- Anti-handling device
An Anti-handling device is an attachment to or integral part of a
landmine, designed to prevent tampering. However, anti-handling devices may also be encountered as an integral part of the fuzing mechanisms used in other types of munition e.g. some fuze types found in air-dropped bombs (e.g. Mk 83), cluster bombsand sea mines etc. In every case, when the protected device is disturbed in some way it detonates, killing or severely injuring anyone within the immediate blast area.
Technology to incorporate sophisticated anti-handling mechanisms in fuzes has existed since at least 1940 e.g. the Luftwaffe's ZUS40 anti-removal bomb fuze [http://www.bocn.co.uk/vbforum/zus-40-anti-t4053.html?s=10c72e0dc5c219f648dadbd6b7ab792c&] used in the
London Blitz. ZUS40s were usually fitted underneath a type 17 clockworklong delay fuze which gave up to 72 hours delayed detonation. Other German anti-handling bomb fuzes of the Second World Warincluded the type 50 and 50BY fuzes, normally fitted to 250/500 kg bombs, which contained mercury tilt switches. All these fuzes were specifically designed to kill bomb disposal personnel.
Regardless of the type of munition or way in which it is emplaced, anti-handling devices serve two military purposes:
* To prevent the capture and reuse of the munition by enemy forces
* To hinder bomb disposal or
deminingoperations, thereby creating a much more effective hazard or barrier
However, these devices also increase the impact of mines on the civilian population, as anti-tank mines equipped with this technology can easily be triggered by humans. Additionally, they add to the difficulty and cost of post-conflict clearing operations due to the inherent dangers of tampering with them.
Classes of anti-handling devices
US Army field manual FM 20-32 classifies four classes of anti-handling devices:
* Anti-lifting devices. A device which initiates an explosion when a protected mine is lifted or pulled out of its hole.
* Anti-disturbance device. A device which initiates an explosion when a protected mine is lifted, tilted or disturbed in any way e.g. a notable variant of the
VS-50 minefeaturing an integral mercury switch.
* Anti-defuzing device. A device which initiates an explosion when an attempt is made to remove a fuze from a protected mine.
* Anti-disarming device. A device which initiates an explosion when an attempt is made to set the arming mechanism of a mine to safe.
Types of anti-handling fuzes
The different classes of anti-handling devices are normally created using a variety of fuzes. This is a list of the types of fuzes used as anti-handling devices:
* Pull fuzes — these are typically installed in secondary fuze wells located on the side or bottom of landmines. The fuze is normally connected to a thin wire attached to the ground, so the wire is automatically pulled if the mine is lifted, shifted or disturbed in any way. Simple pull-fuzes release a spring-loaded striker. More sophisticated versions are electronic i.e. feature a break-wire sensor which detects a drop in voltage. Either way, pulling on the hidden wire triggers detonation.
* Anti-lifting fuzes — these are typically installed on the bottom of landmines, and trigger the mine when the mine is lifted and the pressure on the fuze is reduced.
* Tilt/Vibration switches — this is a fuze installed inside the device which triggers
detonationif the sensor is tilted beyond a certain angle or is subject to any vibration. Typically, some form of pendulumarrangement, spring-loaded "trembler" or mercury switchis used to detect this.
* Anti-mine detector fuzes — developed during the
Second World Warto detect the characteristic signals used by electronic mine detectors.
* Electronic fuzes — modern
electronicfuzes may incorporate anti-handling features. Typically, these fuzes incorporate one or more of the following sensors: seismic, magnetic, light sensitive, thermal or acoustic sensitive. Potentially, such fuzes can discriminate between various types of mine clearance operations i.e. resist activation by devices such as mine flails, plows, or explosives, whilst still detonating when handled by deminingpersonnel. Additionally, electronic fuzes may have an inbuilt self-destructcapability i.e. some form of timer countdown designed to trigger detonationhours, days or even months after deployment, possibly whilst people are attempting to render the device safe. Although fuzes with a self-destruct capability are not anti-handling devices per se, they do add an extra complicating factor to the EOD process.
Minimum metal mine
Blast resistant mine
* FM 20-32, "Landmine Warfare", August 1966
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/20-32/appab.html Fitting External Anti-Handling Devices to Anti-Tank Landmines]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Anti-tank mine — A Russian TM 46 anti tank blast mine. An anti tank mine, (abbreviated to AT mine ), is a type of land mine designed to damage or destroy vehicles including tanks and armored fighting vehicles. Compared to anti personnel mines, anti tank mines… … Wikipedia
Anti-personnel mine — [ Valmara 69 bounding type Anti personnel mine.] Anti personnel mines are a form of mines designed for use against humans as opposed to anti tank mines, which are designed for use against vehicles.This type is designed to injure (as opposed to… … Wikipedia
Anti-nuclear movement — 120,000 people attended an anti nuclear protest in Bonn, Germany, on October 14, 1979, following the Three Mile Island accident. … Wikipedia
Improvised explosive device — Ammunition rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad in November 2005 … Wikipedia
Differential (mechanical device) — For other uses, see Differential. A cutaway view of an automotive final drive unit which contains the differential Input … Wikipedia
Graphics Device Interface — The Graphics Device Interface (GDI) is a Microsoft Windows application programming interface and core operating system component responsible for representing graphical objects and transmitting them to output devices such as monitors and printers … Wikipedia
Land mine — For other uses, see Land mine (disambiguation). Minefield redirects here. For other uses, see Minefield (disambiguation). Examples of anti personnel mines. From left to right: an M14, Valmara 69 (a bounding mine), and VS 50 … Wikipedia
Bomb disposal — Bomb squad redirects here. For the Suburban Legends EP, see Bomb Squad EP. For the hip hop producers, see The Bomb Squad. The long walk : A British Army ATO approaches a suspect device in Northern Ireland … Wikipedia
Fuse (explosives) — In an explosive, pyrotechnic device or military munition, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that initiates function. In common usage, the word fuse is used indiscriminately. However, when being specific (and in particular in a military… … Wikipedia
PMN mine — The PMN 1 and PMN 2 (sometimes referred to as the Black Widow ) are blast type anti personnel mines designed and manufactured in Russia. It is one of the most widely used and commonly found devices during demining operations. The PMN 1 mine is… … Wikipedia