- Black supremacy
Black supremacy is a racist [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/racist The word racist - hatred or intolerance of another race or other races.] ] ideology based on the assertion that
black peopleare superior to other racial groups.
In "Killing Rage: Ending Racism", author and social commentator
Bell Hooksasserts that "...it is the system that promotes domination and subjugation. The prejudicial feelings some blacks may express about whites are in no way linked to a system of domination that affords us any power to coercively control the lives and well-being of white folks. That needs to be understood. [Hooks, Bell, 1995, p. 154] " Cornel West, professor of Religion at Princeton University, describes in his essay " Malcolm Xand Black Rage" black supremacy as a phenomenon that developed to counter white supremacy. He comments:
Others explain black supremacy as a form of Black rage. [cite book|first=Dinesh|last=D'Souza|authorlink=Dinesh D'Souza|year=1995|title=The End of Racism: Principles for a Multiracial Society|pages=398|publisher=New York Free Press] The term "Black rage" is derived from a book of the same name by psychologists William Grier and Price Cobbs who argue that many black people living in a predominantly white and sometimes racist society are psychologically damaged by the effects of oppression and that this damage may cause some black people to think or behave in destructive ways.
The Ethiopia Africa Black International Congress argues that Black Supremacy is the supremacy of good over evil. Black represents the good and white represents the evil. It is something symbolic, not related to the colour of the skin. [Prince Emmanuel Charles Edwards, "Black Supremacy", Ethiopia Africa Black International Congress] .
Black Muslim groups
Nation of Islam
In the 1930s the
Nation of Islamemerged, coming to prominence during the 1960s, when charismatic minister Malcolm Xbecame a spokesman for the movement. The group's founders, "Master Fard" Muhammad and Elijah Muhammad, preached the Doctrine of Yakub, which held that the Original Man was an " Asiatic black man." White people, it contended, were "grafted" from black people 6,000 years ago by an ancient black scientist named Yakub. [Muhammad, Elijah. " [http://www.muhammadspeaks.com/Makingofdevil.html The Making of Devil] ".]
The belief in sacrificial killing and ritualistic murder was part of the early Nation of Islam doctrine. Fard thought explicitly that it was the duty for every Muslim to offer as sacrifice four "Caucasian devils". [cite book|first=Steven|last=Tsoukalas|authorlink=Steven Tsoukalas|year=2001|title=The Nation of Islam - Understanding the "Black Muslims"|pages=23-24|publisher=P&R Publishing] A portion of Fard's lesson reads as follows:
Nation of Islam leader
Louis Farrakhanlater argued that the lessons about murdering devils was only a metaphor designed to "rally NOI members to 'slay whites' psychological and social grip on them" [cite book|first=Arthur J.|last=Magida|authorlink=Arthur J. Magida|year=1996|title=Prophet of Rage: A Life of Louis Farrakhan and His Nation|pages=52|New York: HarperCollins] but Fard's lessons on the murder of white people in at least one instance were taken literally and verbatim:
One afternoon in the early 1970s, when Ali K. Muslim, then Charles 41x, was guarding the temple, a man carrying a sack asked to meet a temple official. The man, thoroughly confused about Elijah Muhammad's teachings, believed that if he killed four white "devils" he would win a trip to the Holy Land. He had come to redeem his prizes. In the sack, Ali K. Muslim says, were four severed heads. [cite book|first=Steven|last=Barbosa|authorlink=Steven Barbosa|year=1993|title=American Jihad: Islam after Malcolm X|pages=115-116|publisher=New York: Doubleday]
This teaching also culminated in the creation of the
Death Angels, a small splinter group of the Nation of Islam. Between 1972 and 1974, the Death Angels murdered 14 white people in the San Francisco Bay area. These murders later would become known as the Zebra murdersbecause the police used Radio Z to communicate about the case. [Lubinskas, James. " [http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/Printable.asp?ID=3693 Remembering the Zebra Killings] ". "Front Page Magazine". 30 August 2001.] [Hodge, Damon. " [http://www.lasvegasweekly.com/2002/03_21/news_coverstory_1.html Alien Nation: Louis Farrakhan, Phone Home] ". "Las Vegas Weekly". undated. ]
Elijah Muhammad also preached black self-reliance, black separatism, cooperative economics, strict moral and physical discipline, and opposition to black-white
miscegenation. Since its founding, the NOI has gone through reorganizations and internal conflicts, but even as it moves closer to the mainstream of Islamic belief and practice, NOI leadership has not rejected formally any of Fard's doctrines. It opposes any changes in the major beliefs and programs that were instituted by Fard Muhammad and Elijah Muhammad, including the annual " Savior's Day". [Gudel, Joseph P. and Larry Duckworth. " [http://www.rim.org/muslim/nationofislam.htm Hate Begotten of Hate] ". "Christian Research Institute'. 1993.] [" [http://www.adl.org/PresRele/NatIsl_81/4878_81.htm Farrakhan Again Spews Hate in Saviours' Day Speech ] " Anti-Defamation League. 28 February 2006.] [" [http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/article.jsp?pid=394 Snarling at the White Man] ". Southern Poverty Law Center"Intelligence Report". Fall 2000.]
Members of the NOI have been publicly criticized by the leadership for making
anti-Semitic, anti- Catholicanti-white and anti-homosexual statements, [" [http://www.adl.org/hate-patrol/noi.asp Nation of Islam ] ". 2001.] and for urging the murder of such people. [Muhammad, Khalid Abdul. [http://www.holysmoke.org/hs00/farakhan.htm] ] Farrakhan has been banned from entering the UK since 1986 because of his "racist and anti-Semitic views". [" [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1959105.stm Farrakhan British ban stays ] ". British Broadcasting Corporation. 30 April 2002. ]
Most historians and social scientistsNonspecific|date=December 2007 classify the Nation of Islam as a black nationalist, or black separatist, organization. Recently, the
Southern Poverty Law Centerheaded by Morris Deesplaced the Nation of Islam on its list of hate groups. [ " [http://www.splcenter.org/intel/map/hate.jsp?T=24&m=4Active U.S. Hate Groups in 2005] . Southern Poverty Law Center. 2005. Retrieved 25 December 2006. ]
Nation of Gods and Earths
The Nation of Gods and Earths, also known as Five Percent Nation or the Five Percenters, is an offshoot of the Nation of Islam. It was founded in Harlem in the late 1960s by Clarence 13X, who proclaimed himself to be
Allah(the Arabic term for God). "Five Percent" refers to the belief that they are the chosen five percent of all people who know and teach the truth. Five Percenters believe that each black man is God and therefore should take the name Allah. Like the Nation of Islam, the Five Percenters maintain that white people are devils created through a separate breeding process, known as "grafting." According to the Southern Poverty Law Centerthe Nation of Gods and Earths is viewed as a "violence-prone black supremacist prison gang". [Levin, Brian. " [http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/article.jsp?aid=120 Radical Religion in Prison] ". Southern Poverty Law Center"Intelligence Report". Fall 2003.]
New Black Panther Party
The New Black Panther Party (NBPP), whose formal name is the New Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, is a U.S.-based black power organization founded in Dallas, Texas in 1989. The NBPP attracted many breakaway members of the Nation of Islam when former Nation of Islam minister and spokesman
Khalid Abdul Muhammad, infamous for his virulent anti-Semitism and racism [" [http://www.adl.org/special_reports/khalid_own_words/khalid_own_words.asp Khalid Abdul Muhammad: In His Own Words ] ". Anti-Defamation League. 2001.] , became the national chairman of the group from the late 1990s until his death in 2001. The NBPP is currently led by Malik Zulu Shabazz, who is also known for anti-Semitic propaganda, racism and extremist hate speech. [" [http://www.adl.org/opinion/malik_shabazz.asp Malik Zulu Shabazz :Counseling Hate ] ". Anti-Defamation League. 2001.]
United Nuwaubian Nation of Moors
The United Nuwaubian Nation of Moors was founded by
Dwight Yorkwho is considered to be "one of the most successful — and least known — black supremacist leaders in America". The Nuwaubians believe in black people's superiority to white people, that white people are "devils," devoid of both heartand soul, that the color of white people is the result of leprosyand genetic inferiority, and that the ancestors of white people are the sexual partners of dogsand jackals. [Moser, Bob. " [http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/article.jsp?aid=41 'Savior' in a Strange Land] ". Southern Poverty Law Center"Intelligence Report". Fall 2002.] White people(sometimes also referred to as “ Amorites”, “ Hyksos”, “ Canaanites”, “Tamahu”, or “Mankind”) are said in one myth to have been originally created as a race of killers to serve black people as a slave army.
Nation of Yahweh
The Nation of Yahweh is a black supremacist religious group that is an offshoot of the
Black Hebrew Israelitesline of thoughtFact|date=October 2007, and was founded by Yahweh ben Yahweh, meaning "God the Son of God" in Hebrew, formerly known as Hulon Mitchell Jr. At its height, the Nation of Yahweh controlled an $8 million empire of properties, including a Miami headquarters known as the "Temple of Love" and temples in 22 states. [" [http://www.apologeticsindex.org/n04.html Nation of Yahweh ] " Apologetics Index. undated.] Followers of the Nation of Yahweh view black people as the only "true Jews" and believe that white Jews are the spawn of Satan. [" [http://www.splcenter.org/intel/intelreport/article.jsp?aid=172 Popularity and Populism ] ". Southern Poverty Law Center"Intelligence Report". Winter 2001. ]
According to the
Crime Library, followers of the Nation of Yahweh formed a secret group called "The Brotherhood". To become a member of The Brotherhood, applicants had to kill a "white devil" and bring Mitchell a body part - an ear, nose or finger - as proof of the kill. Several Nation of Yahweh members were convicted of conspiracy in more than a dozen anti-white murders, among them Robert Rozier, a former pro football player and member of the secret Brotherhood, who admitted the killing of seven white people.Scheeres, Julie. " [http://www.crimelibrary.com/notorious_murders/classics/yahweh_cult/12.html The Yahweh Ben Yahweh Cult ] ". "The Crime Library". undated.] Mitchell started a private school for his followers and held sex classes for boys and men in which he showed them movies of white women having sex with animals to dissuade them from lusting after white females.
Several black supremacists justify supremacist assertions with purported qualities of melanin based on pseudo- science and distortions of scientific fact or speculation. This contention is known generally as the "
MelaninTheory". The central idea of the Melanin Theory is that the levels of melanin in dark skin naturally enhance intelligence and emotional, psychic and spiritual sensitivitySuzar. " [http://suzar.com/BOTW/BOTW-ch5b-pages55-56.html Other Astounding Properties of Melanin ] ". undated.] and physical prowess.
Melanin is an organic
semiconductor, which naturally mediates the conduction of sound and radiant energy, as well as neural impulses. Believers in Melanin Theory conflate these natural properties of melanin to a belief that the substance bestows upon people of color -- most especially Black people-- superhuman abilities," [http://www.sankofa.ch/texts/Melanin.htm Melanin ] " in MAD Writer Productions. undated.] with some contending that melanin is a superconductor. Some assert that it can absorb electromagnetic radiation, others that it can convert light and magnetic fields to sound; that it can process information without reporting to the brain; and, further, that it is the chemical basis for what is commonly called "soul".
They also claim that, because
neuromelanin, which is found in the substantia nigra(in Latin, literally "black substance") of the human brain, plays a role in the transmission of neuronal impulses, higher levels of melanin in skin enable nerve synapses to fire more quickly and efficiently as well, thereby enhancing the natural athleticism of Black people. However, no direct correlation between race and the level of melanin in the substantia nigra has been observed. Ortiz De Montellano, Bernard. " [http://www.csicop.org/si/9201/minority.html Magic Melanin: Spreading Scientific Illiteracy Among Minorities ] ". "Skeptical Inquirer". Spring 1992.]
One of the notions of melanin theory is that white people are "mutants", that white skin is an aberration, a form of
albinism. Melanin theorist Wade Nobles takes this notion even further, stating that only Black people are fully human because of their higher levels of skin melanin:
That in the evolution of the species, in what some people call the ontogenetic evolution of humankind, that in the evolution of the species the human family separated in a sense that one branch of the family stopped its evolutionary path and simply depended upon the central nervous system as the total machinery for understanding reality. Whereas, the root of the family continued its path and not only evolved a central nervous system but developed what I called at that time an essential melanic system. And that I even went so far as to try to develop a little formula and suggested that CNS + EMS = HB. CNS (Central Nervous System) + EMS (Essential Melanic System) = HB (Human Being). That the central nervous system combined with the essential melanic system is what makes you human. That, in fact, to be human is to be Black. To be human is to be Black. (Nobles 1989).
Others, such as psychiatrist and writer
Frances Cress Welsing, express the same idea by their use of the term "hue-man" instead of "human,". Welsing is the author of "The Cress Theory of Color Confrontation" and "The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors", which in part ascribes certain purported, inherent and behavioral differences between black and white people to a "melanin deficiency" in white people:
On both St. Valentine’s Day and Mother’s Day, the white male gives gifts of chocolate candy with nuts…. If his sweetheart ingests "chocolate with nuts," the white male can fantasize that he is genetically equal to the Black male…. Is it not also curious that when white males are young and vigorous, they attempt to master the large brown balls, but as they become older and wiser, they psychologically resign themselves to their inability to master the large brown balls? Their focus then shifts masochistically to hitting the tiny white golf balls in disgust and resignation — in full final realization of white genetic recessiveness. [cite book|first=Cress Welsing|last=Frances|authorlink=Francis Cress Welsing|year=1990|title=The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors|publisher=Third World Press|id=ISBN 0-88378-104-2]
Welsing also claims that the prevalence of high blood pressure among African Americans is due to the fact that melanin exchanges "black photons" with other electrons and, therefore, picks up the negative energy vibrations from white people.
Welsing proposes that because it is so easy for pure whiteness to be genetically lost during interracial breeding, light-skinned peoples developed an aggressive colonial urge and their societies militaristically dominated others in order to preserve this light-skinned purity.
Melanin theorist Carol Barnes claims that white scientists have deliberately created drugs such as cocaine, which are specially structured to chemically bind with melanin. Barnes claims that melanin and cocaine have a high affinity for each other because both are alkaloids, and that Black people get addicted faster, stay addicted longer, can test positive for cocaine even a year after its most recent use, and suffer more from these drugs because cocaine co-polymerizes into melanin. Yet, melanin is not an alkaloid, and there is no evidence that melanin co-polymerizes with cocaine "in vivo". He further writes in his book "Melanin: The Chemical Key to Black Greatness":
Melanin is responsible for the existence of civilization, philosophy, religion, truth, justice, and righteousness. Individuals (whites) containing low levels of Melanin will behave in a barbaric manner. Melanin gives humans the ability to FEEL because it is the absorber of all frequencies of energy. Since whites have the least amount of Melanin, this is why they are perceived by People of Color as generally being rigid, unfeeling (heartless), cold, calculating, mental, and "unspiritual." [cite book|first=Barnes|last=Carol|authorlink=Carol Barnes (race theorist)|year=2001|title=Melanin: The Chemical Key to Black Greatness, Vol. 1|publisher=Lushena Books|id=ISBN 1-930097-35-2]
This hypothesis is supported by black academic
Leonard Jeffries, who was dismissed in 1992 from his post as chairman of the Harlem's City College Black Studies department for having allegedly made anti-Semitic statements. [" [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE5D6113BF934A35755C0A964958260&n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fSubjects%2fA%2fAnti%2dSemitism Jeffries Sues CUNY for Reinstatement ] ". " The New York Times". 7 June 1992.] Jeffries claims that the pigment melanin is the source of intelligence and creativity. He divides humanity into African “sun people” and European “ice people,” the latter being not only melanin-deficient but born cold and greedy, militaristic, authoritarian, and possessed of a host of other racially determined defects. [" [http://radio-talk.techieonepage.com/Liberal-Prof-Who-Calls-Jews-A-Race-of-Skunks-758529.html Liberal Prof Who Calls Jews 'A Race of Skunks] ". "Radio Talk". 18 July 2005.] [Peyser, Andrea. " [http://www.nypost.com/commentary/spewing_racism_on_the_city_dime_commentary_andrea_peyser.htm Spewing Racism on the City Dime ] ". " The New York Post".]
Scientists consider Melanin Theory
pseudoscience; it has no credibility in mainstream medicine or science. [Skeptinq, Ortiz de Montellano, B. R. 1993. “Afrocentricity, Melanin, and Pseudoscience," Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 36, 33-58]
Alliances with white supremacist groups
Due to some commonly held separatist ideologies, some black supremacist organizations have found limited common cause with
white supremacistor extremist organizations.
In 1961 and 1962
George Lincoln Rockwell, the leader of the American Nazi Party, was invited to speak by Elijah Muhammadat a Nation of Islamrally. [cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=The Messenger Passes |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,917218,00.html |work= |publisher= Time magazine|date= March 10, 1975|accessdate=2007-08-19 ] In 1965, after breaking with the Nation of Islam and denouncing its separatist doctrine, Malcolm Xtold his followers that the Nation of Islam under Elijah Muhammad had made agreements with the American Nazi Party and the Ku Klux Klan that "were not in the interests of Negros." [ [http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/orgs/american/adl/uncommon-ground/secret-relationship.html Uncommon Ground: Secret Relationship ] ] In 1985 Louis Farrakhan invited white supremacist Tom Metzger, leader of the White Aryan Resistance(a neo-Nazi white power group), to attend a NOI gathering. The Washington Times reports Metzger's words of praise: "They speak out against the Jews and the oppressors in Washington. ... They are the black counterpart to us." [ [http://www.answering-islam.org/NoI/noi1.html#fn31 Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam: Part One ] ] The NOI also has established working relationships with a number of multi-ethnic organizations, including the Unification Churchwhich was a cosponsor of the Million Family March. [ [http://archives.cnn.com/2000/US/10/16/million.family.march.02/ Million Family March reaches out to all] ] .
* [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/12/15/AR2005121501728_pf.html "Scientists Find A DNA Change That Accounts For White Skin" (Washington Post Staff Writer - Friday, December 16, 2005; A01) Biotechnology]
* [http://www.csicop.org/si/9201/minority.html "Magic Melanin: Spreading Scientific Illiteracy to Minorities" (CSICOP article on melanin theory and associated pseudoscience)]
* [http://www.ferris.edu/HTMLS/othersrv/isar/archives2/mehler/academic.htm Institute for the Study of Academic Racism (ISAR): African American Racism in the Academic Community]
* [http://www.muhammadspeaks.com/Makingofdevil.html The Making of Devil, by Elijah Muhammad]
* [http://www.franciscresswelsing.com/ Francis Cress Welsing Website]
* [http://www.ancient-knowledge-breakthrough.net/id5.html Annual World Melanin Conference]
* [http://www.time.com/time/archive/preview/0,10987,980453,00.html TIME Magazine Teaching Reverse Racism]
* [http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/orgs/american/adl/uncommon-ground/ Uncommon Ground: The Black African Holocaust Council and Other Links Between Black and White Extremists]
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