Józef Piłsudski


Józef Piłsudski

] [Paulsson 2003, [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0300095465&id=vjJimC--9-kC&pg=PA37&lpg=PA37&dq=Pilsudski,+Jews&sig=LiJGKRzy0dm5BA9pqohB8gmvq5U p. 37] .] Many Jews saw Piłsudski as their only hope for restraining deep antisemitic currents in Poland and for maintaining public order, and Piłsudski's death in 1935 brought a sharp deterioration in the quality of life of Poland's Jews.

During the 1930s, a combination of developments, from the Great Depression to the vicious spiral of "OUN" terrorist attacks and government pacifications, caused government relations with the national minorities to deteriorate.Davies 1982, [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0231053525&id=DMoPXktGwiUC&pg=PA407&lpg=PA407&dq=Davies+OUN+terrorism&sig=n2yftCtdccp3U4rPQL8OcBtH9_8 p. 407] .] Unrest among national minorities was also related to foreign policy. Troubles followed repressions in largely-Ukrainian-populated eastern Galicia, where nearly 1,800 persons were arrested. Tension also arose between the government and Poland's German minority, particularly in Upper Silesia. The government did not yield to calls for antisemitic measures; but the Jews (8.6% of Poland's population) grew discontented for economic reasons that were connected with the depression. Overall, by the end of Piłsudski's life, his government's relations with national minorities were increasingly problematic. [Leslie 1983, p. 182.]

In the military sphere, Piłsudski, who had shown himself an accomplished military strategist in engineering the "Miracle at the Vistula," has been criticized by some for subsequently concentrating on personnel management and allegedly neglecting modernization of military strategy and equipment.Garlicki 1995, p. 178.] His experiences in the Polish-Soviet War (1919–21) may have led him to overestimate the importance of cavalry and to neglect the development of armored and air forces. Others, however, contend that, particularly from the late 1920s, he did support the development of these military branches.Urbankowski 1997, vol. 2, pp. 330–337.] The limitations on Poland's military modernization in this period may have been less doctrinal than financial.

Foreign policy

Under Piłsudski, Poland maintained good relations with neighboring Romania, Hungary and Latvia. Relations were strained with Czechoslovakia, however, and were still worse with Lithuania.Goldstein 2002, [http://books.google.com/books?id=H5WzZoCYAjoC&pg=PA29&vq=%22Poland+also+fought+a+war+with+Lithuania%22+%22the+struggle+with+Czechoslovakia%22&dq=Poland+Lithuania+Czechoslovakia+World+War+Pilsudski&as_brr=3&sig=oth2u2gZVp8EQRB0s1tHRKPL8lQ p. 29] .] Relations with Weimar Germany and the Soviet Union varied over time, but during Piłsudski's tenure could for the most part be described as neutral.Urbankowski 1997, p. 538.]

Piłsudski's Promethean program, designed to weaken the Russian Empire and its successor state, the Soviet Union, by supporting nationalist independence movements of major non-Russian peoples dwelling in Russia and the Soviet Union, was coordinated from 1927 to the 1939 outbreak of World War II in Europe by the military intelligence officer, Edmund Charaszkiewicz. In the Interbellum, the Prometheist movement yielded few tangible results.Charaszkiewicz 2000, pp. 56–87.]

Piłsudski sought to maintain his country's independence in the international arena. Assisted by his protégé, Foreign Minister Józef Beck, he sought support for Poland in alliances with western powers such as France and the United Kingdom, and with friendly, if less powerful, neighbors such as Romania and Hungary.

A supporter of the Franco-Polish Military Alliance and the Polish-Romanian Alliance (part of the Little Entente), Piłsudski was disappointed by the French and British policy of appeasement evident in those countries' signing of the Locarno Treaties.Prizel 1998, [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0521576970&id=fE2quB852jcC&pg=PA71&lpg=PA71&dq=Pilsudski+wealth&sig=MmY_fMN0nBIs5qFavD_godqa-0Q p. 71] .] Lukacs 2001, [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0300089155&id=5wktT0vEYgkC&pg=PA30&lpg=PA30&dq=Pilsudski+France+1933&sig=Lp1a7st1SGuMJfKpvFWzLqOtm0w p. 30] .] Jordan 2002, [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0521522420&id=4iQQrESpA48C&pg=PA23&lpg=PA23&dq=Pilsudski+France+1933&sig=La39fTfAVC8dXNTUcbufCrapDTk p. 23] .] Piłsudski therefore aimed also to maintain good relations with the Soviet Union and Germany; hence Poland signed non-aggression pacts with both its powerful neighbors: the 1932 Soviet-Polish Non-Aggression Pact, and the 1934 German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact. The two treaties were meant to strengthen Poland's position in the eyes of its allies and neighbors.

Piłsudski himself was acutely aware of the shakiness of the pacts, and commented: "Having these pacts, we are straddling two stools. This cannot last long. We have to know from which stool we will tumble first, and when that will be." [Kipp 1993, [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0714645451&id=__zem3Mlm8AC&pg=PA95&lpg=PA95&dq=Pilsudski,+which+of+the+stools&sig=5tsX1PsM3c8El1ttH3LM2tGvuJ8 p. 95] .] Critics of the two non-aggression pacts have accused Piłsudski of underestimating Hitler's aggressiveness [Hehn 2005, [http://books.google.com/books?id=nOALhEZkYDkC&pg=PA76&lpg=PA76&dq=pilsudski+pact+rearmament&source=web&ots=bQ-2N6F4eD&sig=wmpce0ZjtuZRnt6Dk4y8FhUgCDc p. 76] .] and of giving Germany time to rearm; [Kershaw 2001.] [Davidson 2004, [http://books.google.com/books?id=qncE3wy3TTsC&pg=PA25&lpg=PA25&dq=league+of+nations+pilsudski+vilna&source=web&ots=hOtNjtvzr2&sig=vmhhugowu7JX_1Cd9LyOlytLDp4 p. 25] .] and of allowing Stalin to eliminate opposition—primarily in Ukraine—that had been supported by Piłsudski's Promethean program. [cite web
url = http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=events.event_summary&event_id=169084
title = A Cold War in Miniature: The Polish-Soviet Secret War for Ukraine, 1926-1939
work = Woodrow Wilson Center
language =
accessmonthday = January 15
accessyear = 2008
]

After Adolf Hitler came to power in January 1933, Piłsudski is rumored to have proposed to France a preventive war against Germany. It has been argued that Piłsudski may have been sounding out France regarding possible joint military action against Germany, which had been openly rearming in violation of the Versailles Treaty.Urbankowski 1997, vol. 2, pp. 317–326.] French disinterest may have been a reason why Poland signed the German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact of January 1934.Torbus 1999, [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN3886180883&id=xH6iEYILvuYC&pg=PA25&lpg=PA25&dq=Pilsudski+France+1933&sig=hV7b1WHEJzrnGCt0vGkG_Bp_OtM p. 25] .] Quester 2000, [http://books.google.com/books?id=h5ApNEq4L0IC&vid=ISBN0765800225&dq=Pilsudski+France+1933&pg=PA27&lpg=PA27&sig=fM9iFIR5xh2lOBxSNayasiih6uc&q=14 p. 27] . Note that author gives a source: Watt 1979.] Urbankowski 1997, vol. 1, pp. 539–540.] cite web | first=Kazimierz Maciej |last=Smogorzewski | title=Józef Piłsudski | work=Encyclopædia Britannica | url=http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-5721 | accessdaymonth = June 3 | accessyear=2006] Little evidence has, however, been found in French or Polish diplomatic archives that such a proposal for preventive war was ever actually advanced.cite journal
language=Polish
last=Baliszewski
first=Dariusz
authorlink=Dariusz Baliszewski
url=http://www.wprost.pl/ar/?O=70406
title=Ostatnia wojna marszałka
journal=Wprost
issue=48/2004; 1148
publisher=Agencja Wydawniczo-Reklamowa "Wprost"
date=2004-11-28
accessmonthday=March 24
accessyear=2005
]

Hitler repeatedly suggested a German-Polish alliance against the Soviet Union, but Piłsudski declined, instead seeking precious time to prepare for potential war with Germany or with the Soviet Union.Hildebrand 1973, [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0520025288&id=bJWegl8wnF8C&pg=PA33&lpg=PA32&dq=Pilsudski+France+1933&sig=2AztWI0oGOImsxOscknyLP4GdJ8 p. 33] .] Hitler, who admired Pilsudski's leadership and his successful coup, [Peter Stachura. [http://books.google.com/books?id=Nr5uqSHsGEAC&pg=PA115&dq=hitler+pilsudski+admired&sig=ACfU3U2K0sEy1h_9rd7Lhz8TRYT4OXg1hA Poland, 1918-1945: An Interpretive and Documentary History of the Second Republic.] , Routledge, 2004.] also kept hoping to meet personally with Piłsudski, but again was rebuffed.

Just before his death, Piłsudski told Józef Beck that it must be Poland's policy to maintain neutral relations with Germany and keep up the Polish alliance with France, and to improve relations with the United Kingdom.

Death

By 1935, unbeknown to the public, Piłsudski had for several years been in declining health. On May 12, 1935, he died of liver cancer at Warsaw's Belweder Palace. The celebration of his life had begun spontaneously within half an hour after his death had been announced.Drozdowski & Szwankowska 1995, p. 5.] It was led by military personnel—former Legionnaires, members of the Polish Military Organization, veterans of the wars of 1919–21, and his political collaborators from his time as Chief of State and, later, prime minister and the general inspector.Drozdowski & Szwankowska 1995, pp. 9–11.]

The Polish Communist Party immediately attacked Piłsudski as a fascist and capitalist. Other opponents of the Sanation regime, however, were more civil; socialists (such as Ignacy Daszyński and Tomasz Arciszewski) and Christian Democrats (represented by Ignacy Paderewski, Stanisław Wojciechowski and Władysław Grabski) expressed condolences. The peasant parties split in their reactions (Wincenty Witos voicing criticism of Piłsudski, but Maciej Rataj and Stanisław Thugutt being supportive), while Roman Dmowski's National Democrats expressed a toned-down criticism.

Condolences were expressed by Polish Catholic clergy—by Poland's Primate August Hlond—as well as by Pope Pius XI, who called himself a "personal friend" of the Marshal. Notable appreciation for Piłsudski was expressed by Poland's ethnic and religious minorities. Eastern Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, Protestant, Judaic and Islamic organizations expressed condolences, praising Piłsudski for his policies of religious tolerance. His death was a shock to members of the Jewish minority, who even years after remembered him as a "very good man" who "protected Jews" [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=tHjtVJssL3kC&pg=PA116&lpg=PA116&dq=Jews+crying+Pilsudski&source=web&ots=Z99sBeyjAq&sig=f07hsfcTuOHgAwZSEQ-62xrmGVw&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=2&ct=result Dov Weissberg, I remember, page 116] ] [ [http://holocaust.umd.umich.edu/wiener/section001.html Interview with Holocaust survivor Cyla Wiener] ] .

Mainstream organizations of ethnic minorities similarly expressed their support for his policies of ethnic tolerance, though he was criticized by, in addition to the Polish communists, by the Bund Jewish trade union, and by Ukrainian, German and Lithuanian extremists.

On the international scene, Pope Pius XI held a special ceremony May 18 in the Holy See, a commemoration was conducted at League of Nations Geneva headquarters, and dozens of messages of condolence arrived in Poland from heads of state across the world, including Germany's Adolf Hitler, the Soviet Union's Joseph Stalin, Italy's Benito Mussolini and King Victor Emmanuel III, France's Albert Lebrun and Pierre-Étienne Flandin, Austria's Wilhelm Miklas, Japan's Emperor Hirohito, and Britain's King George V.

Ceremonies, masses and an enormous funeral were held; a funeral train toured Poland [Humphrey 1936, [http://books.google.com/books?id=BNkwAAAAIAAJ&q=Pi%C5%82sudski+%22funeral+train%22&dq=Pi%C5%82sudski+%22funeral+train%22&hl=pl&pgis=1 p. 295] .] . The Polish mint issued a silver 10-"złoty" commemorative coin featuring the Marshal's profile. A series of postcards, stamps and postmarks was also released. After a two-year display at St. Leonard's Crypt in Kraków's Wawel Cathedral, Piłsudski's body was laid to rest in the Cathedral's Crypt under the Silver Bells, except for his brain, which he had willed for study to Stefan Batory University, and his heart, which was interred in his mother's grave at Vilnius' Rasos Cemetery, where it remains. [Watt 1979, p. 338.]

Legacy

On May 13, 1935, in accordance with Piłsudski's last wishes, Edward Rydz-Śmigły was named by Poland's president and government to be Inspector-General of the Polish Armed Forces, and on November 10, 1936, he was elevated to Marshal of Poland.Jabłonowski & Stawecki 1998, p. 13.] Rydz was now one of the most powerful people in Poland—the "second man in the state after the President."Jabłonowski & Stawecki 1998, p. 5.] While many saw Rydz-Śmigły as a successor to Piłsudski, he never became as influential.Jabłonowski & Stawecki 1998, p. 14.]

As the Polish government became increasingly authoritarian and conservative, the Rydz-Śmigły faction was opposed by that of the more moderate Ignacy Mościcki, who remained President. After 1938 Rydz-Śmigły reconciled with the President, but the ruling group remained divided into the "President's Men," mostly civilians (the "Castle Group," after the President's official residence, Warsaw's Royal Castle), and the "Marshal's Men" ("Piłsudski's Colonels"), professional military officers and old comrades-in-arms of Piłsudski's. After the German invasion of Poland in 1939, some of this political division would survive within the Polish government in exile.

Piłsudski had given Poland something akin to what Henryk Sienkiewicz's Onufry Zagłoba had mused about: a Polish Oliver Cromwell. As such, the Marshal had inevitably drawn both intense loyalty and intense vilification.Goldfarb 1992, [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0226300986&id=7aHEDQ0HbyIC&pg=PA152&lpg=PA152&dq=Pilsudski+hero&sig=HyAJCU-pvFO3L3CYoCtisFxjflc p. 152] .] Drozdowski & Szwankowska 1995, p. 6.]

In 1935, at Piłsudski's funeral, President Mościcki had eulogized the Marshal: "He was the king of our hearts and the sovereign of our will. During a half-century of his life’s travails, he captured heart after heart, soul after soul, until he had drawn the whole of Poland within the purple of his royal spirit... He gave Poland freedom, boundaries, power and respect."Translation of Mościcki's speech from 1935. For Polish original online, see cite web
last=Kobos
first=Piotr M.
url=http://www.zwoje-scrolls.com/zwoje43/text02p.htm
title=Skazuję Was Na Wielkość: Legenda Józefa Piłsudskiego
work=Zwoje (The Scrolls) no. 2 (43)
year=1992
accessmonthday=January 15
langauge=Polish
accessyear=2008
]

After World War II, little of Piłsudski's thought influenced the policies of the Polish People's Republic, a "de facto" satellite of the Soviet Union. In particular, Poland was in no position to resume Piłsudski's effort to build an "Intermarum" federation of Poland and some of its neighbors; and a "Promethean" endeavor to "break up the Russian state into its main constituents and emancipate the countries that have been forcibly incorporated into that empire." [Quoted in Charaszkiewicz 2000, p. 56.]

For a decade after World War II, Piłsudski was either ignored or condemned by Poland's communist government, along with the entire interwar Second Polish Republic. This began to change, however, particularly after destalinization and the Polish October (1956), and historiography in Poland gradually moved away from a purely negative view of Piłsudski toward a more balanced and neutral assessment.Władyka 2005, pp. 285–311; Żuławnik 2005.]

After the fall of communism and the 1991 disintegration of the Soviet Union, Piłsudski once again came to be publicly acknowledged as a Polish national hero. On the sixtieth anniversary of his death, on May 12, 1995, Poland's "Sejm" adopted a resolution: "Józef Piłsudski will remain, in our nation's memory, the founder of its independence and the victorious leader who fended off a foreign assault that threatened the whole of Europe and its civilization. Józef Piłsudski served his country well and has entered our history forever."Translation of "Oświadczenie Sejmu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 12 maja 1995 r. w sprawie uczczenia 60 rocznicy śmierci Marszałka Józefa Piłsudskiego." (M.P. z dnia 24 maja 1995 r.). For Polish original online, see [http://www.bankier.pl/firma/narzedzia/akty-prawne/monitor-polski-1995/pozycja-0297.html here] .]

While some of Piłsudski's political moves remain controversial—particularly the May 1926 Coup d'état, the Brest trials (1931–32), the 1934 establishment of the Bereza Kartuska detention camp, and successive Polish governments' failure to formulate consistent, constructive policies toward the national minorities [Charaszkiewicz 2000, pp. 66–67.] —Piłsudski continues to be viewed by most Poles as a providential figure in the country's 20th-century history.

Piłsudski has lent his name to several military units, including the 1st Legions Infantry Division and armored train No. 51 ("I Marszałek"—"the First Marshal").cite web
url = http://derela.republika.pl/marszal.htm
title = Polish Armoured Train Nr. 51 ("I Marszałek")
work = PIBWL (Prywatny Instytut Badawczy Wojsk Lądowych)
accessmonthday = May 30
accessyear = 2006
]

Also named for Piłsudski have been Piłsudski's Mound, one of four man-made mounds at Kraków;cite web
url = http://www.wsp.krakow.pl/geo/krakow/kopiec_p.html
title = Kopiec Józefa Piłsudskiego
work = Pedagogical University of Kraków
language = Polish
accessmonthday = September 18
accessyear = 2007
] the Józef Piłsudski Institute of America, a New York City research center and museum on the modern history of Poland;cite web
url = http://www.pilsudski.org/English/Institute/Welcome.htm
title = Józef Piłsudski Institute of America Welcome Page
work = Józef Piłsudski Institute of America
accessmonthday = May 26
accessyear = 2006
] the Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw;cite web
last =
first =
url = http://www.menis.gov.pl/menis_en/higher_education/f_wawa.php
title = Józef Piłsudski Academy of Physical Education in Warsaw
work = Polish Ministry of Education and Science
archivedate=2005-09-23
archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20050923063522/http://www.menis.gov.pl/menis_en/higher_education/f_wawa.php
accessmonthday = May 30
accessyear = 2006
] a passenger ship, "MS Piłsudski"; a gunboat, "ORP Komendant Piłsudski"; and a racehorse, "Pilsudski". Virtually every Polish city has its "Piłsudski Street." (There are, by contrast, few if any streets named after Piłsudski's National-Democrat arch-rival, Roman Dmowski—even in Dmowski's old Greater-Poland political stronghold). There are statues of Piłsudski in many Polish cities; the highest density of such statuary memorials is found in Warsaw, which has three over the span of little more than a mile joining the Belweder Palace, Piłsudski's residence, with Piłsudski Square.

He was the subject of paintings by renowned artists such as Jacek Malczewski (1916) and Wojciech Kossak (leaning on his sword, 1928; and astride his horse, "Kasztanka", 1928), as well as the subject of numerous caricatures and photos.

Piłsudski has been a character in numerous works of fiction, such as the 1922 novel "Generał Barcz" (General Barcz) by Juliusz Kaden-Bandrowski and the 2007 novel "Ice" ("Lód") by Jacek Dukaj. Poland's National Library lists over 500 publications related to Piłsudski; [cite web
url = http://alpha.bn.org.pl/search*pol/d?SEARCH=pi%B3sudski
title = Piłsudski (keyword)
work = National Library Of Poland
accessmonthday = January 15
accessyear = 2008
] the U.S. Library of Congress, over 300. [cite web
url = http://catalog.loc.gov
title = Library of Congress Online Catalog
accessmonthday = December 20
accessyear = 2007
] Piłsudski's life was the subject of a 2001 Polish television documentary, "Marszałek Piłsudski", directed by Andrzej Trzos-Rastawiecki.cite web
last =
first =
url = http://imdb.com/title/tt0498138/
title = "Marszalek Pilsudski" (2001) (mini)
year =
work = IMDb
language =
accessmonthday = May 30
accessyear = 2006
]

Plans are being considered to turn Piłsudski's official residence, the Belweder Palace, which currently houses a small exhibit about him, into a full-fledged museum devoted to his memory.

ee also

* Piłsudski (family)
* Piłsudskiite ("Piłsudczyk")

Notes

a. Note_label|a|a|none Józef Klemens Piłsudski was commonly referred to without his middle name, as "Józef Piłsudski." A few English sources translate his first name as "Joseph," but this is not the common practice. As a young man, he belonged to underground organizations and used various pseudonyms, including "Wiktor"," "Mieczysław" and "Ziuk" (the latter also being his family nickname). Later he was often affectionately called "Dziadek" ("Grandpa" or "the Old Man") and "Marszałek" ("the Marshal"). His ex-soldiers from the Legions also referred to him as "Komendant" ("the Commandant").

b. Note_label|b|b|nonePiłsudski sometimes spoke of being a Lithuanian of Polish culture. [Davies 1986, p. 139.] The question of his ethnicity and culture is not a simple one. Timothy Snyder, who calls him a "Polish-Lithuanian," notes that Piłsudski did not think in terms of 20th-century nationalisms and ethnicities; he considered himself "both" a Pole and a Lithuanian, and his homeland was the historic Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. [Snyder 2004, p. 70.] Discussing his role in Lithuania, "Encyclopædia Britannica" describes him as a Polonized Lithuanian; [cite web
url = http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-460674/Jozef-Klemens-Pilsudski
title = Józef Klemens Pilsudski (president of Poland)—Role in Lithuania: Baltic states. Lithuanian liberation
work = Encyclopædia Britannica
accessmonthday = December 17
accessyear = 2007
] however, in the introduction to his biography it simply calls him "Polish." [cite web
url = http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9060041/Jozef-Pilsudski
title = Józef Pilsudski
work = Encyclopædia Britannica
accessmonthday = December 17
accessyear = 2007

cite web
url = http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9375283/J%C3%B3zef-Pilsudski
title = Pilsudski, Józef
work = Britannica Concise Encyclopedia
accessmonthday = December 17
accessyear = 2007
] He is also described simply as "Polish" by the "Columbia Encyclopedia" [cite web
url = http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Pilsudsk.html
title = Joseph Piłsudski
work = Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition
accessmonthday = December 17
accessyear = 2007
] and "Encarta".

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title=Pożegnanie Marszałka: Antologia tekstów historycznych i literackich
publisher=Towarzystwo Miłośników Historii—Komisja Badań Dziejów Warszawy Instytutu Historii PAN: Oficyna Wydawnicza "Typografika"
location=Warsaw
year=1995
language=Polish
isbn=8386417188

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last=Erickson
first=John
authorlink=John Erickson (historian)
title=The Soviet High Command: A Military-Political History, 1918–1941
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last=Garlicki
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title=Józef Piłsudski. 1867–1935
year=1995
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last=Goldfarb
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title=The Recognition of States: Law and Practice in Debate and Evolution
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title=A Low Dishonest Decade: The Great Powers, Eastern Europe, and the Economic Origins of World War II, 1930–1941
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title=The Columbia History of Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century
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title=The Foreign Policy of the Third Reich
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last=Humphrey
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title=Pilsudski: Builder of Poland
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title=Następca komendanta. Edward Śmigły-Rydz. Materiały do biografii
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last=Jędrzejewicz
first=Wacław
authorlink=Wacław Jędrzejewicz
title=Pilsudski: A Life For Poland
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location=New York
isbn=0870527479

* cite book
last=Jędrzejewicz
first=Wacław
coauthors=Cisek, Janusz
title=Kalendarium Życia Józefa Piłsudskiego
year=1994
publisher=Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich
location=Wrocław
language=Polish
isbn=8304041146

* cite book
last=Jordan
first=Nicole
authorlink=Nicole Jordan
title=The Popular Front and Central Europe: The Dilemmas of French Impotence 1918–1940
year=2002
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isbn=0521522420

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last=Kenez
first=Peter
authorlink=Peter Kenez
title=A History of the Soviet Union from the Beginning to the End
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* cite book
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title=Hitler, 1936–1945: Nemesis
year=2001
publisher=W. W. Norton
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url=http://books.google.com/books?id=B5fJYMxufVcC

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last=Kipp
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title=Central European Security Concerns: Bridge, Buffer, Or Barrier?
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* cite book
last=Lerski
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title=Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966–1945
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* cite book
last=Leslie
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authorlink=
title=The History of Poland Since 1863
year=1983
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last=Lieven
first=Anatol
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title=The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to Independence
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* cite book
last=Lönnroth
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coauthors=Björk, Ragnar; Molin, Karl
title=Conceptions of National History: Proceedings of Nobel Symposium 78
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* cite book
last=Lukacs
first=John
authorlink=John Lukacs
title=The Last European War: September 1939–December 1941
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publisher=Yale University Press
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* cite book
last=MacMillan
first=Margaret
authorlink=Margaret MacMillan
title=Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World
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* cite journal
last=Matuszak
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title=Epilog Legionów
journal=Historia Rzeczpospolitej: Zwycięstwa oręża polskiego
issue=16/20—"Historia bitew: Bitwa pod Kostiuchnówką"
date=June 17, 2006
language=Polish
url=http://www.rzeczpospolita.pl/dodatki/bitwy_060617/bitwy_a_7.html
publisher=Rzeczpospolita, Mówią Wieki, Muzeum Wojska Polskiego

* cite book
last=Paulsson
first=Gunnar S.
authorlink=Gunnar S. Paulsson
title=Secret City: The Hidden Jews of Warsaw, 1940–1945
year=2003
publisher=Yale University Press
location=New Haven
isbn=0300095465

* cite book
last=Pidlutskyi
first=Oleksa
chapter=Józef Piłsudski: The Chief who Created Himself a State
title=Postati XX stolittia (Figures of the 20th century)
year=2004
publisher=Triada-A
location=Kiev
isbn=9668290011
(Reprinted in "Zerkalo Nedeli" "(The Mirror Weekly)", Kiev, February February 3-9 2001, [http://www.zerkalo-nedeli.com/nn/show/329/29435/ in Russian] and [http://www.zn.kiev.ua/ie/show/329/29435/ in Ukrainian] .)
* citation
last=Piłsudski
first=Józef
editor=Urbankowski, Bohdan
title=Myśli, mowy i rozkazy
year=1989
publisher=Kwadryga
location=Warsaw
language=Polish
isbn=8385082018

* cite book
last=Pipes
first=Richard
authorlink=Richard Pipes
title=Russia under the Bolshevik Regime
year=1993
publisher=Knopf
location=New York
isbn=0394502426

* cite book
last=Plach
first=Eva
title=The Clash of Moral Nations: Cultural Politics in Pilsudski's Poland, 1926–1935
year=2006
publisher=Ohio University Press
location=Athens, Ohio
isbn=0821416952

* cite book
last=Pobóg-Malinowski
first=Władysław
title=Najnowsza historia polityczna Polski 1864-1945
language=Polish
year=1990
publisher=Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza
location=Warsaw
isbn=8303031635

* cite book
last=Prizel
first=Ilya
title=National Identity and Foreign Policy: Nationalism and Leadership in Poland, Russia and Ukraine
year=1998
publisher=Cambridge University Press
location=Cambridge; New York
isbn=0521576970

* cite book
last=Quester
first=George H.
title=Nuclear Monopoly
year=2000
publisher=Transaction Publishers
location=New Brunswick
isbn=0765800225

* cite book
last=Roos
first=Hans
title=A History of Modern Poland, from the Foundation of the State in the First World War to the Present Day
year=1966
publisher=Knopf
location=New York
edition=1st American ed
oclc=396836
(Translated by J.R. Foster from the German "Geschichte der polnischen Nation, 1916–1960".)
* cite book
last=Roshwald
first=Aviel
title=Ethnic Nationalism and the Fall of Empires: Central Europe, the Middle East and Russia, 1914–1923
year=2001
publisher=Routledge
location=London; New York
isbn=0415242290

* cite book
last=Roshwald
first=Aviel
coauthors=Stites, Richard
title=European Culture in the Great War: The Arts, Entertainment and Propaganda, 1914–1918
year=2002
publisher=Cambridge University Press
location=Cambridge, U.K.; New York
isbn=0521013240

* cite book
last=Roszkowski
first=Wojciech
authorlink=Wojciech Roszkowski
title=Historia Polski 1914–1991
year=1992
language=Polish
publisher=Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN
location=Warsaw
isbn=8301110147

* cite book
last=Rothschild
first=Joseph
title=East Central Europe Between the Two World Wars
year=1990
publisher=University of Washington Press
location=Seattle
isbn=0295953578

* cite book
last=Sanford
first=George
authorlink=George Sanford (scholar)
title=Democratic Government in Poland: Constitutional Politics Since 1989
year=2002
publisher=Palgrave Macmillan
location=New York
isbn=0333774752

* cite book
last=Snyder
first=Timothy
authorlink=Timothy Snyder
title=The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569–1999
year=2004
publisher=Yale University Press
location=New Haven, Conn.; London
isbn=030010586X
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=xSpEynLxJ1MC

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last=Stachura
first=Peter D.
title=Poland, 1918–1945: An Interpretive and Documentary History of the Second Republic
year=2004
publisher=Routledge
location=London; New York
isbn=0415343585

* cite book
last=Suleja
first=Włodzimierz
title=Józef Piłsudski
year=2004
publisher=Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich
location=Wrocław
language=Polish
isbn=8304047063

* cite book
last=Torbus
first=Tomasz
title=Nelles Guide Poland
year=1999
publisher=Hunter Publishing
location=Munich
isbn=3886180883

* citation
last=Urbankowski
first=Bohdan
authorlink=Bohdan Urbankowski
title=Józef Piłsudski: Marzyciel i strateg (Józef Piłsudski: Dreamer and Strategist)
volume=1–2
year=1997
publisher=Wydawnictwo ALFA
location=Warsaw
language=Polish
isbn=8370019145

* cite book
last=Watt
first=Richard M.
title=Bitter Glory
year=1979
publisher=Simon and Schuster
location=New York
isbn=0671226258

* cite book
last=Władyka
first=Władysław
editor=Jabłonowski, Marek; Kossewska, Elżbieta (eds.)
chapter=Z Drugą Rzeczpospolitą na plecach. Postać Józefa Piłsudskiego w prasie i propagandzie PRL do 1980 roku
title=Piłsudski na łamach i w opiniach prasy polskiej 1918–1989 (Piłsudski as Seen in the Polish Press, 1918–1989)
year=2005
publisher=Oficyna Wydawnicza ASPRA–JR and Warsaw University
location=Warsaw
language=Polish
isbn=8389964449

* cite book
last=Zamoyski
first=Adam
authorlink=Adam Zamoyski
title=The Polish Way
year=1987
publisher=John Murray
location=London
isbn=0531150690

* cite book
last=Żuławnik
first=Małgorzata
coauthors=Żuławnik Mariusz
editor=Jabłonowski, Marek; Kossewska, Elżbieta (eds.)
chapter=Powrót na łamy. Józef Piłsudski w prasie oficjalnej i podziemnej 1980–1989 (Return to the Newspapers: Józef Piłsudski in the Official and Underground Press, 1980–1989
title=Piłsudski na łamach i w opiniach prasy polskiej 1918–1989 (Piłsudski as Seen in the Polish Press, 1918–1989)
year=2005
publisher=Oficyna Wydawnicza ASPRA–JR and Warsaw University
location=Warsaw
language=Polish
isbn=8389964449

Further reading

:"This is only a small selection. See also National Library in Warsaw [http://www.ekologia.neostrada.pl/hwjpl.html lists] ."
* cite book
last=Czubiński
first=Antoni (ed.)
title=Józef Piłsudski i jego legenda (Józef Piłsudski and His Legend)
year=1988
publisher=Państowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN
location=Warsaw
isbn=8301078197

* cite book
last=Davies
first=Norman
authorlink=Norman Davies
title=Heart of Europe, The Past in Poland's Present
year=2001
publisher=Oxford University Press
location=Oxford; New York
isbn=0192801260
origyear=1984

* cite book
last=Dziewanowski
first=Marian Kamil
authorlink=Marian Kamil Dziewanowski
title=Joseph Pilsudski: A European Federalist, 1918–1922
year=1969
publisher= Stanford University Press
location=Stanford
isbn=0817917918

* cite book
last=Garlicki
first=Andrzej
chapter=Piłsudski, Józef Klemens
title=Polish Biographical Dictionary (Polski Słownik Biograficzny) vol. XXVI
year=1981
publisher=Polska Akademia Nauk
location=Wrocław
isbn=
pages=pp. 311–324
language=Polish

* cite journal
last=Hauser
first=Przemysław
coauthors=Dorosz, Janina (transl.)
title=Jozef Pilsudski's Views on the Territorial Shape of the Polish State and His Endeavours to Put them into Effect, 1918–1921
journal=Polish Western Affairs
year=1992
issue=2
location=Poznań
pages=pp. 235–249
id=ISSN|0032-3039
publisher=Komisja Naukowa Zachodniej Agencji Prasowej

* cite book
last=Jędrzejewicz
first=Wacław
authorlink=Wacław Jędrzejewicz
title=Józef Piłsudski 1867–1935
year=1989
publisher=Wydawnictwo LTW
location=Wrocław
isbn=8388736256

* cite book
last=Piłsudska
first=Aleksandra
authorlink=Aleksandra Piłsudska
title=Pilsudski: A Biography by His Wife
year=1941
publisher=Dodd, Mead
location=New York
oclc=65700731

* cite book
last=Piłsudski
first=Józef
coauthors=Gillie, Darsie Rutherford
title=Joseph Pilsudski, the Memories of a Polish Revolutionary and Soldier
year=1931
publisher=Faber & Faber

* cite book
last=Piłsudski
first=Józef
title=Year 1920 and its Climax: Battle of Warsaw during the Polish-Soviet War, 1919–1920, with the Addition of Soviet Marshal Tukhachevski's March beyond the Vistula
year=1972
publisher=Jozef Pilsudski Institute of America
location=New York
isbn=B0006EIT3A

* cite book
last=Reddaway
first=William Fiddian
authorlink=
title=Marshal Pilsudski
year=1939
publisher=Routledge
location=London
oclc=1704492

* cite book
last=Rothschild
first=Joseph
authorlink=
title=Pilsudski's Coup d'Etat
year=1967
publisher=Columbia University Press
location=New York
isbn=0231029845

* cite journal
last=Wandycz
first=Piotr S.
authorlink=Piotr S. Wandycz
title=Polish Federalism 1919–1920 and its Historical Antecedents
journal=East European Quarterly
volume=4
issue=1
pages=pp. 25–39
year=1970
location=Boulder, Colorado
id=ISSN|0012-8449

* cite book
last=Wójcik
first=Włodzimierz
authorlink=
title=Legenda Piłsudskiego w Polskiej literaturze międzywojennej (Piłsudski's Legend in Polish Interwar Literature)
year=1987
publisher=Śląsk
location=Warsaw
isbn=8321605338

External links

* Dole, Patryk, [http://web.archive.org/web/20050213064816/http://www.polonica.net/Marshal-Jozef-Pilsudski.htm "Marshal Jozef Pilsudski. Messiah and Central European Federalist"] en icon
* [http://www.pilsudski.org Jozef Pilsudski Institute of America] en icon/pl icon
* [http://www.angelfire.com/scifi2/rsolecki/jozef_pilsudski.html Abbreviated version of biography] en icon
* [http://monika.univ.gda.pl/~literat/bibula/index.htm "Bibuła"] – Book by Józef Piłsudski pl icon
* [http://monika.univ.gda.pl/~literat/media/index.htm Historical media] – Recording of short speech by Piłsudski from 1924 pl icon

Persondata
NAME=Piłsudski, Józef Klemens
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Polish revolutionary, statesman, independence fighter, Field Marshal, first Chief of State and dictator of the Second Polish Republic, and leader of its armed forces
DATE OF BIRTH=December 5, 1867
PLACE OF BIRTH=Zulovo, Russian Empire (now Zalavas, Lithuania)
DATE OF DEATH=May 12, 1935
PLACE OF DEATH=Warsaw, Poland


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Jozef Pilsudski — Józef Piłsudski Józef Klemens Piłsudski [ juzεf piw sutski] (* 5. Dezember 1867 in Zalavas (poln.Zułów) bei Wilna (lt. Vilnius; poln. Wilno), heute Litauen; † 12. Mai 1935 in Wa …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Józef Pilsudski — Józef Piłsudski Józef Klemens Piłsudski [ juzεf piw sutski] (* 5. Dezember 1867 in Zalavas (poln.Zułów) bei Wilna (lt. Vilnius; poln. Wilno), heute Litauen; † 12. Mai 1935 in Wa …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Józef Piłsudski — Jozef Pilsudski en 1930 Józef Klemens Piłsudski (en français Joseph Pilsudski), né le 5 décembre 1867 dans la propriété familiale de Zułów (région Dzūkija, alors province russe de Vilna[1] …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Józef Piłsudski — 1º Jefe de Estado de la República de Polonia …   Wikipedia Español

  • Józef Piłsudski — Józef Klemens Piłsudski [ juzεf piw sutski] ( a …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jozef Pilsudski — Józef Piłsudski (pl) Cet article est partiellement ou en totalité issu d’une traduction de l’article de Wikipédia en polonais intitulé « Józef Piłsudski » …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jozef Piłsudski — Józef Piłsudski (pl) Cet article est partiellement ou en totalité issu d’une traduction de l’article de Wikipédia en polonais intitulé « Józef Piłsudski » …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Józef Pilsudski — (1867 1935) Mariscal y político polaco, n. en Zulów, cerca de Vilna (Lituania), y m. en Varsovia. Fue expulsado de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Jarkov por sus actividades revolucionarias y desterrado (1887 92) a Siberia por una… …   Enciclopedia Universal

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  • Józef Piłsudski Institute — can refer to: * Józef Piłsudski Institute of America, New York * Józef Piłsudski Institute in London …   Wikipedia


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