- Tibetan independence movement
The Tibetan independence movement is a movement to establish historical
Tibet, comprising the three traditional provinces of Amdo, Kham, and Ü-Tsangas an independent state. The movement is largely led by Tibetans in exile with the support of some individuals and organizations outside of Tibet. Among these supporters are a number of American and European celebrities, and some non-Tibetan followers of Tibetan Buddhism. The level of support for the movement within the Tibet Autonomous Regionand other Tibetan areas of the People's Republic of Chinais difficult to assess.
The goals of the Tibetan independence movement are different to the goals of the
Dalai Lama, the spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhists. In response to the 2008 unrest in Tibet, the Dalai Lama reiterated that he only wants greater autonomy for Tibet within China, not full independence, which he described as "out of the question". [cite news|url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7302021.stm | title = China blames Dalai Lama for riots | publisher = BBC News | date = March 18, 2008| accessdate=2008-04-25]
After the Mongol Prince Köden took control of the Kokonor region in 1239, he sent his general Doorda Darqan on a reconnaissance mission into Tibet in 1240. During this expedition the Kadampa monasteries of Rwa-sgreng and Rgyal-lha-khang were burned, and 500 people killed. The death of Ögödei the Mongol Qaghan in 1241 brought Mongol military activity around the world temporarily to a halt. Mongol interests in Tibet resumed in 1244 when Prince Köden sent an invitation to the leader of the Sakya sect, to come to his capital and formally surrender Tibet to the Mongols. The Sakya leader arrived in Kokonor with his two nephews Drogön Chögyal Phagpa ('Phags-pa; 1235-80) and Chana Dorje (Phyag-na Rdo-rje) (1239-67) in 1246. This event marked the incorporation of Tibet into the Mongol Empire.
By the early 18th century, the Chinese
Manchuimperial government under the Qing Dynastysent resident commissioner (" amban") to Lhasa. Tibetan factions rebelled in 1759 and killed the resident commissioners after the central government decided to reduce the number of soldiers to about 100. The Qing army entered and defeated the rebels and reinstalled the resident commissioner. The number of soldiers in Tibet was kept at about 2,000. The defensive duties were assisted by a local force which was reorganized by the resident commissioner, and the Tibetan government continued to manage day-to-day affairs as before.
In 1904, a British mission, accompanied by a large military escort, invaded Tibet, forcing its way through to Lhasa. The head of the mission was Colonel
Francis Younghusband. The principal motivation for the British mission was a fear, which proved to be unfounded, that Russia was extending its footprint into Tibet and possibly even giving military aid to the Tibetan government. But on his way to Lhasa, Younghusband killed 1,300 Tibetans in Gyangzê (as written in "The Great Game" of Peter Hopkirk), because the natives were in fear of what kind of unequal treaty the British would offer the Tibetans. Some documents claim that 5,000 Tibetans were killed by the British army.
Anglo-Chinese Conventionof 1906 recognized Chinese sovereignty over the region [Smith, "Tibet", p. 162] and the Anglo-Russian Conventionof 1907, without Beijing's acknowledgement, recognized the " suzeraintyof Chinaover Thibet". [Goldstein, "History", p. 830] The Qing central government established direct rule over Tibet in 1910. The thirteenth Dalai Lamafled to British Indiain February, 1910. In the same month, the Chinese government issued a proclamation deposing the Dalai Lama and instigating the search for a new incarnation. [Smith, "Tibet", p. 175]
The subsequent outbreak of
World War Iand civil war in China caused the Western powers and the infighting factions of China proper to lose interest in Tibet, and the 13th Dalai Lama ruled undisturbed. At that time, the government of Tibet controlled all of Ü-Tsang (Dbus-gtsang) and western Kham, roughly coincident with the borders of the Tibet Autonomous Region today. Eastern Kham, separated by the Yangtze Riverwas under the control of Chinese warlord Liu Wenhui. The situation in Amdo( Qinghai) was more complicated, with the Xiningarea controlled by ethnic Hui warlord Ma Bufang, who constantly strove to exert control over the rest of Amdo (Qinghai).
In 1950, the
People's Liberation Armyof the People's Republic of China entered Tibet, after taking over the rest of China from Republic of China during the five years of civil war. In 1951, the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, a treaty signed by representatives of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama, provided for rule by a joint administration under representatives of the central government and the Tibetan government. Most of the population of Tibet at that time were serfs, bound to land owned by lamas. Any attempt at land reformor the redistribution of wealth would have proved unpopular with the established landowners. This agreement was initially put into effect in Tibet proper. However, Eastern Kham and Amdo were outside the administration of the government of Tibet, and were thus treated like any other Chinese province with land reform implemented in full. As a result, a rebellion broke out in these regions in June 1956. The rebellion eventually spread to Lhasa, but was crushed by 1959. The 14th Dalai Lama and other government principals fled to exile in India.
Positions on the status of Tibet
The status of Tibet before 1950, especially in the period between 1912 and 1950, is largely in dispute between supporters and opponents of Tibetan independence.
According to supporters of Tibetan independence, Tibet was a distinct
nationand stateindependent before conquest by the Mongol Empire( Yuan Dynasty) 700 years ago; between the fall of the Mongol Empire in 1368 and subjugation by the Qing Dynastyin 1720; and again between the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912 and its incorporation into the PRC in 1951. Moreover, even during the periods of nominal subjugation to the Mongol and Qing Empires, Tibet was largely self-governing. As such, the Central Tibetan Administration(CTA) views current PRC rule in Tibet as colonial and illegitimateFact|date=August 2008, motivated solely by the natural resources and strategic value of TibetFact|date=August 2008, and in gross violation of both Tibet's historical status as an independent countryFact|date=August 2008 and the right of Tibetan people to self-determinationFact|date=August 2008 . It also points to PRC's autocratic and divide-and-rule policies, and assimilationist policies, regarding those as an example of Chinese imperialismbent on destroying Tibet's distinct ethnic makeup, culture, and identity, thereby cementing it as an indivisible part of China.
On the other hand, opponents say that the PRC rules Tibet legitimately, by saying that Tibet has been an indivisible part of China "
de jure" since Mongol (Yuan) conquest 700 years ago, and that all subsequent Chinese governments ( Ming Dynasty, Qing Dynasty, Republic of China, and People's Republic of China) have succeeded the Yuan Dynasty in exercising de jure sovereigntyand " de facto" power over Tibet. In addition, they say that China (under the Republic of China government) continued to maintain sovereignty over Tibet between 1912 and 1950; no country gave Tibet diplomatic recognition; and Tibet itself acknowledged Chinese sovereignty by sending delegates to the Drafting Committee for a new constitution of the Republic of China in 1925; to the National Assembly of the Republic of Chinain 1931; to the fourth National Congress of the Kuomintangin 1931; to a National Assembly for drafting a new Chinese constitution in 1946; and to another National Assembly for drafting a new Chinese constitution in 1948. [http://www.chinaemb.or.kr/chn/zgzt/zgxz/t81209.htm] Finally, the PRC considers all movements aimed at ending Chinese sovereignty in Tibet, starting with British attempts in the late 19th century and early 20th century, to the CTA today, as one long campaign abetted by malicious Western imperialismaimed at destroying Chinese integrity and sovereignty, thereby weakening China's position in the world. The PRC also points to what it calls the autocratic and theocratic policies of the government of Tibet before 1959, as well as its renunciation of Arunachal Pradesh, claimed by China as a part of Tibet occupied by India, and its association with India, and as such claims the CTA has no moral legitimacy to govern Tibet.
Positions on Tibet after 1950
Tibetan exiles generally say that the number that have died in the
Great Leap Forward, violence, or other unnatural causes since 1950 is approximately 1.2 millionFact|date=May 2008. However, this number is controversial, and the government does not agree to it. According to Patrick French, a supporter of the Tibetan cause who was able to view the data and calculations, the estimate is not reliable because the Tibetans were not able to process the data well enough to produce a credible total, with many persons double or triple counted. There were, however, many casualties, perhaps as many as 400,000. [French, "Tibet", pp. 278–82] This figure is extrapolated from a calculation Warren W. Smith made from census reports of Tibet which show 200,000 "missing" from Tibet. [ Smith, "Tibetan", p. 600] Even anti-Communist resources such as " the Black Book of Communism" expresses doubt at the 1.2 million figure, but does note that according to the Chinese census, the total population of ethnic Tibetans in the PRC was 2.8 million in 1953, but only 2.5 million in 1964. It puts forward a figure of 800,000 deaths and alleges that as many as 10% of Tibetans were interned, with few survivors.Internment Est:page 545, cites Kewly, "Tibet" p. 255; Tibet Death Est: page 546, "Black Book", ISBN 0-674-07608-7] Chinese demographers have estimated that 90,000 of the 300,000 "missing" Tibetans fled the region.cite journal| url = http://www.case.edu/affil/tibet/booksAndPapers/tibetan.population.in.china.pdf | format = PDF | title = Tibetan Population in China: Myths and Facts Re-Examined | author = Hao, Yan | journal = Asia Ethnicity | volume = 1 | issue = 1 | date = March 2000 | pages = 24| accessdate = 2008-04-25 ]
The Central Tibetan Administration also says that millions of Chinese immigrants to the TAR are diluting the Tibetans both culturally and through intermarriage. Exile groups say that despite recent attempts to restore the appearance of original Tibetan culture to attract tourism, the traditional Tibetan way of life is now irrevocably changed. It is also reported that when
Hu Yaobang, the general secretary of the Communist Party of China, visited Lhasa in 1980 he was unhappy when he found out the region was behind neighbouring provinces. Reforms were instituted, and since then the central government's policy in Tibet has granted most religious freedoms. But monks and nuns are still sometimes imprisonedcite web|url = http://web.archive.org/web/20040604130812/http://www.drapchi14.org/drapchi14/ | title = Who Are the Drapchi 14? | publisher = Amnesty International USA Group 133 | date = April 4, 2004| accessdate=2008-04-25] , and many Tibetans (mostly monks and nuns) continue to flee Tibet yearly. At the same time, many Tibetans believe projects that the PRC implement to benefit Tibet, such as the China Western Developmenteconomic plan or the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, as politically-motivated actions to consolidate central control over Tibet by facilitating militarization and Han Chinesemigration while benefiting few Tibetans; they also believe the money funneled into cultural restoration projects as being aimed at attracting foreign tourists. They also say that there is still preferential treatment awarded to Han Chinese in the labor market as opposed to Tibetans.
The government of the PRC says that the population of Tibet in 1737 was about 8 million, and that due to the backward rule of the local theocracy, there was rapid decrease in the next two hundred years and the population in 1959 was only about 1.19 millionFact|date=May 2008. Today, the population of
Greater Tibetis 7.3 million, of which 5 million is ethnic Tibetan, according to the 2000 census. The increase is viewed as the result of the abolishment of the theocracy and introduction of a modern, higher standard of living. Based on the census numbers, the PRC also rejects claims that the Tibetans are being swamped by Han Chinese; instead the PRC says that the border for Greater Tibet drawn by the government of Tibet in Exile is so large that it incorporates regions such as Xiningthat are not traditionally Tibetan in the first place, hence exaggerating the number of non-Tibetans.
The government of the PRC also rejects claims that the lives of Tibetans have deteriorated, pointing to rights enjoyed by the
Tibetan languagein education and in courts and says that the lives of Tibetans have been improved immensely compared to the Dalai Lama's rule before 1950. Benefits that are commonly quoted include: the GDP of Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) today is 30 times that before 1950; it has 22,500 km of highways, all built since 1950; all secular education in the region was created after integration into the PRC; there are 25 scientific research institutes, all built by the PRC; infant mortalityhas dropped from 43% in 1950 to 0.661% in 2000; life expectancyhas risen from 35.5 years in 1950 to 67 in 2000; the collection and publishing of the traditional " Epic of King Gesar", which is the longest epic poem in the world and had only been handed down orally before; allocation of 300 million Renminbisince the 1980s to the maintenance and protection of Tibetan monasteriescite web|url = http://www.china.org.cn/e-white/20011108/3.htm | title = Govt. White Papers: Tibet's Modernization Achievments | publisher = China.org.cn | accessdate=2008-04-25] . The Cultural Revolutionand the cultural damage it wrought upon the entire PRC is generally condemned as a nationwide catastrophe, whose main instigators (in the PRC's view, the Gang of Four) have been brought to justice and whose recurrence is unthinkable in an increasingly modernized China. The China Western Development plan is viewed by the PRC as a massive, benevolent, and patriotic undertaking by the eastern coast to help the western parts of China, including Tibet, catch up in prosperity and living standards.
Development and influence
Organisations which support the Tibetan independence movement include:
*Tibetan Independence Movement - A movement started within Tibet that lasted from 1987 to 1989. Chinese crackdown on dissent led to 10 monks that formed the movement being jailed, with three (as of 2004) still jailed.
Tibetan Youth Congress- Located at Dharamsala, the seat of the Government of Tibet in Exilein India, claims 30,000 members.
*International Tibet Independence Movement - Located in
Indiana, United States. It was formed in 1995 as an official organization and focus for the various international activities.
International Tibetan Aid Organization- Located in Amsterdam, Netherlands, this organization was formed in 2004 to provide a European counterpart to the International Tibetan Independence Movement.
However, Tibetan independence is not currently supported by
Tenzin Gyatso, the current Dalai Lama, the spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhists. He has spoken in many international venues, including the United States Congress, and the European Parliament. In 1987, he has also started campaigning for a peaceful resolution to the issue of the status of Tibet, and has since then advocated that Tibet should not become independent, but that it should be given meaningful autonomy within the People's Republic of China. This approach is known as the "Middle Way".
Celebrity support and Freedom Concerts
Paris Hiltonhas voiced her support for the movement and participates in various charities and benefits around New York. British comedian Russell Brandalso occasionally mentions his support for the movement on his BBC Radio 2show. Richard Gereis one of the most outspoken supporters of the movement and is chairman of the Board of Directors for the International Campaign for Tibet. Actress Sharon Stonecaused significant controversy when she suggested that the 2008 Sichuan earthquakemay have been the result of "bad karma," because the Chinese "are not being nice to the Dalai Lama, who is a good friend of mine." [http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5hWK2KdEFCaHcxde6-AXrexm59hfw] Other notable supporters include Talia Rosenbaumand Lindsay Lohan. Steven Seagalhas been an active supporter of Tibetan independence for several decades and makes regular donations to various Tibetan charities around the world. [ [http://finevery.googlepages.com/stevenseagal.htm Charles Carreon" "Steven Seagal comes out of the buddhist closet"] ] He has been recognized by Tibetan Lama Penor Rinpocheas the reincarnation of tulku Chungdrag Dorje, the treasure revealer of Palyul Monastery. [ [http://www.sangyetashiling.dk/kt/seagal.htm Statement by H.H. Penor Rinpoche regarding the recognition of Steven Seagal as a reincarnation of the treasure revealer Chungdrag Dorje of Palyul Monastery] ] He also claims to have the special ability of clairvoyance; in a November 2006 interview, he stated: "I was born very different, clairvoyant and a healer". [ [http://sangyetashiling.dk/kt/seagal.htm Steven Seagal - "The Action Lama"] ]
With the release of the
Beastie Boysalbum " Ill Communication" in 1994, the Milarepa Fundwas born. The organization was named after Milarepa, the revered eleventh-century Tibetan saintFact|date=August 2008 who used music to enlighten people. Originally designed to disburse royalties from "Ill Communication" to benefit Tibetan monks who were sampled on two songs, it took off when Milarepa Fund organizers joined the Beastie Boys as they headlined the 1994 LollapaloozaTour. During the tour, the idea of staging a Live Aid-style concert for Tibetan independence was born.
Organized in June 1996, the first concert (in
San Francisco) opened with Icelandic singer Björkand featured acts such as Radiohead, Smashing Pumpkins, Cibo Matto, Rage Against the Machine, The Red Hot Chilli Peppers, and De La Soul. It drew 100,000 people and raised over $800,000 for Tibetan independenceFact|date=August 2008 and social justicecauses. The concerts continued for three more years, generating public awareness about Tibetan independence, particularly amongst young people. This helped spur the growth of Students for a Free Tibetworldwide.Fact|date=August 2008
Radiohead's stage set-up for their 2008 tour prominently displays two Tibetan flags.Fact|date=August 2008
In 2003, an old Tibetan
passportwas discovered in Nepal by Tibet independence supporters. Issued by the 13th Dalai Lama to Tibet's finance minister ( Tsepon Shakabpa) for foreign travel, the passport was a single piece of pink paper, complete with photograph, and had visas issued by many countries, including Britain. It has a message in typed English and hand-written Tibetan, similar to the message by the nominal issuing officers of today's passports. There is no Chinese on the passport, but two stamps could be official Chinese seals, or they could be Chinese entry stamps. [cite news| url = http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article1975197.ece | title = Crumpled passport ‘proves’ Tibet independence claim | publisher = Times Online | author = Page, Jeremy | date = June 23, 2007| accessdate = 2008-04-25] The existence of this passport, which is believed to be genuineWho|date=August 2008, is used by pro-Tibetan groups to demonstrate the recognised independence of Tibet in the early 1900s. However, it is possible that an autonomous Chinese special region of Tibet would issue its own passports.Fact|date=August 2008
Some Free Tibet campaigners supportWho|date=August 2008 the idea that exile government should issue its own passports again. It remains uncertain if any country would allow any Tibetan passport holders entry with such passports, and a list of such countries could be publicised so that Tibetans may be encouraged to travel to these countries (e.g. holidays, honeymoon, overseas studies, cultural visits, business trips) rather than to those countries reluctant to give them real and meaningful recognition.Fact|date=August 2008
A spokesman for the Chinese Embassy said it was not clear if the passport was genuine since experts had not examined it. “But our position on Tibet is very clear – Tibet is a part of China,” he said. “We have lots of evidence to prove that.” [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article1975197.ece]
List of active autonomist and secessionist movements
Central Tibetan Administration
Free Tibet Campaignin London
History of Tibet
Students for a Free Tibet
People's Republic of China
Nangpa La shootings
2008 unrest in Tibet
Tibet during the Ming Dynasty
East Turkestan independence movement
Inner Mongolian People's Party
Treaty of friendship and alliance between the Government of Mongolia and Tibet
*Allen, Charles (2004). Duel in the Snows: The True Story of the Younghusband Mission to Lhasa. London: John Murray, 2004. ISBN 0-7195-5427-6.
*Bell, Charles (1924). Tibet: Past & Present. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
*cite book| title = The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, terror, repression | author = Courtois, Stéphane | coauthors = Mark Kramer et al | location = Cambridge, Mass. | publisher = Harvard University Press | year = 1999 | isbn = 0674076087
*cite book| title = Tibet, Tibet: a personal history | author = French, Patrick | location = New York | publisher = Knopf | year = 2002 | isbn = 1400041007
*McKay, Alex (1997). Tibet and the British Raj: The Frontier Cadre 1904-1947. London: Curzon. ISBN 0-7007-0627-5.
*Shakya, Tsering (1999). The Dragon in the Land of Snows: A History of Modern Tibet Since 1947. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11814-7.
*Smith, Warren W. (Jr.) (1996). Tibetan Nation: A History of Tibetan Nationalism and Sino-Tibetan Relations. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3155-2.
*Dowman, Keith (1988). "The Power-Places of Central Tibet: The Pilgrim's Guide." Routledge & Kegan Paul. London, ISBN 0-7102-1370-0. New York, ISBN 0-14-019118-6.
*Dunham, Mikel (2004). "Buddha's Warriors: The Story of the CIA-Backed Freedom Fighters, the Chinese Communist Invasion, and the Ultimate Fall of Tibet." Penguin Group, ISBN 1-58542-348-3.
*Goldstein, Melvyn C.; with the help of Gelek Rimpche. "A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State." Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers (1993), ISBN 81-215-0582-8. University of California (1991), ISBN 0-520-07590-0.
*Grunfield, Tom (1996). "The Making of Modern Tibet." ISBN 1-56324-713-5.
*Norbu, Thubten Jigme; Turnbull, Colin (1968). "Tibet: Its History, Religion and People." Reprint: Penguin Books (1987).
*Pachen, Ani; Donnely, Adelaide (2000). "Sorrow Mountain: The Journey of a Tibetan Warrior Nun." Kodansha America, Inc. ISBN 1-56836-294-3.
*Powers, John (2000). "The Free Tibet Movement: A Selective Narrative." Journal of Buddhist Ethics 7
*Samuel, Geoffrey (1993). "Civilized Shamans: Buddhism in Tibetan Societies." Smithsonian ISBN 1-56098-231-4.
*Schell, Orville (2000). "Virtual Tibet: Searching for Shangri-La from the Himalayas to Hollywood." Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-4381-0.
*Stein, R. A. (1962). "Tibetan Civilization." First published in French; English translation by J. E. Stapelton Driver. Reprint: Stanford University Press (with minor revisions from 1977 Faber & Faber edition), 1995. ISBN 0-8047-0806-1.
*Thurman, Robert (2002). "Robert Thurman on Tibet." DVD. ASIN B00005Y722.
*Wilby, Sorrel (1988). "Journey Across Tibet: A Young Woman's 1900-Mile Trek Across the Rooftop of the World." Contemporary Books. ISBN 0-8092-4608-2.
*Wilson, Brandon (2005). "Yak Butter Blues: A Tibetan Trek of Faith." Pilgrim's Tales. ISBN 0977053660, ISBN 0977053679.
* [http://www.rangzen.org/ International Tibet Independence Movement]
* [http://www.savetibet.org/ International Campaign for Tibet]
* [http://www.freetibet.org/ Free Tibet Campaign (UK)]
* [http://www.freetibet.net/ Free Tibet Campaign (USA)]
* [http://tibetanyouthcongress.org/ Tibetan Youth Congress]
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