Chestnut oak


Chestnut oak

Taxobox
name = Chestnut Oak
status = LC



image_width = 240px
image_caption = Leaf cluster
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Magnoliopsida
ordo = Fagales
familia = Fagaceae
genus = "Quercus"
sectio = "Quercus"
species = "Q. prinus"
binomial = "Quercus prinus L."

The Chestnut oak ("Quercus prinus"; synonyms "Quercus montana Willd.","Quercus michauxii Nutt.") is a species of oak in the white oak group, "Quercus" sect. "Quercus". It is native to the eastern United States, where it is one of the most important ridgetop trees from southern Maine southwest to central Mississippi, with an outlying northwestern population in southern Michigan. It is also sometimes called "rock oak" because of montane and other rocky habitats. As a consequence of its dry habitat and ridgetop exposure, it is not usually a large tree, typically 18-22m (60-70 ft) tall; occasional specimens growing in better conditions can however become large, with trees up to 40-43 m (130-140 ft) tall known. They tend to have a similar spread of 18-22m (60-70 ft). A 10-year-old sapling will stand about 5 m (16 ft) tall. The trees are usually not the best timber trees because they are usually branched low and not very straight, but when they grow in better conditions, they are valuable for timber. The timber is marketed as 'mixed white oak'.

The Chestnut oak is readily identified by its massively-ridged dark gray-brown bark, the thickest of any eastern North American oak. The leaves are 12-20 cm long and 6-10 cm broad, shallowly lobed with 10-15 rounded lobes on each margin; they are virtually identical to the leaves of Swamp chestnut oak and Chinkapin oak, but the trees can readily be distinguished by the bark, that of the Chinkapin oak being a light ash-gray and somewhat peeling like that of the White oak and that of Swamp chestnut oak being paler ash-gray and scaly. The chinkapin oak also has much smaller acorns than the chestnut oak. The Chestnut oak is easily distinguished from the Swamp white oak because that tree has whitened undersides on the leaves.

Extensive confusion with the Swamp chestnut oak has occurred, and some botanists have considered them to be the same species in the past. The chief way to distinguish the two is by habitat; if it grows on a ridge, it is Chestnut oak, and if it grows in wet bottomlands, it is probably the more massive Swamp chestnut oak; however, this is not fully reliable.

The acorns are 1.5-3 cm long and 1-2 cm broad, among the largest of native American oaks, surpassed in size only by the Bur oak and possibly Swamp chestnut oak, and are a valuable wildlife food.

The Chestnut Oak is commonly known by the name "Quercus prinus", given by Carolus Linnaeus, but the original specimen included a mixture of leaves from this and other species, and "Quercus prinus" is now considered by some a confused name to be rejected. The next-oldest name "Quercus montana", given by Willdenow, is the name recommended for the species by the Flora of North America. Currently however, the ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System) still reports that "Q. prinus" is the accepted name.

Description

* Bark: Dark, fissured into broad ridges, scaly. Branchlets stout, at first bronze green, later they become reddish brown, finally dark gray or brown. Heavily charged with tannic acid.
* Wood: Dark brown, sapwood lighter; heavy, hard, strong, tough, close-grained, durable in contact with the soil. Used for fencing, fuel, and railway ties. Sp. gr., 0.7499; weight of cu. ft., 46.73 lbs.
* Winter buds: Light chestnut brown, ovate, acute, one-fourth to one-half of an inch long.
* Leaves: Alternate, five to nine inches long, three to four and a half wide, obovate to oblong-lanceolate, wedge-shaped or rounded at base, coarsely crenately toothed, teeth rounded or acute, apex rounded or acute. They come out of the bud convolute, yellow green or bronze, shining above, very pubescent below. When full grown are thick, firm, dark yellow green, somewhat shining above, pale green and pubescent below; midribs stout, yellow, primary veins conspicuous. In autumn they turn a dull yellow soon changing to a yellow brown. Petioles stout or slender, short. Stipules linear to lanceolate, caducous.
* Flowers: May, when leaves are one-third grown. Staminate flowers are borne in hairy aments two to three inches long; calyx pale yellow, hairy, deeply seven to nine-lobed; stamens seven to nine; anthers bright yellow. Pistillate flowers on short spikes; peduncles green, stout, hairy; involucral scales hairy; stigmas short, bright red.
* Acorns: Annual, singly or in pairs; nut oval, rounded or acute at apex, bright chestnut brown, shining, one and a quarter to one and one-half inches in length; cup, cup-shaped or turbinate, usually inclosing one-half or one-third of the nut, thin, light brown and downy within, reddish brown and rought outside, tuberculate near the base. Scales small, much crowded toward the rim sometimes making a fringe. Kernel white, sweetish.cite book
last =Keeler
first =Harriet L.
title =Our Native Trees and How to Identify Them
publisher =Charles Scriber's Sons
date =1900
location =New York
pages =338-344
]

ee also

* List of late spring flowers

References

* [http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=233501064 Flora of North America: "Quercus montana"] [http://www.efloras.org/object_page.aspx?object_id=6840&flora_id=1 Range
]
* [http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=19398 ITIS Taxonomic Report: "Quercus prinus L."]
* [http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=19379 ITIS Taxonomic Report: "Quercus montana" (synonum of Quercus prinus L.)]
* [http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=QUPR2 USDA Plants Profile: "Quercus prinus L."]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chestnut oak — Oak Oak ([=o]k), n. [OE. oke, ok, ak, AS. [=a]c; akin to D. eik, G. eiche, OHG. eih, Icel. eik, Sw. ek, Dan. eeg.] [1913 Webster] 1. (Bot.) Any tree or shrub of the genus {Quercus}. The oaks have alternate leaves, often variously lobed, and… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • chestnut oak — any of several North American oaks, as Quercus prinus, having serrate or dentate leaves resembling those of the chestnut. [1695 1705, Amer.] * * * ▪ plant       any of several species of North American timber trees, with chestnutlike leaves,… …   Universalium

  • chestnut oak — noun an oak having leaves resembling those of chestnut trees • Hypernyms: ↑oak, ↑oak tree • Hyponyms: ↑swamp chestnut oak, ↑Quercus michauxii, ↑chinquapin oak, ↑chinkapin oak, ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • chestnut oak — kalninis ąžuolas statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Bukinių šeimos medieninis augalas (Quercus montana), paplitęs Šiaurės Amerikoje. atitikmenys: lot. Quercus montana angl. chestnut oak; mountain chestnut oak; rock chestnut oak šaltinis… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • chestnut oak — bekotis ąžuolas statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Bukinių šeimos dekoratyvinis, medieninis, vaistinis nuodingas augalas (Quercus petraea), paplitęs Europoje ir pietvakarių Azijoje. atitikmenys: lot. Quercus petraea angl. chestnut oak; durmast …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • chestnut oak — chest′nut oak n. pln any of several North American oaks, as Quercus prinus, having serrate or dentate leaves resembling those of the chestnut • Etymology: 1695–1705, amer …   From formal English to slang

  • chestnut oak — noun Date: 1703 any of several oaks having oblong to lanceolate leaves with crenate or serrate edges: as a. chinquapin oak b. a medium sized oak (Quercus prinus) of eastern North America with large acorns and leaves that are yellow green above… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • chestnut oak — noun A species of oak tree native to the eastern USA, with taxonomic name Quercus prinus …   Wiktionary

  • Swamp Chestnut Oak — Taxobox name = Swamp Chestnut Oak image width = 240px image caption = A mature Swamp Chestnut Oak regnum = Plantae divisio = Magnoliophyta classis = Magnoliopsida ordo = Fagales familia = Fagaceae genus = Quercus sectio = Quercus species = Q.… …   Wikipedia

  • mountain chestnut oak — kalninis ąžuolas statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Bukinių šeimos medieninis augalas (Quercus montana), paplitęs Šiaurės Amerikoje. atitikmenys: lot. Quercus montana angl. chestnut oak; mountain chestnut oak; rock chestnut oak šaltinis… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)


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