The word "pastiche" describes a literary or other artistic
genre. The word has two competing meanings, meaning either a "" or an imitation. Both meanings are discussed below.
In this usage, a work is called "pastiche" if it is "cobbled together" in imitation of several original works. As the
Oxford English Dictionaryputs it, a pastiche in this sense is "a medley of various ingredients; a hotchpotch, farrago, jumble." This meaning accords with etymology: "pastiche" is the French version of the greco-Roman dish " pastitsio" or "pasticcio", which designated a kind of pie made of many different ingredients.
In the 18th century,
operapasticcios were frequently made by composers as notable as George Frideric Handel(e.g. " Giove in Argo"), Christoph Willibald Gluck, and Johann Christian Bach. These composite works would consist mainly of portions of other composers' work, although they could also include original composition. The portions borrowed from other composers would be more or less freely adapted, especially in the case of arias in "pasticcio" operas by substituting a new text for the original one.
Although there were many opera "pasticcios" in the 18th century, instrumental works would also sometimes be assembled from pre-existing compositions, a notable instance of this being the first four
piano concertos of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. These concertos (K. 37, 39–41) were assembled almost entirely from keyboard sonatamovements by contemporary composers, to which the boy Mozart added orchestral parts supporting the keyboard soloist.
Some works of art are pastiche in both senses of the term; for example, the David Lodge novel and the Star Wars series mentioned below appreciatively imitate work from multiple sources.
A pastiche mass is a mass where the constituent movements are from different Mass settings.
Masses are composed by classical composers as a set of movements:
Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei. (Examples: the Missa Solemnis by Beethoven and the Messe de Nostre Dameby Guillaume de Machaut.) In a pastiche mass, the performers may choose a Kyrie from one composer, and a Gloria from another, or, choose a Kyrie from one setting of an individual composer, and a Gloria from another.
Most often this convention is chosen for concert performances, particularly by early music ensembles.
In this usage, the term denotes a
literary techniqueemploying a generally light-hearted tongue-in-cheek imitation of another's style; although jocular, it is usually respectful.
For example, many stories featuring
Sherlock Holmes, originally created by Arthur Conan Doyle, have been written as pastiches since the author's time. A similar example of pastiche is the posthumous continuations the Robert E. Howardstories, written by other writers without Howard's authorization. This includes the Conan stories of L. Sprague de Campand Lin Carter.
David Lodge's novel "
The British Museum Is Falling Down" (1965) is a pastiche of works by Joyce, Kafka, and Virginia Woolf. Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Deadis a pastiche of Shakespeare's Hamlet.
Pastiche is also found in non-literary works, including art and music. For instance,
Charles Rosenhas characterized Mozart's various works in imitation of Baroque style as pastiche, and Edvard Grieg's Holberg Suitewas written as a conscious homage to the music of an earlier age. Perhaps one of the best examples of pastiche in modern music is the that of George Rochberg, who used the technique in his String Quartet No. 3 of 1972 and Music for the Magic Theater. Rochberg turned to pastiche from serialismafter the death of his son in 1963.
"Weird Al" Yankovic's songs are pastiches: for example, "Dare to Be Stupid" is a Devopastiche, and "Bob" from the album " Poodle Hat" is a pastiche of Bob Dylan. " Bohemian Rhapsody", by Queen is unusual as it is a pastiche in both senses of the word, as there are many distinct styles imitated in the song, all 'hodge-podged' together to create one piece of music.
Pastiche is prominent in
popular culture. Many genre writings, particularly in fantasy, are essentially pastiches. The " Star Wars" series of films by George Lucasis often considered to be a pastiche of traditional science fiction television serials (or radio shows). The fact that Lucas's films have been influential (spawning their own pastiches - "vis" the 1983 3D film "") can be regarded as a function of postmodernity.
The films of
Quentin Tarantinoare often described as pastiches, as they often pay tribute to (or imitate) pulp novels, blaxploitationand/or Chinese kung fu films, though some say his films are more of an homage. The same definition is said to apply to the video games of Hideo Kojimaas well, since they adopt many conventions of action films.
Pastiche can also be a
cinematicdevice wherein the creator of the film pays homageto another filmmaker's style and use of cinematography, including camera angles, lighting, and mise en scène. A film's writer may also offer a pastiche based on the works of other writers (this is especially evident in historical films and documentariesbut can be found in non-fiction drama, comedyand horror films as well).
Fredric Jamesonhas a somewhat more critical view of pastiche, describing it as "blank parody" (Jameson, 1991), especially with reference to the postmodern parodic practices of self-reflexivityand intertextuality. By this is meant that rather than being a jocular but still respectful imitation of another style, pastiche in the postmodern era has become a "dead language", without any political or historical content, and so has also become unable to satirize in any effective way. Whereas pastiche used to be a humorous literary style, it has, in postmodernism, become "devoid of laughter" (Jameson, 1991).
Urban Planning, a pastiche is used to refer to neighborhoods as imitations of building styles as conceived by major planners. Many post-war European neighborhoods can in this way be desribed as pastiches from planners like Le Corbusieror Ebenezer Howard.
*Jameson, Fredric. "Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism". Durham: Duke University Press, 1991.
*"Pasticcio" in Don Michael Randel, ed., "The New Harvard Dictionary of Music." Cambridge, MA: Bellnap Press of
Harvard University Press, 1986 (ISBN 0-674-61525-5), p. 614.
*Jameson, Fredric. "Postmodernism and Consumer Society" in "The Anti-Aesthetic: Essays on Post-Modern Culture", Hal Foster (ed), Seattle: Bay Press, 1989, pp. 111 - 125
*Hoesterey, Ingeborg. "Pastiche: Cultural Memory in Art, Film, Literature" Indiana University Press, 2001. (ISBN 0-253-33880-8)
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Look at other dictionaries:
PASTICHE — PASTICHE, genre littéraire La pratique du pastiche, genre imitatif relevant de l’activité artistique «au second degré» (G. Genette), remonte aussi loin que la création d’œuvres originales, bien que le mot lui même n’apparaisse dans le vocabulaire … Encyclopédie Universelle
Pastiche — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda El pastiche es una técnica utilizada en literatura y otras artes, consistente en la imitación de diversos textos, estilos o autores en una misma obra. El término procede del francés, que a su vez lo tomó del italiano … Wikipedia Español
Pastiche — [pas tiːʃ, französisch] der, s/ s, 1) Kunstgeschichte und Musik: Pasticcio. 2) Literatur: Nachahmung eines Werkes, eines Epochenstils oder einer literarischen Gattung unter Verwendung eines im Unterschied zur Parodie typisierenden, die… … Universal-Lexikon
pastiche — sustantivo masculino 1. Obra literaria o artística hecha a imitación de otras o mezclando elementos de otras: Esa película es un pastiche de otras del mismo director. 2. Mezcla desordenada de cosas diferentes: Catalina ha pintado las paredes de… … Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española
pastiche — (n.) a medley made up of fragments from different works, 1878, from Fr. pastiche, from It. pasticcio medley, pastry cake, from V.L. *pasticium composed of paste, from L.L. pasta paste, pastry cake (see PASTA (Cf. pasta)). Borrowed earlier (1752)… … Etymology dictionary
pastiche — |à| s. m. O mesmo que pasticho. ‣ Etimologia: francês pastiche … Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa
pastiche — (Del fr. pastiche). m. Imitación o plagio que consiste en tomar determinados elementos característicos de la obra de un artista y combinarlos, de forma que den la impresión de ser una creación independiente … Diccionario de la lengua española
pastiche — index melange Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 … Law dictionary
pastiche — [n] work of art formed from disparate sources assortment, collage, collection, compilation, copy, hodgepodge, imitation, mishmosh*, paste up, patchwork, potpourri, reappropriation, reproduction, synthesis; concept 260 … New thesaurus
pastiche — ► NOUN ▪ an artistic work in a style that imitates that of another work, artist, or period. DERIVATIVES pasticheur noun. ORIGIN Italian pasticcio, from Latin pasta paste … English terms dictionary
pastiche — [pas tēsh′, pästēsh′] n. [Fr < It pasticcio] 1. a) a literary, artistic, or musical composition made up of bits from various sources; potpourri b) a literary, artistic, or musical composition intended to imitate or caricature another artist s… … English World dictionary