- Siouan languages
Infobox Language family
child3=Mississippi Valley (Central)
child4=Ohio Valley (Southeastern)
map_caption=Pre-contact distribution of the Siouan languages
The Siouan (a.k.a. Siouan proper, Western Siouan) languages are a Native American
language familyof North America, and the second largest indigenous language family in North America, after Algonquian.Fact|date=October 2008 The Siouan family is related to the Catawban family, together making up the Siouan-Catawban family. Some authors use the term "Siouan" to refer to the Siouan-Catawban family and the term "Siouan proper" to refer to the Siouan family.
While the Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota comprise "the
Great Sioux Nation", the language family is much broader and includes "the old speakers", the Ho-Chunkand their linguistic cousins, the Crow. The Siouan family also extends eastward to Virginiaand southward to the Gulf of Mexico.
While social migrations have yet to be definitively worked out, linguistic and historical records indicate a possible southern origin of Siouan people, with migrations over a thousand years ago from
North Carolinaand Virginiato Ohio, then both down the Ohio Riverto the Mississippiand up to the Missouri, and across Ohioto Illinois, Wisconsinand Minnesota, home of the Dakota.
The Siouan family consists of 17 languages with various sub-languages:
I. Missouri River Siouan (a.k.a. Crow-Hidatsa): 1. Crow (a.k.a. Absaroka, Apsaroka, Apsaalooke, Upsaroka): 2. Hidatsa (a.k.a. Gros Ventre, Minitari, Minnetaree)II. Mandan Siouan: 3. Mandan:: a.
Nuptare:: b. NeutareIII. Mississippi Valley Siouan (a.k.a. Central Siouan): A. Dakotan (a.k.a. Sioux-Assiniboine-Stoney):: 4. Sioux::: a. Santee-Sisseton(a.k.a. Santee, Eastern Sioux, Dakota):::: i. Santee:::: ii. Sisseton::: b. Yankton-Yanktonai(a.k.a. Yankton, Central Sioux, Dakota):::: i. Yankton:::: ii. Yanktonai::: c. Teton (a.k.a. Lakhota, Lakota, Western Sioux):::: i. Northern Teton:::: ii. Southern Teton:: 5. Assiniboine (a.k.a. Assiniboin):: 6. Stoney (a.k.a. Alberta Assiniboine): B. Chiwere-Winnebago (a.k.a. Chiwere):: 7. Chiwere (a.k.a. Ioway-Otoe-Missouria, Ioway-Otoe)::: a. Iowa (a.k.a. Ioway)::: b. Otoe (a.k.a. Oto, Jiwere)::: c. Missouria(a.k.a. Missouri):: 8. Winnebago (a.k.a. Hocák, Hochunk, Hochank, Hocangara, Hotcangara, Hochangara): C. Dhegiha (a.k.a. Dhegihan):: 9. Omaha-Ponca::: a. Omaha::: b. Ponca (a.k.a. Ponka):: 10. Kansa-Osage::: a. Kansa (a.k.a. Kanza, Kaw) "(†)"::: b. Osage:: 11. Quapaw(a.k.a. Kwapa, Kwapaw, Arkansas) "(†)"IV. Ohio Valley Siouan (a.k.a. Southeastern Siouan): A. Virginia Siouan:: 12. Tutelo:: 13. Saponi(a.k.a. Saponey) "(†)":: 14. Moniton(a.k.a. Monacan) "(†)":: 15. Occaneechi: B. Mississippi Siouan (a.k.a. Ofo-Biloxi) "(†)":: 16. Biloxi "(†)":: 17. Ofo(a.k.a. Ofogoula) "(†)"
"(†)" - Extinct (dormant) language
Another view of both the Dakotan and Mississippi Valley branches is to represent them as
dialect continuums.Notice: This article "does not" have information about the Virginia Siouan group.
* Parks, Douglas R.; & Rankin, Robert L. (2001). The Siouan languages. In R. J. DeMallie (Ed.), "Handbook of North American Indians: Plains" (Vol. 13, Part 1, pp. 94-114). W. C. Sturtevant (Gen. Ed.). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-050400-7.
* [http://puffin.creighton.edu/lakota/siouan_language.html The Siouan Languages Bibliography]
* [http://spot.colorado.edu/~koontz/faq/language.htm Siouan languages FAQ]
* [http://listserv.linguistlist.org/archives/siouan.html Siouan languages mailing list archive]
* [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=91107 Siouan family] (Ethnologue)
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