- Officer Cadet
Officer Cadet is a rank held by military
cadets during their training to become commissioned officers. The term Officer Trainee is used interchangeably in some countries. Some countries refer to naval officer cadets as midshipmen, although in other countries this means something slightly different.
Australian Defence Forcefollows the same usage as the British military system, using the rank of Officer Cadet for Australian Army(OCDT) and Royal Australian Air Force(OFFCDT) personnel undergoing initial officer training. Officer Cadets in the Australian Army, unlike Officer Cadets in the Royal Australian Air Forceand Midshipmen in the Royal Australian Navy, do not yet hold a commission, and are not saluted. Officer Cadets in the Australian Army address Warrant Officers and officers as "Sir" or "Ma'am".
Initial officer training can occur through either single-service institutions, such as the
Royal Military College, Duntroon, Royal Australian Naval College, or the Officer Training School RAAF, or through the tri-service Australian Defence Force Academy. The ranks of Officer Cadet, Staff Cadet, or Midshipman are primary found at these establishments. However, RAAF Officer trainees are often appointed at higher rank while undergoing their initial training course at OTS, if they have prior military experience, either as Officer Cadets prior to their initial officer course, or at Airman rank. Officer Cadets are also appointed in the Australian Army Reservewhere training is conducted on a part-time basis at various University Regiments around the country.
Australian Army Reserve Officer Cadets must pass various training courses (conducted at different barracks around Australia) throughout their training with the final module completed at the
Royal Military College, Duntroonbefore being commissioned.
Royal Military College, Duntroonand University Regiments, the title of 'Staff Cadet' is often used to address Officer Cadets although this is not an official rank.
At ADFA, upon completion of all academic training through the
University of New South Wales-ADFA, military training and subsequent training at other military establishments, Officer Cadets from the Australian Defence Forceare promoted as commissioned officers.
Pilots, Navigators, Air Traffic Controllers and Air Defence Officers joining the RAAF directly through the Officers' Training School (without going to ADFA) also start their career as an Officer Cadet. Once they have completed their employment training (2FTS, SAN, SATC and SACTU respectively), they are promoted.
Canadian Forcesthe rank of Officer Cadet (OCdt) is held by any beginning officer, as well as students attending the Royal Military College of Canadain Kingston, Ontario. For Canadian Navy members of the same rank, Naval Cadet (NCdt) is used in lieu of Officer Cadet. They are referred to and addressed as, for example, "Mr Smith" or "Miss Smith", or more formally as "Officer Cadet Smith" or Naval Cadet Smith. There is also a tendency in less cordial environments to refer to an Officer Cadet as "OC Smith".
Officer Cadets may sometimes hold a staff or even line appointment within a unit, such as second-in-command of a platoon within a company-sized or larger unit; this is usually done for training purposes, but may also be done to fill holes in an establishment due to manpower shortages within the officer cadre.
Officer Cadets in the CF are
subordinate officers, and billet and mess with other officers, but do not carry the Queen's commission and are not entitled to receive salutes but may be saluted as a mark of respect to the individual. Also, they are generally addressed as "Mister" or "Miss" by non-commissioned members.
The rank insignia is a narrow (1/4-inch) gold braid on the cuff of the DEU (Distinctive Environmental Uniform) jacket, and on the epaulettes of all other uniforms. The peak of the service cap (if worn) is plain. This gives rise to the somewhat derogatory term 'quarter-inch admiral' as a referent for OCdt/NCdts who try to insist that they be treated as commissioned officers (i.e. be accorded salutes, etc.)
In French, the titles are "Aspirant de marine (aspm)" for Naval Cadets, and "Élève-officier (élof)" for Officer Cadets.
Singapore Armed Forces, potential servicemen training to be officers are known as Officer Cadets in the Army and Air Force, while those in the Navy are known as Midshipmen. All Officer Cadets and Midshipmen receive tri-service initial training in Officer Cadet School before being sent to the appropriate training schools. They return to OCS for their commissioning parade.
Officer Cadets and Midshipmen wear one, two, or three white bars on their shoulderboards to denote their seniority. The graduating class of Officer Cadets wear peaked caps and
berets depending on their vocations, and are accorded the privilege of being addressed "Sir" by junior Officer Cadets. At this point, they are given more privileges and responsibilities commensurate with their seniority.
Officer Cadets take turns to hold various administrative and exercise appointments. Administrative appointment-holders' shoulderboards have additional loops and whorls known as "fishes" in addition to their existing one, two or three bars. Exercise appointment-holders wear yellow rank insignia appropriate to the appointment of the Officer Cadet. For example, an exercise Platoon Commander will wear two bars of a
Lieutenant, and his exercise Platoon Sergeantwill wear a brassardwith First Sergeant's chevrons.
United Kingdomthe rank of Officer Cadet is held by students in the Royal Military Academy Sandhurstand the Royal Air Force Collegeat RAF Cranwell.
Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, the rank is non-substantive and only used in the initial phases of training, after which officers use their substantive ranks of Midshipmanor Sub-Lieutenantdepending on education, or occasionally Lieutenantfor certain specialisations. Formerly, cadets at the Royal Naval Colleges at Dartmouth and Osborne had the substantive rank of Naval Cadet, or Cadet, RN, until passing out of Dartmouth as a midshipman. This rank is still mentioned in the Naval Discipline Act 1957, but is no longer used.
Until the Second World War cadets at the
Royal Military Academy, Woolwichand the Royal Military College, Sandhurstwere referred to as Gentleman Cadets.
The rank is also held by members of the
Officers' Training Corpsand University Air Squadrons, and in the first year of training in University Royal Naval Units (after which, they use the rank of midshipman). Pilot Officers of the RAFVR(T)hold the acting rank of Officer Cadet until they successfully complete their Officers' Initial Course at RAF Cranwell - they differ from other RAF Officer Cadet ranks in that they hold a commission, and are therefore saluted. The rank of Officer Cadet is currently only used internally within the Air Cadet Organisationand Officer Cadets are referred to by their substantive rank in written documents.
Officer Cadets in the British Armed Forces are treated in most respects as
commissioned officers, except that Officer Cadets are not saluted (RAFVR(T) aside). In the British Armyand Royal Air Forcethey are referred to and addressed as, for example, "Mr Smith" or "Miss Smith", or more formally as "Officer Cadet Smith" or as "Sir" or "Ma'am".
Royal Navythe abbreviation for Officer Cadet is O/C, in the Army OCdt, in the RAF Off Cdt.Fact|date=May 2008
Royal Navy Officer Cadets wear shoulder flashes with a white square after they complete the first phase of training (7 weeks). Formerly, the insignia was a navy blue patch on both sides of the coat collar, with a white buttonhole and gold button, similar to a midshipman's patch. They continue to wear these tabs below their rank insignia when wearing rank in later phases until they pass out of BRNC at the end of their initial training. The No.1 Uniform bears no other qualifying marks or insignia.
British Army Officer Cadets in the Officers' Training Corps initially wear a blank rank slide emblazoned with their particular unit (e.g. ULOTC for University of London OTC). After passing basic training (Military Training Qualification 1), a single horizontal bar is worn on the rank slide; after passing the second phase of training (MTQ2), two bars are worn. A Staff (section commanders and the like) wears three bars (a fairly recent innovation - until the 1990s they only wore the two denoting their MTQ2 qualification), a Junior Under Officer (JUO) wears an
Austrian Knotabove a single bar, and a Senior Under Officer (SUO) wears an Austrian Knot above two bars.fact|date=June 2008 Under Officer is an appointment, not a rank, and outside the OTC they only have the status of ordinary Officer Cadets.
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force Officer Cadets wear a one inch wide white band on all non-ceremonial uniforms. This white band can have a narrower coloured band across its width indicating which of the training squadrons at the RAF College the cadet belongs to: yellow for 'B' Squadron, blue for 'C' Squadron, and green for 'D' Squadron. A thin white band is worn throughout the Basic phase with the Regiment Training Flight. 'A' Squadron is currently an NCO aircrew squadron. Members of 'A' Squadron are known as Aircrew Cadets and graduate as
SergeantAircrew, not officers; this status is denoted by a red band on the white background and the RAF airman's cap badgewith a white patch behind. Members of all squadrons who are injured are moved to the Development (formerly Holding) Flight and wear a purple band on the white background.
On the service dress and mess dress uniforms, RAF cadets wear the braid of the rank they will hold on graduation. However, gorget patches (rectangular white tabs with one triangular end) are worn on both lapels. The only exception for this is the female mess dress, where they are worn on the sleeve. The only other distinctive identifiers are on headdress - a white patch on the beret behind the badge. The
cap badgeis the same as that worn by a commissioned officer (between the ranks of Pilot Officer and Group Captain), but with a white band around the cap. This band is removed on graduation.
A blue band on the white background is also used to denote Officer Cadets of the University Air Squadrons (UASs) who are receiving Bursaries from the Royal Air Force. UAS cadets who are not in receipt of Scholarships wear just the 1 inch white band with no coloured band. UAS Officer Cadets wear the airmen's headdress with a white band.
Officer Cadets of the RAFVR(T) wear the 1 inch white band with the gilt VRT identifier positioned centrally. VR(T) Officer Cadets wear unmodified officers' headdress.
United States Army, United States Coast Guardand Air Force use the term "Cadet" for officer candidates in the Reserve Officer Training Corps(ROTC) and for students at the United States Military Academy, United States Coast Guard Academyand at the United States Air Force Academy. The term "Officer Candidate" or "Officer Trainee" is generally used for officer candidates who are seeking their commission by means other than ROTC or a military academy, such as through Officer Candidate School (OCS) or Air Force Officer Training School(OTS). The United States Navyuses the term " Midshipman" for officer candidates in the Reserve Officer Training Corps, United States Merchant Marine Academyor at the United States Naval Academy, and the term " Officer Candidate" for others seeking a commission as an officer. The term "cadet" may also be used generally to refer to students at a private military academy, or members of a youth group associated with the military who are receiving preliminary training with the intention of joining the military, sometimes at a younger age than they would be able to do otherwise.
Officer Cadets are generally paid below the standard pay rates for junior officers but receive some of the rights and responsibilities of a junior officer during their training. Officer Cadets are nominally in the chain of command and have, in certain battles, been the surviving officer in a unit and thus in command.Fact|date=December 2007 Officer cadets, trainees, and midshipmen are considered Geneva Conventions Category III personnel.
Cadets and Midshipmen in the ROTC program hold training ranks equivalent to enlisted soldiers during their first three years of training and officer-equivalent ranks during their senior year, except in the Air Force where they hold officer-equivalent rank during their junior and senior years. Cadets or Midshipmen holding cadet-enlisted rank must salute cadet or Midshipman officers within their own branch of the service. At the service academies, they hold similar ranks (generally for the first two years, they hold simulated low enlisted ranks, then in the third year, senior enlisted ranks, and in the final year, officer ranks). However, at the academies and some ROTC units, it is not customary for Cadets or Midshipmen to salute each other regardless of rank, nor will they salute ROTC cadets senior to them. All Cadets and Midshipmen are required to salute commissioned officers.
[http://www.gruntsmilitary.com/arotcrank.shtml Cadet officer] ranks in US Army ROTC are denoted by "pips" - one to three circular insignia denoting the company-grade equivalents, one to three diamond-shaped insignia denoting the field-grade equivalents [http://www.ume.maine.edu/~ArmyROTC/Cadet%20Handbook/670-1/Chap%203/chapter_3.htm#3-9] . For Midshipman ranks, both junior and senior officer equivalencies wear from one to six 1/4" gold stripes or bars. US Air Force cadets wear stripes much like US Navy officers' sleeve stripes.
Each U.S. service academy has its own unique set of insignia, different from that of its service's ROTC program.
Distinctive United States Military Academy class insignia are worn on the collar and epaulets of certain uniforms. An enameled shield bearing a Greek sword surmounted by the helmet of Pallas, worn on the left collar or above cadet rank stripes/bars on epaulets, is the standard class insignia for third- (yellow shield), second- (grey shield), or first-class (black shield) cadets. On traditional Dress Grey and Full Dress Grey uniforms and overcoats, the class insignia is found in the number of service stripes (one to three) denoting completed years of service at the Academy. These stripes are found on the lower sleeve. Visitors are sometimes confused to see cadets early in the academic year wearing the insignia of Cadet PFC: Such cadets were "turned back" for any of a variety of reasons, and are repeating the first year as cadets, but retain the rank that they earned as Cadet Privates First Class.
Rank within the Corps of Cadets is denoted by collar insignia "railroad tracks," a number of black enamel bars with silver outline, or epaulet stripes from one (CDT Corporal) to six (CDT Captain in certain command and staff roles) on certain uniforms. On the traditional Dress-Grey-based uniforms and overcoats, chevrons denote rank in the Corps. A Cadet Corporal wears two chevrons on the lower sleeve. A cadet sergeant wears two chevrons on the upper sleeve, a cadet lieutenant three, and a cadet captain from four to six chevrons. For cadets in the rank of cadet sergeant and up, various combinations of stars, diamonds, rockers or arcs, and other devices are used on the sleeves to denote specific positions/jobs. The title of Cadet Captain is used for all cadets wearing four or more stripes/bars. The Brigade Commander, also called the First Captain, wears six stripes/bars/sleeve chevrons with a gold star. [http://webpages.charter.net/usaihp/usma.html]
The rank insignia of United States Air Force Academy cadets is denoted on their shoulderboards in all "blue" uniforms, including day-to-day "blues",
service dress, mess dressand parade dress. All cadet shoulder board insignia carries the heraldic nebulydevice, commonly referred to as "clouds" by cadets. Third class cadets (sophomores) have one thin bar underneath the clouds; second class cadets wear one thin bar each above and below the clouds; and first class cadets (seniors) have one thin bar below the clouds and two above. Additional chevrons denote cadet non-commissioned officer ranks, while additional bars denote cadet officer ranks. A diamond indicates that the cadet is a member of the wing or group staff, and one or two stars are used to denote several special senior cadet positions.
battle dress uniform, Air Force Academy cadets wear bars or chevrons on their lapels to denote their rank. Fourth class cadets wear no insignia, but are awarded a Prop and Wingsafter recognition. Third class cadets wear one chevron on each lapel, signifying that they are cadet/ staff sergeants. Second class cadets wear two to five chevrons, indicating ranks from cadet/ technical sergeantto cadet/chief master sergeant. First class cadets function as cadet officers and wear one to six bars on their lapels, corresponding to ranks from cadet/ second lieutenantto cadet/ colonel.
The rank insignia of the United States Naval Academy is a combination of sleeve, shoulder and collar insignia, similar to that used by the Navy ROTC units.
Comparative military ranks
RAF officer ranks
Cadet Corps (Russia)
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