- Cemetery H culture
The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the
Indus Valley Civilizationaround 1900 BCE, in and around the Punjab region, which is located on the border of India& todays Pakistan. It was named after a cemetery found in "area H" at Harappa.
The Cemetery H culture is part of the Punjab Phase, one of three cultural phases that developed in the Localization Era of the
Indus Valley Tradition. [cite journal |last=Kenoyer |first=Jonathan Mark |authorlink=Jonathan Mark Kenoyer |title=The Indus Valley tradition of Pakistan and Western India |journal=Journal of World Prehistory |year=1991 |volume=5 |pages=1–64 |doi=10.1007/BF00978474] [cite book |last=Shaffer |first=Jim G. |authorlink=Jim G. Shaffer |year=1992 |chapter=The Indus Valley, Baluchistan and Helmand Traditions: Neolithic Through Bronze Age |title=Chronologies in Old World Archaeology |edition=Second Edition |editor=R. W. Ehrich (ed.) |location=Chicago |publisher=University of Chicago Press |pages=I:441-464, II:425-446]
The distinguishing features of this culture include:Fact|date=February 2007
* The use of
cremationof human remains. The bones were stored in painted pottery burial urns. This is completely different from the Indus civilization where bodies were buried in wooden coffins. The urn burials and the "grave skeletons" were nearly contemporaneous. [cite book |first=Sasanka Sekhar |last=Sarkar |year=1964 |title=Ancient Races of Baluchistan, Panjab, and Sind]
* Reddish pottery, painted in black with
antelopes, peacocks etc., sunor starmotifs, with different surface treatments to the earlier period.
* Expansion of settlements into the east.
Ricebecame a main crop.
* Apparent breakdown of the widespread trade of the Indus civilization, with materials such as marine shells no longer used.
* Continued use of mud brick for building.
The Cemetery H culture also "shows clear biological affinities" with the earlier population of Harappa. [cite book |authorlink=Kenneth A. R. Kennedy |first=Kenneth A. R. |last=Kennedy |year=2000 |title= |location=Ann Arbor |publisher=University of Michigan Press |pages=312 Also cite book |title=Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture |first=J. P. |last=Mallory |coauthors=Adams, D. Q. |publisher=Fitzroy-Dearborn |location=London and Chicago |year=1997 |pages=103, 310]
The archaeologist Kenoyer noted that this culture "may only reflect a change in the focus of settlement organization from that which was the pattern of the earlier Harappan phase and not cultural discontinuity, urban decay, invading aliens, or site abandonment, all of which have been suggested in the past." [wikiref |id=Kenoyer-1991 |text=Kenoyer 1991, p. 56]
Remains of the culture have been dated from about 1900 BCE until about 1300 BCE. Together with the
Gandhara grave cultureand the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture, it is considered by some scholars a nucleus of Vedic civilization.
*cite book |last=Kenoyer |first=Jonathan Mark |authorlink=Jonathan Mark Kenoyer |year=1991 |chapter=Urban Process in the Indus Tradition: A preliminary model from Harappa |editor=Meadow, R. H. (ed.) |title=Harappa Excavations 1986-1990: A multidiscipinary approach to Third Millennium urbanism |location=Madison, WI |publisher=Prehistory Press |pages=pp. 29–60
* [http://www.harappa.com http://www.harappa.com]
* [http://pubweb.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp/indus/english/3_1_01.html http://pubweb.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp/indus/english/3_1_01.html]
Indus Valley Tradition
Painted Grey Ware
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