Chloride


Chloride
Chloride
Identifiers
CAS number 16887-00-6 YesY
PubChem 312
ChemSpider 306 YesY
KEGG C00698 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:17996
ChEMBL CHEMBL19429 YesY
Beilstein Reference 3587171
Gmelin Reference 14910
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula Cl
Molar mass 35.453 g mol-1
Exact mass 34.968852707 g mol-1
Thermochemistry
Standard molar
entropy
So298
153.36 J K-1 mol-1
Related compounds
Other anions Bromide

Fluoride
Iodide

Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine, a halogen, picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. The chloride ion, and its salts such as sodium chloride, are very soluble in water. [2] It is an essential electrolyte located in all body fluids responsible for maintaining acid/base balance, transmitting nerve impulses and regulating fluid in and out of cells. [3]

Contents

Terminology

The word chloride can also refer to a chemical compound in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded in the molecule. This ambiguity is present in chemistry terminology, however it is important to remember that the inorganic, ionic-bond forming chloride ion is entirely different from a covalently bonded chlorine atom, and the term organo-halide, such as methyl chloride, is a terminological coincidence, resulting from the way that organic chemists name their molecules. As an example, compare sodium chloride, NaCl, with methyl chloride, CH3Cl. NaCl is an inorganic, ionically bonded compound, while methyl chloride is an organic covalently bonded compound, which does not contain a chloride ion. Methyl chloride does not have to be named as a chloride, and its more common name is chloromethane. NaCl must be named as a chloride because it actually contains the chloride ion.

Corrosion

The presence of chlorides, e.g. in seawater, significantly aggravates the conditions for pitting corrosion of most metals (including stainless steels and high-alloyed materials) by enhancing the formation and growth of the pits through an autocatalytic process.

Uses

Chloride is used to form salts that can preserve food such as sodium chloride. Other salts such as calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, potassium chloride have varied uses ranging from medical treatments to cement formation. [4]

An example is table salt, which is sodium chloride with the chemical formula NaCl. In water, it dissociates into Na+ and Cl ions.

Examples of inorganic covalently bonded chlorides that are used as reactants are:

A chloride ion is also the prosthetic group present in the amylase enzyme.

Another example is calcium chloride with the chemical formula CaCl2. Calcium chloride is a salt that is marketed in pellet form for removing dampness from rooms. Calcium chloride is also used for maintaining unpaved roads and for sanite fortifying roadbases for new construction. In addition, Calcium chloride is widely used as a deicer since it is effective in lowering the melting point when applied to ice. [5]

In the petroleum industry, the chlorides are a closely monitored constituent of the mud system. The increase of the chlorides in the mud system could indicate the possibility of drilling into a high-pressure saltwater formation. Its increase can also indicate the poor quality of a target sand.

Chloride is also a useful and reliable chemical indicator of river / groundwater fecal contamination, as chloride is a non-reactive solute and ubiquitous to sewage & potable water. Many water regulating companies around the world utilize chloride to check the contamination levels of the rivers and potable water sources.

Human Health

Chloride is a chemical the human body needs for metabolism (the process of turning food into energy).[6] It also helps keep the body's acid-base balance. The amount of chloride in the blood is carefully controlled by the kidneys. Further reading:Renal chloride reabsorption

References

  1. ^ "Chloride ion - PubChem Public Chemical Database". The PubChem Project. USA: National Center for Biotechnology. http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=312. 
  2. ^ Green, John, and Sadru Damji. "Chapter 3." Chemistry. Camberwell, Vic.: IBID, 2001. Print.
  3. ^ "Chloride ion - Glossary Entry - Genetics Home Reference". Genetics Home Reference. USA: National Library of Medicine. http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/glossary=chlorideion. Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  4. ^ Green, John, and Sadru Damji. "Chapter 3." Chemistry. Camberwell, Vic.: IBID, 2001. Print.
  5. ^ "Common Salts." Test Page for Apache Installation. Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/saltcom.html>.
  6. ^ http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/aha/aha_schlorid_crs.htm

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chloride — Chlo ride, n. (Chem.) A binary compound of chlorine with another element or radical; as, chloride of sodium (common salt). [1913 Webster] {Chloride of ammonium}, sal ammoniac. {Chloride of lime}, bleaching powder; a grayish white substance,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Chloride — nennt man die Verbindungen des Chlors mit den Grundstoffen und verschiedenen, besonders organischen Radikalen. Als Chloride im engeren Sinne bezeichnet man die in ihrer Zusammensetzung von den Oxyden sich ableitenden Chlorverbindungen, während… …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • Chlorīde — (Chem.), Verbindungen des Chlors mit positiven Elementen. Die niedrigste Stufe ist Chlorür, die höchste Per od. Superchlorid …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Chlorīde — Chlorīde, s. Chlormetalle …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • chloride — chlorine compound, 1812, coined by Sir Humphrey Davy (1778 1829) from CHLORINE (Cf. chlorine) + IDE (Cf. ide) on the analogy of OXIDE (Cf. oxide) …   Etymology dictionary

  • chloride — ► NOUN ▪ a compound of chlorine with another element or group …   English terms dictionary

  • chloride — [klôr′īd΄] n. a compound in which chlorine is combined with any of certain other elements or with a radical …   English World dictionary

  • Chloride — Kobalt(II) chlorid Chloride sind Verbindungen des chemischen Elementes Chlor. Dieses kann mit Metallen, Halb oder Nichtmetallen verbunden vorliegen. Metallchloride wie z. B. Natrium und Kobaltchlorid sind Salze der Chlorwasserstoffsäure, besser… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Chloride — The major anion found in the fluid outside of cells and in blood. An anion is the negatively charged part of certain substances such as table salt (sodium chloride or NaCl) when dissolved in liquid. Sea water has almost the same concentration of… …   Medical dictionary

  • Chloride — 35° 24′ 52″ N 114° 11′ 56″ W / 35.4144, 114.199 Chloride est un camp minier dan …   Wikipédia en Français


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