- Constantine II (emperor)
Constantine II Emperor of the Roman Empire
Porphyry statue of Constantine II
Reign 1 March 317 – 337 (as Caesar in the west under his father);
337 – 340 (joint emperor with Constantius II and Constans, over Gaul, Hispania, and Britannia, in 340 in failed competition with Constans);
Full name Flavius Claudius Constantinus Born February, 316 Birthplace Arelate, Viennensis Died 340 (aged 24) Place of death Aquileia, Italia Predecessor Constantine I Successor Constantius II and Constans Dynasty Constantinian Father Constantine the Great
Constantine II (Latin: Flavius Claudius Constantinus Augustus) (316 – 340), was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340. Co-emperor alongside his brothers, his short reign saw the beginnings of conflict emerge between the sons of Constantine the Great, and his attempt to exert his perceived rights of primogeniture ended up causing his death in a failed invasion of Italy in 340.
The eldest, possibly illegitimate, son of Constantine the Great, he was born at Arles in February, 316, and raised as a Christian. On March 1 317, Constantine was made Caesar, and at the age of seven in 323, took part in his father's campaign against the Sarmatians. At the age of ten he became commander of Gaul, after the death of his half-brother Crispus. An inscription dating to 330 records the title of Alamannicus, so it is probable that his generals won a victory over the Alamanni. His military career continued when Constantine I chose his son field commander during the 332 campaign against the Goths.
Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II initially became emperor jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans, with the Empire divided between them and their cousins, the Caesars Dalmatius and Hannibalianus. This arrangement barely survived Constantine I’s death, with the sons of Constantine arranging the slaughter of most of the family of Constantine I at the hands of the army. As a result, the three brothers gathered together in Pannonia and there on September 9, 337, divided the Roman world between themselves. Constantine, proclaimed Augustus by the troops received Gaul, Britannia and Hispania.
He was soon involved in the struggle between the different Christian streams that was rupturing the unity of the Christian Church. The Western portion of the Empire, under the influence of the Popes in Rome leaned towards Catholicism and against Arianism, and through their intercession they convinced Constantine to free Athanasius, allowing him to return to Alexandria. This action aggravated Constantius II, who was a committed supporter of Arianism.
At first, he was the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion was Italia, Africa and Illyricum. Constantine soon complained that he had not received the amount of territory that was his due, stemming from his position as the eldest of Constantine’s sons. Annoyed that Constans had received Thrace and Macedonia after the death of Dalmatius, Constantine demanded that Constans hand over the African provinces, which, in order to maintain a fragile peace, he agreed to do. Soon however, they began quarrelling over which parts of the African provinces belonged to Carthage, and thus Constantine, and that which belonged to Italy, and therefore Constans.
Additional complications also arose when Constans came of age, and Constantine, who had grown used to dominating his younger brother, would not relinquish the guardianship. Therefore in 340 he marched into Italy at the head of his troops. Constans, at that time in Dacia, detached and sent a select and disciplined body of his Illyrian troops, stating that he would follow them in person with the remainder of his forces. Constantine was engaged in military operations around Aquileia and he was killed in an ambush in Cervignano del Friuli. Constans took control of his deceased brother's realm.
- Itineraries of the Roman emperors, 337–361
- Zosimus, Historia Nova, Book 2 Historia Nova
- Aurelius Victor, Epitome de Caesaribus
- Eutropius, Breviarium ab urbe condita
- DiMaio, Michael, and Robert Frakes, "Constantine II (337–340 A.D.)", D.I.R.
- Jones, AH.M., Martindale, J.R. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. I: AD260-395, Cambridge University Press, 1971
- Canduci, Alexander (2010), Triumph & Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of Rome's Immortal Emperors, Pier 9, ISBN 978-1741965988
- Gibbon. Edward Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire (1888)
Constantine II (emperor)Born: 316 Died: 340
- ^ a b c d Jones, pg. 223
- ^ Zosimus 2:20:2
- ^ Victor, 41:4
- ^ Victor, 41:6
- ^ a b c d DiMaio, Constantine II (337–340 A.D.)
- ^ a b c Canduci, pg. 129
- ^ a b Eutropius, 10:9
- ^ Victor, 41:20
- ^ a b c d e Gibbon, Ch. 18
- ^ A. H. M. Jones, "The Later Roman Empire" (Baltimore, 1986), pg. 114
- ^ a b c Victor, 41:21
- ^ Zosimus, 2:41-42
Regnal titles Preceded by
Served alongside: Constantius II and Constans
Constantius II and Constans
Political offices Preceded by
Consul of the Roman Empire
with Constantine I ,
Amnius Anicius Julianus
Consul of the Roman Empire
Sextus Anicius Faustus Paulinus,
Consul of the Roman Empire
with Constantine I
Aurelius Valerius Tullianus Symmachus
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Constantine VII — Constantine VII Emperor of the Byzantine Empire Constantine and his mother Zoë. Reign Junior co emperor 908–913 and 920–945, sole … Wikipedia
Constantine III (Byzantine emperor) — Constantine III Emperor of the Byzantine Empire Roman coin depicting, on its face, Constantine with his father Heraclius and brother Heraklonas Reign … Wikipedia
Constantine V — Emperor of the Byzantine Empire Constantine V and his father Leo III the Isaurian Reign … Wikipedia
Constantine VIII — Constantine VIII Emperor of the Byzantine Empire Constantine VIII on the reverse of this histamenon coin, with crown, pelled labarum and akakia … Wikipedia
Constantine (son of Leo V) — Constantine Co emperor of the Byzantine Empire Gold solidus of Leo V, with Constantine on the reverse Reign 25 December 813 – 25 December 820 … Wikipedia
Constantine — most commonly refers to one of the following: Constantine (name), a given name and surname Constantine I, Roman Emperor from 306 to 337, commonly known as Constantine the Great It may also refer to: People Roman/Byzantine Emperors Constantine II… … Wikipedia
Constantine II — may refer to: Constantine II (emperor) (317 – 340), Roman Emperor 337 – 340 Constantine III (usurper) (died 411), known as Constantine II of Britain in British legend Constantine II of Byzantine (630 – 668) Antipope Constantine II (died 768),… … Wikipedia
Constantine I — Infobox Roman emperor title = Emperor of the Roman Empire name=Constantine I full name =Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus caption =Head of Constantine s colossal statue at the Capitoline Museums reign =25 July 306 ndash; 29 October 312… … Wikipedia
Constantine the Great — This article is about Constantine as an Emperor. For Constantine as a Saint, see Constantine I and Christianity. Constantine I redirects here. For other uses, see Constantine I (disambiguation). Constantine I 57th Emperor of the Roman Empire … Wikipedia
Constantine VI — See also: Ecumenical Patriarch Constantine VI of Constantinople Constantine VI Emperor of the Byzantine Empire Constantine VI (right to the cross) presiding over the Second Council … Wikipedia