- Cryogenic fuel
Cryogenic fuels are fuels that require storage at extremely low temperatures in order to maintain them in a liquid state. Cryogenic fuels most often constitute liquefied gases such as liquid hydrogen.
Some rocket engines use regenerative cooling, that is circulate their cryogenic fuel around their nozzles before the fuel is pumped into the combustion chamber and ignited. This arrangement was first suggested by Eugen Sänger in the 1940s. The Saturn V rocket that sent the first manned missions to the moon used this design element, which is still in use today.
Quite often, liquid oxygen is mistakenly called cryogenic "fuel", though it is actually an oxidizer and not a fuel.
Russian aircraft manufacturer Tupolev developed a version of its popular Tu-154 design but with a cryogenic fuel system, designated the Tu-155. Using a fuel referred to as liquefied natural gas (LNG), its first flight was in 1989.
India developed the technology in 2008 for use in their GSLV rockets.
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