasts a gross floor area of more than convert|377300|m2|sqft|-2|abbr=on and 31 elevators and 33 escalators.

Construction

The foundation stone was laid on 27 August 27 1997. In the late 1990s the Japanese Mori Building Corporation had a fund shortage caused by the Asian financial crisis in 1997 to 1998 , which halted the project after the foundations were completed. On 13 February 2003, the Mori Group increased the building's height to 492 m and 101 stories from the initial plans for a convert|460|m|ft|0|abbr=on, 94-story building. The new building will use the foundation of the original design. The building construction resumed on 16 November 2003.cite news | title=Construction of Shanghai World Financial Center resumes | date=2005-11-18 | url =http://english.people.com.cn/200511/18/eng20051118_222353.html | work =People's Daily Online | accessdate = 2008-05-22]

The building reached its total height of 492 m on 14 September 2007 after installation of the final steel girder.cite news |title=China's tallest building rises |date=2007-09-14 |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/video/2007/sep/14/china.tallest.building |work=Guardian |accessdate=2008-05-22(The video has been removed as the copyright has expired.)]

The final cladding panels were installed in mid June 2008, and elevator installation was finished in mid July 2008.

On 17 July 2008 The Shanghai World Financial Center was completed and on 28 August 2008, the SWFC officially opened for business.

On 30 August 2008, the observation floors were opened to the public.

Fire

A fire broke out in the SWFC on 14 August 2007. The fire was first noticed on the 40th floor, around 16:30 (GMT +8), and soon the smoke was clearly seen outside the building. By 17:45, the fire had been extinguished. The damage was reported to be slight and nobody was injured in this accident.cite news | title=Fire breaks out at troubled Shanghai World Financial Center | date=2007-08-14 | publisher=AFX News Limited | url =http://www.forbes.com/business/feeds/afx/2007/08/14/afx4016900.html | work =Forbes | accessdate = 2008-05-22] The cause of the fire is still unknown, but according to some sources the preliminary investigation suggested workers' electric weldings caused the fire.cite news | first=Gao | last=Ying | title=Shanghai World Financial Center catches fire | date=2007-08-15 | publisher=Xinhua News Agency | url =http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-08/15/content_6534328_2.htm | work =Window of China | accessdate = 2008-05-22 ] cite news | first=Xing | last=Fei | title=China's Tallest Building Catches Fire | date=2007-08-14 | publisher=Epoch Times International | url =http://en.epochtimes.com/news/7-8-14/58774.html | work =The Epoch Times | accessdate = 2008-05-22]

Gallery



ee also

* List of skyscrapers
* List of tallest buildings and structures in the world
* List of tallest freestanding structures in the world

References

External links

* [http://www.shanghaihills.com SWFC official website]
* [http://www.mori.co.jp/projects/shanghai/en_index.html Mori Building Co. Shanghai WFC project page]
* [http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=7609 Skyscraperpage.com diagram of Shanghai WFC]
* [http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=130957 Emporis.com data page on the Shanghai WFC]
* [http://www.tallestbuildingintheworld.com/building_id_104_Shanghai+World+Financial+Center.php Tallestbuilding data page on the Shanghai WFC]


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