Infobox Ethnic group
religions=Lutheran Protestant majority, Catholic and
related=Norwegians, Irish, Danes, Faroese, Swedes, Scots,
Shetlanders, Orcadians, and other Germanic peoples.
Icelanders are the
nationor ethnic groupof Icelanddescended primarily from Norsemenof Scandinavia. In comparison to other European populations, the genetics of Icelanders is considered highly homogeneous.
On 17 June 1944, the Icelanders became independent from the Danish government. The language spoken is Icelandic, a North Germanic language, and the religion is overwhelmingly Lutheran. Cuisine in Iceland consists mainly of fish, lamb, and dairy.
Icelanders, especially those living on the main island, have had a tumultuous history. Development of the island was slow due to a lack of interest from the countries controlling it for most of its history:
Norway, Denmark–Norway, and ultimately Denmark. Through this time, Iceland had relatively few contacts with the outside world.Fiske "et al", 1972, p. 5] The island became independent in union with Denmark in 1918. Since 1944, Iceland has been a republic, and Icelandic society has undergone a rapid modernisation process in the post-independence era.
Due to the isolated location of
Iceland, the immigrationand genetic inflow was limited in its indigenous population for hundreds of years; thus the population is considered to be highly homogeneousin terms of its genes. This genetic similarity and unusually well-documented genealogyof the Icelanders are being utilized today for genetic studies.
Iceland is a geologically young land mass, having formed an estimated 20 million years ago due to volcanic eruptions on the
Mid-Atlantic ridge. One of the last larger islands to remain uninhabited, the first human settlement date is generally accepted to be 874, although there is some evidence to suggest human activity prior to the Norse arrival. [Jónsson "et al", 1991, pp. 17-23]
Initial migration and settlement
The first Viking to sight Iceland was
Gardar Svavarsson, who went off course due to harsh conditions when sailing from Norway to the Faroe Islands. His reports led to the first efforts to settle the island. The first permanent settler in Iceland is usually considered to be a Norwegian chieftain named Ingólfur Arnarson. He settled with his family at around 874, in a place he named "Bay of Smokes", or Reykjavíkin Icelandic. [Þórðarson, c. 1200]
Following Ingólfur also in 874, another group of Norwegians set sail across the
North Atlantic Oceanwith their families, livestock, slaves and possessions, escaping the domination of the first King of Norway, Haraldur Harfagri. They traveled 1,000 km (600 mi) in their Viking longships to the island of Iceland. These people were primarily of Norwegian, Irish, and Scottish origin, the Irish and Scots being mainly slaves and servants of the Norse chiefs, according to the Icelandic sagas. [Fiske "et al", 1972, p. 4]
The Icelandic Age of Settlement (Icelandic: "Landnámsöld") is considered to have lasted from 874 to 930, at which point most of the island had been claimed and
Alþing(English: "Althing"), the assembly of the Icelandic Commonwealth, was founded in Þingvellir. [Þorgilsson, c. 1100]
Hardship and conflict
In 930, on the
Þingvellir(English: "Thingvellir") plain near Reykjavík, the chieftains and their families met and established the Alþing, Iceland's first national assembly. However, the Alþing lacked the power to enforce the laws it made. In 1262, struggles between rival chieftains left Iceland so divided that King Haakon IVof Norway was asked to step in as a final arbitrator for all disputes, as part of the Old Covenant. This is known as the Age of the Sturlungs. [Byock, 1990]
Iceland was under Norwegian leadership until 1380, when the Royal House of Norway died out. At this point, both Iceland and
Norwaycame under the control of the Danish Crown. With the introduction of absolute monarchyin Denmark, the Icelanders relinquished their autonomyto the crown, including the right to initiate and consent to legislation. This meant a loss of independence for Iceland, which led to nearly 300 years of decline. The reasons are largely attributed to the fact that Denmarkand its crown did not consider Iceland to be a colonyto be supported and assisted. In particular, the lack of help in defense led to constant raids by marauding piratesalong the Icelandic coasts.
Unlike Norway, Denmark did not need Iceland's fish and homespun wool. This created a dramatic deficit in Iceland's trade, and no new ships were built as a result. The tiny Greenland outpost, established by Iceland in 982, died out completely before 1500 due to a lack of resources that were normally provided by Iceland. In 1602 Iceland was forbidden to trade with other countries by order of the
Danish Government, and in the 18th century climatic conditions had reached an all-time low since being settled.
In 1783–84 Laki, a volcanic fissure situated in the south of the island, erupted. The eruption produced about 15 km³ (3.6 mi³) of
basaltlava, and the total volume of tephraemitted was 0.91 km³. [Global Volcanism Program, 2007] The aerosols built up caused a cooling effect in the Northern Hemisphere. The consequences for Iceland were catastrophic, with approximately 25-33% of the population dying in the famineof 1783 and 1784. Around 80% of sheep, 50% of cattle, and 50% of horses died because of fluorosisfrom the 8 million tons of fluorine that were released. [Stone, 2004] This disaster is known as the Mist Hardship(Icelandic: " Móðuharðindin").
In 1798–99 the
Alþingwas discontinued for several decades, eventually being restored in 1844. It was moved to Reykjavík, the capital, after residing at Þingvellirfor over nine centuries.
Independence and prosperity
The 19th century brought significant improvement in the Icelanders' situation. This movement was led by
Jón Sigurðsson, a statesman, historian, and authority on Icelandic literature. Inspired by the romantic and nationlist currents from mainland Europe, Sigurðsson protested strongly, through political journals and self-publications, for 'a return to national consciousness' and for political and social changes to be made to help speed up Iceland's development.Fiske "et al", 1972, p. 6]
In 1854, the
Danish governmentrelaxed the trade ban that was imposed in 1602, and Iceland gradually began to rejoin Western Europe economically and socially. With this return of contact with other peoples came a reawakening of Iceland's arts, especially its literature. Twenty years later in 1874, Iceland was granted a constitution. Icelanders today recognize Sigurðsson's efforts as largely responsible for their economic and social resurgence.
Iceland gained near-full
independencein 1918 after World War Iand retained only formal ties with the Danish crown. This move to independence was completed on 17 June 1944 and what would have been Jón Sigurðssons 133rd birthday. After a national referendum, Iceland broke all ties with Denmark, after nearly six centuries of Danish rule, and declared itself independent.
Demographics and society
Due to their considerable history of relative isolation, Icelanders have often been considered highly genetically homogeneous as compared to other European populations. For this reason, along with the extensive genealogical records for much of the population that reach back to the
settlement of Iceland, Icelanders have been the focus of considerable genomicsresearch by both biotechnologycompanies and academic and medical researchers. However, one study of mitochondrial DNA, blood groups, and isozymes revealed a more variable population than expected from these genetic standpoints, comparable to the diversity of some other Europeans. [Árnason "et al", 2000]
Results of the mitochondrial DNA studies have been consistent with the genealogical records that trace the ancestry of most Icelanders to Scandinavia and the British Isles, though there may have been a minor contribution from other European groups.
Founder effectsand the effects of genetic driftare more pronounced for the Icelandic gene pool than other nearby populations, supporting the assumed genetic isolation of the population. [Helgason "et al", 2000]
Greenlandwas first settled by some 500 Icelanders under the leadership of Erik the Redin the late 10th century, CE. The total population reached a high point of perhaps 3,000 and developed independent institutions before disappearing by 1500. [Tomasson, pp. 405-406.] While the community on Greenland eventually died out, a papal legation was sent there as late as 1492, the year Columbus sailed for the Americas.
According to the "
Saga of Eric the Red", Icelandic immigration to North America dates back to 1006, when Icelandic Snorri was born in Vinland. This colony was short-lived though and by the 1020s the Icelanders abandoned it. Icelandic immigration to North America would not resume for some 800 years. [Jackson, May 1925, pp. 680-681.]
One of the first new instances of Icelandic immigration to North America occurred in 1855, when a small group settled in Spanish Fork,
Utah. [Jackson, May 1925, p. 681.] Another Icelandic colony is Washington Island, Wisconsinbut only a fifth of its residents are of Icelandic descent Fact|date=July 2008. Immigration to the United States and Canada began in earnest in the 1870s, with most migrants initially settling into the Great Lakesarea. Most settlers were fleeing famineand overcrowdingon Iceland. [Library of Congress, 2004] Today, there are sizable communities of Icelandic descent in both the United States and Canada. Gimli, in Manitoba, Canada, is home to the largest population of Icelanders outside of the main island of Iceland. [Vanderhill, 1963]
Language and literature
North Germanic language, is the official language of Iceland. Icelandic has inflectional grammar comparable to Latin, Ancient Greek, and more closely, Old Norseand Old English. Icelandic literaturecan be divided into three categories; Eddic poetry, skaldic poetry, and saga literature. Eddic poetry are heroic and mythological poems. Poetry that praises someone is considered skaldic poetry or court poetry. Finally Saga literature is prose that covers pure fictionto fairly factual history. [Lahelma "et al", 1994–96]
Written Icelandic has changed little since the 13th century. Because of this, modern speakers can understand the
Icelanders' sagas. The sagas tell of events taking place in Iceland in the 10th and early 11th centuries. They are considered to be the best known pieces of Icelandic literature. [Lovgren, 2004, p. 2]
The elder or "
Poetic Edda", the younger or " Prose Edda", and the sagas are the major pieces of Icelandic literature. The " Poetic Edda" is a collection of poems and stories from the late 10th century, where as the younger or " Prose Edda" is a manual of poetics that contains many stories of Norse mythology.
Christianityin c. AD 1000, in what is called the "kristnitaka", and the country, while mostly secular in observance, is still predominantly Christian, with Lutherans accounting for 84% of the total population. [Jochens, 1999, p. 621] While early Icelandic Christianity was more lax in its observances than traditional Catholicism, Pietism, a religious movement imported from Denmark in the eighteen century, had a marked effect on the island. By discouraging all but religious leisure activities, it fostered a certain dourness, which was for a long time considered an Icelandic stereotype. At the same time, it also led to a boom in printing, and Iceland today is one of the most literate societies in the world. [Del Giudice, 2008]
While Catholicism was supplanted by
Protestantismduring the Reformation, most other world religions are now represented on the island: there are small Protestant and Catholic communities, and even a nascent Muslim community, composed of both immigrants and local converts. Perhaps unique to Iceland is the fast growing " Ásatrúarfélagið", a legally recognized revival of the pre-Christian Nordic religionof the original settlers. According to the Roman CatholicDiocese of Reykjavík, there were only approximately 30 Jews in Iceland as of 2001. [Roman Catholic Diocese of Reykjavík, 2005.] The First Lady of Iceland Dorrit Moussaieffis an Israeli-born Bukharian Jew.
Iceland has many traditional foods, called
Þorramatur. These foods include smoked and salted lamb, singed sheepheads, dried fish, smoked and pickled salmon, and cured shark. Anthony Bourdain, a chef who has traveled the world on his show " No Reservations", responded to the question "What's the most disgusting thing you've ever eaten?" with the response "That would have to be the fermented shark fin I had in Iceland." Fermented shark fin is a form of Þorramatur. [Beale "et al", 2004]
s, prevalent in European religious music, first appeared on the island.Fiske "et al", 1972, p. 9]
Many singers, groups, and forms of
musichave come from Iceland. Most Icelandic music contains vibrant folk and pop traditions. Some more recent groups and singers are Voces Thules, The Sugarcubes, Björk, Sigur Rós, and Silvía Night.
national anthemis "Ó Guð vors lands" (English: "Our Country's God"), written by Matthías Jochumsson, with music by Sveinbjörn Sveinbjörnsson. The song was written in 1874, when Icelandcelebrated its one thousandth anniversary of settlement on the island. It was originally published with the title "A Hymn in Commemoration of Iceland's Thousand Years".
Iceland's national football team has yet to participate in the
FIFA World Cup. Their first Olympic participation was in the 1912 Summer Olympics; however, they did not participate again until the 1936 Summer Olympics. Their first appearance at the winter games was at the 1948 Winter Olympics. In 1956, Vilhjálmur Einarssonwon the Olympic silver medal for the triple jump. [Fiske "et al", 1972, p. 7]
List of Icelanders
*cite journal | author=Árnason, Einar, Benedikz, Eiríkur, Sigurgíslason, Hlynur | title=Genetic homogeneity of Icelanders: fact or fiction? | year=2000 | journal=Nature Genetics | volume=25 | pages=373–374| location= | language= | url=http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v25/n4/full/ng0800_373b.html | doi=10.1038/78036
*cite web|author=Beale, Lewis, Daily, Laura|url=http://www.usaweekend.com/06_issues/060604/060604news.html|title=Food: Confessions of a celebrity chef|publisher=USA Today|date=2004|accessdate=2007-04-16
*cite book | last=Byock | first=Jesse L. | title=Medieval Iceland. Society, Sagas, and Power | year=1990 | publisher=University of California Press | location=United States | language=
*cite journal | title=Power Struggle | last=Del Giudice| first=Marguerite | journal=National Geographic | month=March | year=2008
*cite book | author=Fiske, John, Rolvaag, Karl | title=Lands and Peoples: Iceland | year=1972 | publisher=Grolier | location=United States | language=
*cite web|author=Global Volcanism Program (GVP), Smithsonian Institution|url=http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=1703-01=&volpage=erupt|title=Grímsvötn|date=2007|accessdate=2007-04-16
*cite journal | last = Helgason | first = Agnar | coauthors = Sigrún Sigurðardóttir, Jeffrey R. Gulcher, Ryk Ward, and Kári Stefánsson | year = 2000 | month = February | title = mtDNA and the Origin of the Icelanders: Deciphering Signals of Recent Population History | journal = American Journal of Human Genetics | url = http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJHG/journal/issues/v66n3/991226/991226.html?erFrom=1429098893005504495Guest | accessdate=2007-04-16 | doi = 10.1086/302816 | volume = 66 | pages = 999 | format = Dead link|date=June 2008 – [http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=author%3AHelgason+intitle%3AmtDNA+and+the+Origin+of+the+Icelanders%3A+Deciphering+Signals+of+Recent+Population+History&as_publication=American+Journal+of+Human+Genetics&as_ylo=2000&as_yhi=2000&btnG=Search Scholar search]
*cite journal | title=Icelandic Communities in America: Cultural Backgrounds and Early Settlements | last=Jackson | first=Thorstina | journal=Journal of Social Forces | volume=3 | issue=4 | month=May | year=1925 | pages=680–686 | doi=10.2307/3005071
*cite journal | title=The Icelandic Community in North Dakota Economic and Social Development Period 1878-1925 | last=Jackson | first=Thorstina | journal=Social Forces | volume=4 | issue=2 | month=December | year=1925 | pages=355–360 | doi=10.2307/3004589
*cite book | author=Jónsson, Bergsteinn, Þorsteinsson, Björn | title=Íslandssaga til okkar daga | year=1991 | publisher=Sögufélag | location=Reykjavík, Iceland | language=Icelandic | isbn=9979-9064-4-8
*cite journal | title=Late and Peaceful: Iceland's Conversion Through Arbitration in 1000 | first=Jenny | last=Jochens | journal=Speculum | volume=74 | issue=3 | year=1999 | pages=621–655 | doi=10.2307/2886763
*cite web|author=Library of Congress|url=http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/immig/scandinavian6.html|title=Icelanders Migration into America|title= Immigration...Scandinavian: The Icelanders|date=2004|accessdate=2007-04-16
*cite web|author=Lahelma, Antti, Olofsson, Johan|url=http://www.faqs.org/faqs/nordic-faq/part5_ICELAND|title=Nordic FAQ - 5 of 7 - Iceland|publisher=Internet FAQ Archives|date=1994-96|accessdate=2007-04-16
*cite news|title="Sagas" Portray Iceland's Viking History|last=Lovgren|first=Stefan|date=May 7, 2004|publisher=National Geographic
*cite journal | title=The Norse Traffic with Iceland | first=G. J. | last=Marcus | journal=The Economic History Review | volume=9 | issue=3 | year=1957 | pages=408–419
*cite web|author=Roman Catholic Diocese of Reykjavík|url=http://www.vortex.is/catholica/stat.html|title=Statistical Report for Iceland: 2000-2001|date=2005|accessdate=2008-07-03
*cite journal | title=Imagined Genetic Communities: Ethnicity and Essentialism in the Twenty-First Century | last=Simpson | first=Bob | journal=Anthropology Today | volume=16 | issue=3 | year=2000 | pages=3–6 | doi=10.1111/1467-8322.00023
*cite journal | title=Iceland's Doomsday Scenario? | doi= 10.1126/science.306.5700.1278 | last=Stone | first=Richard | journal=Science | volume=306 | year=2004 | pages=1278–1281 | pmid=15550636
*cite web|author=Stone, George|url=http://www.nationalgeographic.com/traveler/articles/1124reykjavik.html|title=48 Hours Reykjavík: The Best of a City in Two Days|date=2005|accessdate=2007-04-16
*cite journal | title=A Millennium of Misery: The Demography of the Icelanders | last=Tomasson | first=Richard F. | journal=Population Studies | volume=31 | issue=3 | year=1977 | pages=405–427 | doi=10.2307/2173366
*cite journal | title=The Settlement of New Iceland | first=Burke G. | last=Vanderhill | coauthor=David E. Christensen | journal=Annals of the Association of American Geographers | volume=53 | issue=3 | year=1963 | pages=350–363 | doi=10.1111/j.1467-8306.1963.tb00454.x
* [http://www.geographia.com/iceland/ Icelandic Tourist Board official site]
* [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ic.html CIA: The World Factbook entry on Iceland]
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