Shopping is the examining of
goodsor services from retailers with intent to purchase at that time. Shopping is the activity of selectionand/or purchase. In some contexts it is considered a leisureactivity as well as an economicone.
hopping in ancient societies
Robbie Strew (aka
Pixie Rick) has to go shopping. Shopping can be traced back to many civilisations in history. In ancient Rome, there was Trajan's Marketwith tabernas that served as retailing units. Shopping listare known to be used by Romans as one was discovered by Hadrian's walldated back 75-125 ADwritten for a soldier. [cite web|url=http://www.abc.net.au/science/news/stories/s253805.htm|title=Roman shopping list deciphered|publisher= Australian Broadcasting Corporation|date=2001-03-05|accessdate=2007-09-23]
To many, shopping is considered a recreational activity in which one visits a variety of stores in search of a suitable product to purchase. "Window shopping" is an activity that shoppers engage in by browsing shops with no intent to purchase, possibly just to pass the time between other activities, or to plan a later purchase.
To some, shopping is a task of inconvenience and vexation. Shoppers sometimes go though great lengths to wait in long lines to buy popular products as typically observed with
early adoptersshoppers and holiday shoppers.
More recently compulsive shopping has been recognised as an
addiction. Also referred as shopping addiction, "shopaholism" or formally oniomania, these shoppers have an impulsive uncontrollable need to go shopping. The term " retail therapy" is used in a less serious context.
A larger commercial zone can be found in many city
downtowns or Arabcity souks. Shopping hubs, or shopping centers, are collection of stores that is a grouping of several businesses. Typical examples include shopping malls, town squares, flea markets, and bazaars.
Shops are divided into multiple categories of stores which sell a selected set of goods or services. Usually they are tiered by target demographic based on the amount
disposable incomeof the shopper. They can be tiered from cheap to pricey.
Some shops sell second-hand goods. Often the public can also sell goods to such shops. In other cases, especially in the case of a
nonprofitshop, the public donates goods to the shop to be sold though thrift stores in the USA, charity shops in the UK. In give-away shops goods can be taken for free. In antique shops, the public can find goods that are older and harder to find. Sometimes people are brokeand borrow money from a pawn shopusing an item of value as collateral. College students are known to resell books back though college textbook bookstores. Old used items are often distributed though surplus stores.
Many shops are part of a "shopping chain" that carry the same
trademark(company name) and logousing the same branding, same presentation, and sell the same products but in different locations. The shops may be owned by one company, or there may be a franchisingcompany that has franchising agreements with the shop owners often found in relation to restaurant chains.
Various types of retail stores that specialise in the selling of goods related to a theme include
bookstores, candy shops, liquor stores, gift shops, hardware stores, hobby stores, pet stores, pharmacys, sex shops, supermarkets.
Other stores such as
big-box stores, hypermarkets, convenience stores, department stores, general stores, dollar stores sell a wider variety of products not horizontally related to each other.
With modern technology such as television and telephone and the Internet, users could be described as "
home shopping" though online retail stores. Electronic commerceand business-to-consumer electronic commercesystems in combination of home mail deliverysystems make this possible. Typically a consumer could make purchases though online shopping, shopping channels, mail order, etc. Sometimes peddlers and ice cream trucks pass though the neighborhoods offering services and goods. Also, neighborhood shopping takes place though various garage sales found in United States. Online shopping has completely redefined the way people make their buying decisions; they have access to a lot of information about a particular product which can be looked at and evaluated, at any given time. Online shopping allows the buyer to save the time which would have been spent traveling to the store or mall.
Some business have
shopping hoursbut some are open round-the-clock. Some nations regulate the operation of businesses for religious reasons and do not allow shopping on particular days or dates.
Shopping seasons are periods where a burst of spending occurs - typically near holidays in the
United States, where Christmas shoppingis the biggest shopping spending season. Some famous target dates are Black Friday and Cyber Monday.
Some religions regard such spending seasons against their religion and dismiss the practice. Many question the over-commercialization and the response by stores who downplay the shopping season often cited in the Christmas controversy or
War on Christmas.
National Retail Federation(NRF) also highlights the importance of back-to-school shopping for retailers which comes second behind holiday shopping where buyers often buy clothing and school supplies for their children. [cite web|url=http://money.cnn.com/2007/08/09/news/economy/July_retailsales/index.htm|title=Back-to-school sales' mixed grades|publisher=CNN|work=CNNMoney.com|accessdate=2008-01-27] In 2006, Americans spend over $17 billion on their kids according to NRF survey. [cite web|url=http://www.examiner.com/a-879764~Back_to_school_sales_expected_to_surpass__18_billion.html|publisher=The Examiner|title=Back-to-school sales expected to surpass $18 billion|accessdate=2008-01-27]
Pricing and negotiation
pricingtechnique used by most retailers is cost-plus pricing. This involves adding a markup amount (or percentage) to the retailers cost. Another common technique is "manufacturers suggested list" pricing. This simply involves charging the amount suggested by the manufacturer and usually printed on the product by the manufacturer.
In Western countries, retail
prices are often so-called " psychological prices" or "odd prices": a little less than a round number, e.g. $ 6.95. In Chinese societies, prices are generally either a round number or sometimes some lucky number. This creates price points.
Often prices are fixed and displayed on signs or labels. Alternatively, there can be
price discriminationfor a variety of reasons. The retailer charges higher prices to some customers and lower prices to others. For example, a customer may have to pay more if the seller determines that he or she is willing to. The retailer may conclude this due to the customer's wealth, carelessness, lack of knowledge, or eagerness to buy.
Price discrimination can lead to a
bargainingsituation often called "haggling", a negotiationabout the price. Economists see this as determining how the transaction's total surplus will be divided into consumer and producer surplus. Neither party has a clear advantage, because the threat of no sale exists, whence the surplus vanishes for both.
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Look at other dictionaries:
shopping — shopping … Deutsch Wörterbuch
shopping — ou shoping [ ʃɔpiŋ ] n. m. • 1804; mot angl., de shop « boutique » ♦ Anglic. Le fait d aller de magasin en magasin pour regarder et acheter. ⇒ chalandage, lèche vitrine, région. 2. magasinage. Faire du shopping. ● shopping nom masculin (anglais … Encyclopédie Universelle
shopping — shópping (angl.) [pron. şóping] s. n. Trimis de gall, 06.03.2008. Sursa: DOOM 2 shópping cénter (angl.) [pron. şóping séntăr] s. n. Trimis de gall, 06.03.2008. Sursa: DOOM 2 … Dicționar Român
shopping — |chópingue| s. m. Ver centro comercial. • Plural: shoppings. ‣ Etimologia: palavra inglesa, redução de shopping center … Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa
Shopping — Shopping,das:⇨Einkaufsbummel … Das Wörterbuch der Synonyme
shopping — / ʃɔpiŋ/, it. / ʃɔp:ing/ s. ingl. [der. di (to ) shop fare acquisti ], usato in ital. al masch. [l andare in giro per guardare e comprare oggetti vari: fare s. ] ▶◀ acquisti, compere, spese … Enciclopedia Italiana
shopping — /ˈʃoppin(g), ingl. ˈʃHpɪŋ/ [vc. ingl., propriamente gerundio di to shop «comperare»] s. m. inv. compere, spese, acquisti. SFUMATURE ► acquisto … Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione
shopping — DEFINICIJA v. šoping … Hrvatski jezični portal
shopping — [n] buying browsing, e commerce, electronic commerce, purchasing, spending; concept 327 … New thesaurus
shopping — ► NOUN 1) the purchasing of goods from shops. 2) goods bought from shops, especially food and household goods … English terms dictionary