- Jet pack
:"For other meanings see
Jetpack (disambiguation).":"The Martin Jetpack, despite its name, has no jets or rockets, but is a small helicopter, and is discussed as such."Jet pack, rocket belt, rocket pack, and similar names, are various types of device, usually worn on the back, that use jets of escaping gases to allow the user to fly.
The concept of these devices emerged from
science fictionin the 1920s and popularised in the 1960s as the technology became a reality. Currently the only practical uses of the jet pack has been Extra-vehicular activityfor astronautsand despite decades of advancement in the technology, the challenges of the Earth's atmosphereand Earth's gravityand the human body(not being suited to this type of flight) remain an obstacle to its potential use in the military and as a means of personal transport.
The German Flightpack of World War II
World War II, Germany made late-war experiments of strapping two wearable shortened Schmidt pulse jettubes of low thrust to the body of a pilot. The working principle was the same as the Schmidt-Argus pulse jet that powered the Fieseler Fi 103 flying bomb whereas the size was much smaller.
The device was called "Himmelstürmer" (Skystormer) and operated as follows: when the flier ignited both engines simultaneously the tubes began to pulse modulate. The angled rear tube strapped to the flier's back provided both lift and forward thrust while the chest mounted deflector tube of lower thrust maintained a constant upward thrust. This lifted the flier up and forward. By opening the throttle to the rear tube, calculated "jumps" could be made of up to 60 meter (180 ft) at low altitude (under 50 ft, 15 m). The tubes consumed very little fuel but not much could be carried either.
The intended use for this device was for German engineer units to cross minefields, barbed wire obstacles, and bridgeless waters. The device was never intended for troop use, despite a crude depiction of it in that role in the comic book and film "
The Rocketeer" (which was a prop bearing no resemblance to the real device).
At the end of the war this device was handed over to Bell which tested it on a tether out of fear of harm as no test flier was willing to risk his life with the German machine. What became of the device is not known. [ [http://discaircraft.greyfalcon.us/HIMMELSTURMER.htm Himmelsturmer ] ]
The fictional device used by The Rocketeer was a rocket pack that was technically unique (at least in the
filmadaptation) because it was designed to remain cool. The Himmelstürmer, by comparison, never operated long enough to get extremely hot and both tubes were angled away from the body of the flier. In operation the thrust difference between pulse tubes acted as a push/pull/lift system. Flight time for jumps was in seconds with no lengthy descent time as altitude was minimal. As soon as the throttle was disengaged the device was shut off, a very simple operation and no report of any casualties. [ [http://unrealaircraft.com/qbranch/german_rp.php Unreal Aircraft - Q Branch - German Rocket Pack - WW2 ] ] ["German Secret Weapons and Wonder Weapons of World War II", Christof Friedrich, Samisdat Publications, 1976]
The Jump Belt (mostly compressed gas powered)
Garry Burdettand Alexander Bohr, engineers of ThiokolCorporation created the "Jump Belt", which they named Project Grasshopper. Thrust was created by high-pressure compressed nitrogen. On the "belt" were fixed two small nozzles, directed vertically downward. The wearer of the "belt" could open a valve, letting out from the nitrogen gas cylinderthrough the nozzles, in this case it was tossed upward to the height to 7 meters. After leaning forward, it was possible with the aid of the "jump belt's" thrust to run at 45 to 50 km/h. Then Burdett and Bohr tested a hydrogen peroxidepowered version. The "jump belt" was demonstrated by a serviceman in action, but there was no financing, and the matter again did not go to further tests.
The small size of the canisters is likely the reason why the name usage "-belt" rather than "-pack" became customary in the USA.
In 1959 Aerojet General Corporation won a U.S. Army contract to make a jetpack or rocketpack. At the start of 1960
Richard Peoplesmade his first tethered flight with his Aeropack.
In 1960, Bell Rocketbelt was presented to the public. The jet of gas was provided by a
hydrogen peroxidepowered rocket but the jet can also be provided by a turbojetengine, a ducted fan, or other kinds of rockets powered by solid fuel, liquid fuel or compressed gas (usually nitrogen).
But American servicemen did not lose interest in this type of flight vehicle. Control of transport studies of the U.S. Army Transportation Research Command,
TRECOM) assumed that personal jet apparatuses could find the most diverse uses: for reconnaissance, crossing rivers, amphibious landing, access to steep mountain slopes, overcoming minefields, tactical manoeuvring, etc. The concept was named Small Rocket Lift Device, SRLD.
Within the framework of this concept the administration in 1959 concluded with the company Aerojet General a big contract to research on the possibility of designing an SRLD, suitable for army purposes. Aerojet came to the conclusion that the version with the engine running on hydrogen peroxide was most suitable. However, it soon became known to the military that engineer Wendell Moore of the company
Bell Aerosystemshad for several years been carrying out experiments to make a personal jet device. After becoming acquainted with his work, servicemen during August 1960 decided to send an order for Bell Aerosystems to develop an SLRD. Wendell Moore was appointed as the chief project engineer.
Hydrogen peroxide powered rocketpacks
hydrogen peroxide-powered motor is based on the decomposition reaction of hydrogen peroxide. Nearly pure (90% in the Bell Rocket Belt) hydrogen peroxide is used. Pure hydrogen peroxide is relatively stable, but in contact with the catalyst(for example, silver) it decomposes into a mixture of superheated steamand oxygenin less than 1/10 millisecondincreasing in volume 5000 times: 2 H2O2 = 2 H2O + O2. The reaction is exothermic, i.e. with liberation of much heat (about 2500 kJ/kg), forming in this case a steam-gas mixture at 740 °C. This hot gas is used exclusively as the reaction massand is directly led to one or more jet nozzles.
The great disadvantage is the limited operating time. The jet of steam and oxygen can provide significant thrust from fairly lightweight rockets, but the jet has a reasonably low exhaust velocity and hence a poor
specific impulse. A man's carrying capacity before take-off sets the upper bound on weight of propellant that can be used, and so currently such rocket belts can only fly for about 30 seconds.
A more conventional bipropellant could more than double the specific impulse, however, with peroxide while the exhaust is very hot it is much cooler than other propellants that could be used and this greatly reduces the risk of a fire and injury.
In contrast to, for example,
turbojetengines which mainly expel atmospheric air to produce thrust, rocket packs are far simpler to build than devices using turbojets. The classical rocket pack of the construction of Wendell Moore can be prepared in workshop conditions but needs good engineering training and a high level of tool-making craftsmanship.
The main faults of this type of rocket pack are:
* Short duration of flight (to 30 seconds).
* The reasonably high expense of the peroxide propellant.
* The danger of flying below minimum
parachutealtitude, and hence without any safety equipment.
* The sheer difficulty of manually flying such a device.These circumstances limit the sphere of the application of rocket packs to very spectacular public demonstration flights (stunts). Rocket pack flights typically seize the attention of spectators and enjoy great success. For example, a flight was arranged in the course of the opening ceremony of the summer
Olympic Games1984 in Los Angeles, USA
Bell Textron Rocket Belt
This is the oldest known type of jetpack or rocketpack.
Rocket Beltis on display at the Smithsonian Institution's, National Air and Space Museum's annex, the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, located near Dulles Airport.
RB-2000 Rocket Belt
This was a successor to the Bell Rocket Belt. [ [http://www.canosoarus.com/07RocketBelt/Rocket02.htm RB 2000 ] ] See
Bell Rocket Belt#RB2000 Rocket Belt.
The Bell Pogo was a small rocket-powered platform that 2 people could ride on. Its design used features from the Bell Rocket Belt.
Powerhouse Productions Rocketbelt
More commonly known as "The Rocketman", Powerhouse Productions, owned and operated by Kinnie Gibson, is the first company to manufacture the 30 second flying RocketbeltFact|date=October 2007 and performed Rocketbelt performances exclusively since 1983, including the
1984 Summer Olympics, Carnival in Rio de Janerio, Super Bowls, the Rose Paradeand Daytona 500, Michael Jackson. Powerhouse Rocketbelt pilots include Kinnie Gibson, Eric Scott and Dan Schlund. [ [http://www.rocketman.org The Rocketman ] ]
Tecnologia Aeroespacial Mexicana (TAM)
The Tecaeromex Rocket Belt is or was made by [http://www.tecaeromex.com Tecnologia Aeroespacial Mexicana] , which is said to be made by the only company in the world that offers a flying and tested rocket belt package, featured in the March 2006 issue of
Popular Sciencemagazine and many TV programs around the world like the Discovery Channel, the BBC, ProSieben, TV Azteca, The Science Channel, The History Channel. Its maker claims that four of his rocketpacks are flying now; his first tethered flights were on 22 September 2005. See http://www.tecaeromex.com/ingles/RB-i.htm for a description and a big image. It runs on hydrogen peroxide. It sells for USA $125,000 including a training course in using it.
On Aug. 11, 2006 Isabel Lozano was the first woman in the world to fly tethered in a rocket belt in front of millions of TV spectators; she flew with a special rocket belt built by TAM. [ [http://www.tecaeromex.com/ingles/IL-i.htm Isabel Lozano ] at www.tecaeromex.com]
* [http://www.tecaeromex.com/ Tecnologia Aeroespacial Mexicana] (TAM)'s custom-built TAM Rocket Belt sells for $125,000.
**(TAM also made a
backpack helicoptercalled Libellula, with a 2-bladed rotor driven by a small rocket motor at the end of each rotor blade. [ [http://www.tecaeromex.com/ingles/RH-i.htm Rocket Helicopter of Tecnologia Aeroespacial Mexicana ] at www.tecaeromex.com] )
[http://www.jetpackinternational.com Jetpack International] made 3 types of jetpacks. They do not have wings:
('@' means "estimated")
A Jet Pack H202 was flown for 34 seconds in
Central Parkon the 9 April 2007 episode of the Today Show, and sold for $150,000. But http://www.jetpackinternational.com/equip.html says (as at 30 July 2008) that their H202 jetpacks are for demonstration only, not for sale.
** [http://www.metacafe.com/watch/686719/jetpack_t_73_wanna_fly/ T-73 video]
** [http://uk.cars.ign.com/articles/817/817351p1.html Information & images]
** [http://www.youngeagles.org/news/archive/2008%20-%2001_03%20-%20Jet%20Pack%20Takes%20Off.asp 2008 - 01/03 - Jet Pack Takes Off ] at www.youngeagles.org
** [http://www.techradar.com/news/world-of-tech/future-tech/ditch-the-car-and-fly-to-work-with-a-jet-pack-153049 Ditch the car and fly to work with a jet-pack | News | TechRadar UK ] at www.techradar.com
Packs with the
turbojetengine work on the traditional kerosene. They have higher efficiency, greater height and a duration of flight of many minutes, but they are complex in construction and very expensive. Only one working model of this pack was made; it underwent flight tests in the 1960s and at present it no longer flies.
Bell Jet Flying Belt
In 1965 Bell Aerosystems concluded a new contract with the
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency(DARPA) to develop a jet pack with a turbojet engine. This project was called the "Jet Flying Belt", or simply the "Jet Belt". Wendell Moore and John K. Hulbert, a specialist in gas turbines, worked to design a new turbojet pack. Williams Research Corporation (now Williams International) in Walled Lake, Michigan, designed and built a new turbojet engine to Bell's specifications in 1969. It was called the WR19, with a rated thrust of 195 kgf(1,910 newtons) and weighing 31 kg.
The first free flight of the "Jet Belt" took place on
7 April 1969at the Niagara Falls Municipal Airport. Pilot Robert Courter flew about 100 meters in a circle at an altitude of 7 meters, reaching a speed of 45 km/h. The following flights were longer, up to 5 minutes. Theoretically, this new pack could fly for 25 minutes and go up to 135 km/h.
In spite of successful tests, the U.S. Army lost interest. The pack was complex to maintain and too heavy. Landing with its weight on his back was hazardous to the pilot, and catastrophic loss of a turbine blade could have been lethal.
Thus, the "Bell Jet Flying Belt" remained an experimental model. On
29 May 1969, Wendell Moore died of complications from a heart attack he had suffered six months earlier, and work on the turbojet pack was ended. Bell sold the sole version of the "Bell pack", together with the patents and the technical documentation, to Williams Research Corporation. This pack is now in the Williams International company museum.A version of this engine went on to power the later US Tomahawk cruise missiles.
Special features of the turbojet pack
The "Jet Belt" used a small
turbofanengine, which was mounted vertically, with its air intake downward (1). Intake air was divided into two flows. One flow went into the combustion chamber, the other flow bypassed the engine, then mixed with the hot turbine gases, cooling them and protecting the pilot from the high temperature. In the upper part of the engine the exhaust was divided and entered two pipes, which led to jet nozzles (2). The construction of the nozzles made it possible to move the jet to any side. Kerosenefuel was in tanks (33) beside the engine. Control of the turbojet pack was similar the rocket pack, but the pilot could not tilt the entire engine. Maneuvering was by deflecting the controlled nozzles. By inclining levers, the pilot could move the jets of both nozzles forward, back, or sideways. The pilot rotated left/right by the turning the left handle. The right handle governed the engine thrust. The jet engine was started with the aid of a powder cartridge. While testing this starter, a mobile starter on a special cart was used. There were instruments to control the power of the engine, and a portable radio to connect and transmit telemetry data to ground-based engineers. On top of the pack was a standard auxiliary landing parachute (4); it was effective only when opened higher than 20 meters. This engine went on to become the basis for the early cruise missile propulsion unit.
Rocket packs can be useful in
outer space, where much less thrust is needed, because the weightlessnessof space removes the need to continually fight against gravity.
Rocket packs were tested during mission STS-64. Mission Specialists Carl Meade and Mark Lee tested the SAFER Rocket Pack while Hammond remained inside the Orbiter.
NASA's Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) (compressed gas powered)
In the 1980s,
NASAdemonstrated the Manned Maneuvering Unit(MMU), a rocket pack that allowed an astronautto function as his/her own spacecraft, but the system was retired before the decade was gone. The MMU is the only jetpack of practical importance. Its operational area is outside a space stationor spacecraft, where an astronaut can limitedly move independently. The MMU's propulsion was produced by high-pressure nitrogen gas discharged through nozzles (which the MMU has 24 of). The MMU was used since 1984 in three Space Shuttlemissions (STS-41-B, STS-41-C and STS-51-A).
Recently, NASA has introduced the SAFER, a smaller simpler version of the MMU meant to be used in case of accidental separation from spacecraft or station. With only small amounts of
thrustneeded, safety and temperature are much more manageable than in Earth gravity in the atmosphere.
Winged jet and rocket packs
Jetpacks and rocketpacks would likely have much better flight time on a tankful of fuel if they had wings. There have been occasional real cases of a man gliding horizontally long distances with his body horizontal and no flying aid except a pair of rigid airplane-type wings strapped directly to his body; see also
Visa Parviainen's jet-assisted wingsuit
On 25 October 2005 in
Lahtiin Finland, Visa Parviainenjumped from a hot air balloonin a wingsuitwith two small turbojet jet engines attached to his feet. The turbojets provided approximately 16 kgf(160 N, 35 lbf) of thrust each and ran on kerosene(JET A-1) fuel. Visa apparently achieved approximately 30 seconds of horizontal flight with no noticeable loss of altitude. [ [http://www.bird-man.com/?n=windtunnel&nose=6 BIRDMAN, Inc. / Oy ] ]
Yves Rossy's jetpack
Swiss ex-military and commercial pilot
Yves Rossydeveloped and built a winged pack with rigid aeroplane-type carbon-fiberwings spanning about convert|8|ft|m and four small kerosene-burning jet engines underneath; these engines are large versions of a type designed for model aeroplanes. [ [http://jetcat.de/ JetCat Germany] , [http://www.jetcatusa.com/ JetCat USA subsidiary] ] He wears a heat-resistant suit similar to that of a firefighteror racing driverto protect him from the hot jet exhaust. [Frank Jordans, AP (May 14, 2008). [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24617833/ "Rocket man flies on jet-powered wings"] , MSNBC.com.] [http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20080514/ap_on_re_eu/switzerland_rocket_man]
Rossy claims to be "the first person to gain altitude and maintain a stable horizontal flight thanks to aerodynamic carbon foldable wings," which are folded by hinges at the midpoint of each wing. After being lifted by a
Pilatus Porterplane piloted by Jean-Marc Colomb, he jumps out with his wings folded, unfolds them while in free-fall, flies horizontally for several minutes, then lands using a parachute. [YouTube|bEXxkWXncuo|Yves Rossy The Swiss Jet Man-ENGLISH TEXT under 'More info'] He achieves true controlled flight using his body and a hand throttle to maneuver.
Rossy's jetpack was exhibited on
18 April 2008at the opening day of the 35th Exhibition of Inventionsat Geneva. [ [http://www.daylife.com/photo/0aKOeAIdiCeDE Photo from Getty Images by AFP/Getty Images - Daylife ] at www.daylife.com] Rossy and his sponsors spent over $190,000 to build the device. [ [http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/2008-05-14-swiss-fusion-man_N.htm Swiss man soars above Alps with jet-powered wing (AP)] ]
His first successful trial was on
24 June 2004near Geneva, Switzerland. Rossy has made more than 30 powered flights since. In November 2006 he flew with a later version of his jetpack.Fact|date=September 2008
May 14, 2008he made a successful 6-minute flight from the town of Bexnear Lake Geneva. He exited a Pilatus Porterat 7,500 feet with his jetpack. It was the first public demonstration before the world's press. He made effortless loops from one side of the Rhone valleyto the other and rose 2,600 feet.
It has been claimed that the military has been impressed and asked for prototypes for the powered wings, and that Rossy kindly refused the request and stated it is only for aviation enthusiasm purposes. [ [http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5jfWNoyCK4QHbCQ_3bzRRjCjvlYiQD90LTSVG0 ap.google.com, Swiss man soars above Alps with jet-powered wing] ] [cite news
title=Rocketman flies in the skies
accessdate=2008-08-05] [ [http://www.nypost.com/seven/05152008/news/worldnews/switzerlands_new_air_force_110931.htm nypost.com, Switzerland’s New Air Force] ]
26 September2008, Yves successfully flew across the English Channelfrom Calais, Franceto Dover, Englandin under 10 minutes [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7637327.stm Pilot completes jetpack challenge] ] (9 minutes 7 seconds [ [http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/article1741520.ece Buzz Flight-here!] , "The Sun", 30-Sep-2008.] ). His speed reached 186 mphduring the crossing [ [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24617833/ Rocket man flies on jet-powered wings. Former fighter pilot reaches 186 miles an hour during first public flight] ] , and was at 125 mph when he deployed the parachute [ [http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/this-britain/to-infinity-or---just-dover-jetman-crosses-the-english-channel-944042.html To infinity... or just Dover?: Jetman crosses the English Channel] ] . [http://spacecat90.antville.org/stories/1839462/ Video] of the flight has been posted on the World-Wide Web.
Links to images of Rossy and his jetpack
:;On the ground:
* [http://www.adventureblog.org/images/yves-rossy-2_1822.jpgWings folded, front view]
* [http://img109.imageshack.us/img109/904/photogdactuel1462e8dyg6.jpgWings unfolded, front view]
* [http://cache.daylife.com/imageserve/0aKOeAIdiCeDE/610x.jpgClose-up view of underside with jetmotors and harness, wings unfolded] :;Flying:
* [http://www.adventureblog.org/images/yves-rossy-7_1822.jpgFrom above]
* [http://www.mbandf.com/ourworld/media/1/20070102-jetman.jpgFrom above]
* [http://www.symscape.com/node/467 Edge-on side view]
* [http://www.stuff.co.nz/images/723729.jpgFrom below]
* [http://blog.wired.com/cars/2008/05/swiss-man-strap.html Video]
According to the USA Government, real jetpacks have little practical value due to the limitations of current technology. The
United States military, which conducted most jet pack research, has declared that helicopters are far more practical. Many others have worked on devising a functional jet pack, but with limited success.
In recent years the rocket pack has become popular among enthusiasts, and some have built one for themselves. The pack's basic construction is rather simple, but its flying capability depends on two key parts: the gas generator, and the thrust control valve. The rocket packs being built today are largely based on the research and inventions of Wendell Moore at
One of the largest stumbling blocks that would-be rocket pack builders have faced is the difficulty of obtaining concentrated
hydrogen peroxide, which is no longer produced by very many chemical companies. The companies who produce high concentration hydrogen peroxide only sell to large corporations or governments, forcing some amateurs and professionals to make their own hydrogen peroxide distillation installations. Since 2005, more rocket packs are being built and tested out, since hydrogen peroxide has become more readily available. [ [http://www.peroxidepropulsion.com Peroxide Propulsion :: Peroxide Propulsion ] at www.peroxidepropulsion.com]
Two high-profile jetpack projects are currently being operated:
*Jetpack International: see above.
*Tecnologia Aeroespacial Mexicana: see above.
In popular culture
The concept of jet packs appeared in popular culture, particularly
science fictionlong before the technology became practical.
Perhaps the first appearance was in
comic books. The 1928 cover of Amazing Storiesfeatured a man flying with a jetpack.
Several science fiction novels from the 1950s featured jet packs.
But it was not until the "Bell Rocket Belt" in the 1960s that the jet pack reached the imagination of the mainstream. Bell's demonstration flights in the U.S. and other countries created significant public enthusiasm.
The manga character
Astroboy, who first appeared in 1963 achieved flight through two jetpacks hidden in his legs which appeared from his feet when needed. Likewise Iron Man, a comic book character who had jetpacks built into his armour first appeared in the same year.
Johnny Questseries of prime time cartoons had an episode or two with jet pack technology integrated into those episodes as a common future technology.
The character The Rocketeer first appeared in comic books in 1982 and the central theme of this character was the jet pack.
A rocket pack occurred famously on the opening of the summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles in 1984. The pack was piloted by both Bill Suitor and Gordon Yaeger. Suitor was a legendary personality (in all calculation more than 1200 flights — more than in any other pilot to this day). Bill took off from platforms, flew above many spectators, who from the unexpected contingency covered their heads with their hands, and landed opposite the presidential platform, where
Ronald Reagansat. This flight was seen by 100,000 spectators on the platforms and about 2.5 billion television viewers.
A jet pack featured on Michael Jackson's "
Dangerous World Tour" from 1992 where a stunt double flew a rocket jet at the end of the concerts.
While unrelated to the device, revival musician
Dan J. Standifordwent by the name Jetpack.
James Bond film"Thunderball" is one of the more famous appearances of the technology in film and widely captured the public imagination, as it showed an actual functioning jet pack and its potential usage in espionage, which was a popular theme during the cold war. In the filming of "Thunderball", two packs were used. One was a non-functional prop: it can be seen on Sean Connery in the large-scale planning scenes. The second was a genuine Bell Rocket Beltand it actually flew, piloted by Bell Company pilots Bill Suitorand Gordon Yaeger. The scenes with Sean Connery and the pack had to be shot twice, because the first time they photographed it his head was uncovered, and in the flying shots Bill Suitor flatly refused to take off without a crash helmet. In the film's sound trackthe real shrill roar of the rocket pack's engine was replaced with the hiss of a fire extinguisher"to seem more realistic".
In "Fahrenheit 451" (1966 film), a jet-pack-equipped search squad is hunting the main protagonist.
Buzz Lightyear, first appearing in Toy Storyhad a jetpack or rocket-pack, which was non-functional in the two Toy Story movies, but functional in follow-up stories.
In the 2002 film "Minority Report" and , the pre-crime cops routinely use jet-packs.
Iron Man (film)based on the Iron Man character was released and featured scenes in which the hero used his built-in jet-pack.
In 1965, the same year as the film "Thunderball", an early episode of "
Lost in Space" featured a stunt flyer (who had stood in for actor Guy Williams) in a flight through an 'alien' canyon-area, using the hydrogen-peroxide jet belt.
The 1976 Saturday morning live-action television series
Ark IIfeatured a jet pack called a "Jet Jumper". Star Warscharacter Boba Fettfirst appeared in the Star Wars Christmas Specialtelevision segment in 1978 featuring his trademark jet and rocket pack. Following his appearance the next year in The Empire Strikes Back, he became one of the most popular villains in the series.
The television series Transformers (1984) and
M.A.S.K.(1985) began to show characters regularly using jetpacks and rocketpacks.
During the 2002 "Buffy the Vampire Slayer" episode "Seeing Red",
Warren Mearsescapes from Buffy using a jetpack; Andrew Wellsreveals he too has a jetpack, but when he tries to escape, he only knocks himself out on the overhanging roof above him.
Also in 2002
Disney's Kim Possible, Kim Possible and her partner Ron Stoppable began to use winged jetpacks which were hidden in backpacks.
The Batman also includes
cameoappearances of jetpacks.
In toys and videogames
In the 1980s, the rocket pack began to emerge in video games. Early games like Asteroids featured jet propulsion, but it was not until the graphics could show proper human or robot characters that jet packs appeared.
* Part of the original 1982 release of the G.I. Joe: A Real American Hero toyline included a toy called Jet Mobile Propulsion Unit (JUMP). In was repackaged in 1983 with Grand Slam.
Jetpacreleased in 1983 for the ZX Spectrumfeatured a spaceman with a jet pack.
Space Harrierand Thexder(1985) both featured robot equipped with jet packs.
* JJ (1987) featured jetpacks on most levels.
Rocket Ranger, (1988) featured a rocketman as part of the central character.
* The 1990
Nintendo video game Pilotwingswas a Super Nintendo Entertainment System flight simulatorgame which notably featured a rocket belt as one of the challenges. The game was subsequently re-released on the Nintendo 64.
* The computer game named Jetpack was released in 1993, with the central character of the platform game using a jetpack to get around.
* Characters in the multiplayer strategy Worms series of games have had this playing option since 1995.
Super Bomberman 4in 1996 was the first time the Nintendo character Bombermanappeared with a jetpack. He appeared in subsequent release of Bomberman Heroin 1998.
Duke Nukem 3Dreleased in 1996 featured a jet pack with limited flight time.
The jetpack also appears in later computer games like , and in , where
Global Defense Initiativehas infantrywhich are equipped with jetpacks.
In the popular 2005 online game
Club Penguin, in one of the games the player flies a jetpack.
Home-made rocket packs using plans from the Internet
MythBusters" investigates the urban legendof an affordable jetpack or rocketpack that can be built from plans purchased off the Internet. Extensive modifications were made by the MythBusters team due to the vagueries in the plans, and the infeasible engine mounting system specified. The jetpack produced by the MythBusters had two ducted fans powered by ultralight-type engines. They found it was not powerful enough to lift a person off the ground, and was expensive to build. The plans specified a Rotax 503 ultralightengine, but they intended to use the more powerful and lighter Rotax 583 engine before a similar, lighter unnamed engine was substituted. [ [http://kwc.org/mythbusters/2005/06/mythbusters_jetpack_pyramid_po.html Annotated Mythbusters: Episode 32: Jetpack, Pyramid power ] at kwc.org]
America's only "private rocketeer", Gerard Martowlis, built a fully operational rocket pack. Like all flying packs, his is extraordinarily difficult and extremely dangerous to fly, taking many hours to learn and practice. He performed his recent test flights using a safety tether system in case he lost control. A consequence of the short flight time of any peroxide-based pack is that the entire flight is below the minimum parachute altitude. Accordingly, any loss of control or failure of the pack is most likely fatal. The training also incurs expensive fuel costs.
List of personal aircraft
* [http://www.rocketman.org/ The Rocketman] The company performing Rocketbelt flights worldwide.
* [http://www.rocketbelt.nl/ Rocket Belt] . Peter Guisbert's site, dedicated to the history of rocket pack. Enormous quantity of information and photographs.
* [http://www.transchool.eustis.army.mil/Museum/Jetbelt.htm U.S. Army Transportation Museum] about rocketpacks including the "Bell Rocket Belt".
* [http://www.natgeotv.com.au National Geoographic Channel]
* [http://www.jet-man.com/actuel.html Web-site with video]
* [http://www.rocketbelts.americanrocketman.com Flying into the Future: Ky Michaelson's Jet pack site]
* [http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/transportation/4217989.html Popular Mechanics comparison of the TAM Rocket Belt and Jetpack International's Jet Pack H202]
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