Arrows Full name Arrows Grand Prix International Base Milton Keynes, UK, later Leafield, UK Founder(s) Franco Ambrosio
Noted staff Tom Walkinshaw Noted drivers Riccardo Patrese
Formula One World Championship career Debut 1978 Brazilian Grand Prix Races competed 368 Constructors' Championships 0 Drivers' Championships 0 Race victories 0 (Best finish: five 2nd places, last one at 1997 Hungarian Grand Prix) Podiums 9 Points 164 Pole positions 1 Fastest laps 0 Final race 2002 German Grand Prix
The Arrows Grand Prix International team was founded in 1977, by Italian financier Franco Ambrosio, Alan Rees, Jackie Oliver, Dave Wass and Tony Southgate (from whose surnames' initials the team took its name) when Rees, Oliver, Wass and Southgate left the Shadow team.
The team was started in Milton Keynes, England and produced their first Formula One car in just 53 days. Arrows signed up Riccardo Patrese who scored points in the US West Grand Prix at Long Beach in the car's third race.
Ambrosio left the team after having being jailed for financial irregularities in Italy. Shadow sued for copyright infringement, claiming that the Arrows FA/1 was just a copy of the Shadow DN9. The team decided to build a new car called the A1. This was completed in 52 days and appeared the day after the High Court in London banned the team from racing the FA/1.
Arrows Grand Prix International
In September 1978, in the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, Patrese was involved in an accident which claimed the life of Ronnie Peterson and he was banned from racing at the following race (the United States Grand Prix) by his fellow drivers. In 1981, Patrese scored the team's only Formula One pole position in Long Beach, which he led until retiring with mechanical problems. Arrows finished joint eighth in the Constructors Championship that year.
In 1984 with BMW M12 turbo engines and sponsorship from cigarette company Barclay things got much better. That year they were ninth in the Constructors Championship and eighth in 1985. At the 1985 San Marino Grand Prix, Thierry Boutsen finished third behind Alain Prost and Elio de Angelis. However, after the race, both Prost and de Angelis were disqualified because their cars were 2kg underweight, giving Boutsen the race win. This meant that Arrows won a race for the first time in their career. But later, de Angelis was reinstated, winning for the second time in his career, and Boutsen dropped to second place, denying Arrows their first race win. In 1987, BMW removed support and the engines were badged Megatron, but the British team had their best seasons yet, finising sixth in 1987 and fifth in 1988 (the final year for turbocharged engines) thanks to frequent points finishes by drivers Eddie Cheever and Derek Warwick.
Japanese businessman Wataru Ohashi invested in Arrows in 1990 and the cars started displaying the Footwork logo prominently. The team was officially renamed Footwork in 1991, and secured a deal to race with Porsche engines, the car was woefully uncompetitive and in 1992 they switched to Mugen. Arrows retained the Footwork name until Ito pulled out before the 1996 season, whereupon the name of the team was changed back to Arrows. Regardless, Jackie Oliver had retained control throughout the entire period.
In March 1996, Tom Walkinshaw bought a stake in the team, and in September Walkinshaw signed up World Champion Damon Hill and hired wealthy Brazilian Pedro Diniz to help pay for Hill's salary. The team nearly secured a maiden victory at the 1997 Hungarian Grand Prix where Hill started in third position and passed Michael Schumacher to take first place. A component failure in the final laps of the race saw him finish second. In the following years Walkinshaw would buy the rest of Oliver's shares. Brian Hart, who had been the engine supplier since 1995, was employed by the team, designing the Yamaha-badged engines, and later the Arrows-badged engine, in 1998.
In the 2000 Season, Jos Verstappen returned to Arrows where he had driven in 1996 alongside teammate Pedro de la Rosa. The chassis was a Arrows A21 with a Supertec engine. The Supertec engine was not the most powerful, but was still very good, and had been developed further for this season. Allied to an excellent aerodynamic package, and good rear end stability, it allowed the Arrows A21 to consistently set the best straight line speeds around the circuits. Generally, both Verstappen and de la Rosa were competitive within a close midfield. During the 2000 season, the Arrows team took part in a 13-part TV series named 'Racing Arrows' which followed the team and drivers throughout the year. It was shown on British TV channel ITV in 2001 during late-night slots.
A switch to Asiatech V10s in 2001 and the loss of a lot of staff left the team rather weaker in 2001 when Tom Walkinshaw decided to replace de la Rosa with F1 debutant Enrique Bernoldi.The team struggled through the season and Verstappen scored the team's only point in Austria.
For 2002, Tom Walkinshaw did a deal to use Cosworth V10 engines and retained Bernoldi (with support from Red Bull) but dropped Verstappen in favour of Heinz-Harald Frentzen who became available when Prost Grand Prix closed down. This caused Verstappen to successfully sue for breach of contract. That year also saw a costly payout to Pedro Diniz after unsuccessfully suing the Brazilian, who had taken his funding to Sauber for 1999. The team faced a third litigation from Frentzen, who was on contract by a race-by-race basis and who had not yet been paid. Arrows ran out of money in the midseason and did not appear at all the races at the end of the year, their drivers deliberately failing to qualify for the French Grand Prix. As a result it went into liquidation at the end of the season, also forcing TWR to close.
A consortium fronted by Phoenix Finance - run by Charles Nickerson, a friend of Walkinshaw - purchased part of the team's assets, specifically the engines, believing that together with their purchase of old Prost Grand Prix assets, it would gain them entrance for the 2003 season. However, their application was rejected by the FIA.
In their chequered history, Arrows set the unenviable record of 382 races without a win. (Although, since at 97 of those races the car was officially named "Footwork," Minardi holds the record for most races for a single marque without a win, with 349).
Complete Formula One World Championship results
(key) (results in bold indicate pole position)
Year Chassis Engine(s) Tyres Drivers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Points WCC 1978 Arrows FA1
Ford V8 G ARG BRA RSA USW MON BEL ESP SWE FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA USA CAN 11 10th Riccardo Patrese 10 Ret 6 6 Ret Ret 2 8 Ret 9 Ret Ret Ret EX 4 Rolf Stommelen 9 9 Ret Ret 14 14 15 DNQ DSQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ 16 DNPQ 1979 Arrows A1
Ford V8 G ARG BRA RSA USW ESP BEL MON FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA CAN USA 5 9th Riccardo Patrese DNS 9 11 Ret 10 5 Ret 14 Ret Ret Ret Ret 13 Ret Ret Jochen Mass 8 7 12 9 8 Ret 6 15 Ret 6 Ret 6 Ret DNQ DNQ 1980 Arrows A3 Ford V8 G ARG BRA RSA USW BEL MON FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA CAN USA 11 7th Riccardo Patrese Ret 6 Ret 2 Ret 8 9 9 9 14 Ret Ret Ret Ret Jochen Mass Ret 10 6 7 Ret 4 10 13 8 DNQ 11 Ret Mike Thackwell DNQ Manfred Winkelhock DNQ 1981 Arrows A3 Ford V8 M'P' USW BRA ARG SMR BEL MON ESP FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA CAN CPL 10 8th Riccardo Patrese Ret 3 7 2 Ret Ret Ret 14 10 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 11 Siegfried Stohr DNQ Ret 9 DNQ Ret Ret Ret DNQ Ret 12 Ret 7 DNQ Jacques Villeneuve DNQ DNQ 1982 Arrows A4
Ford V8 P RSA BRA USW SMR BEL MON DET CAN NED GBR FRA GER AUT SUI ITA CPL 5 10th Marc Surer WD 7 9 8 5 10 Ret 13 6 Ret 15 11 7 Brian Henton DNQ DNQ Ret Mauro Baldi DNQ 10 DNQ WD Ret DNQ Ret 8 6 9 Ret Ret 6 DNQ 12 11 1983 Arrows A6 Ford V8 G BRA USW FRA SMR MON BEL DET CAN GBR GER AUT NED ITA EUR RSA 4 10th Marc Surer 6 5 10 6 Ret 11 11 Ret 17 7 Ret 8 10 Ret 8 Chico Serra 9 Ret 8 7 Alan Jones Ret Thierry Boutsen Ret 7 7 15 9 13 14 Ret 11 9 1984 Arrows A6 Ford V8 G BRA RSA BEL SMR FRA MON CAN DET DAL GBR GER AUT NED ITA EUR POR 3 10th Marc Surer 7 9 8 Ret DNQ Ret Ret Thierry Boutsen 6 12 5 Arrows A7 BMW M12 S4 (t/c) Marc Surer Ret Ret 11 Ret 6 Ret Ret Ret Ret 3 11th[nb 1] Thierry Boutsen Ret 11 DNQ Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 5 Ret 10 9 Ret 1985 Arrows A8 BMW M12 S4 (t/c) G BRA POR SMR MON CAN DET FRA GBR GER AUT NED ITA BEL EUR RSA AUS 14 8th Gerhard Berger Ret Ret Ret Ret 13 11 Ret 8 7 Ret 9 Ret 7 10 5 6 Thierry Boutsen 11 Ret 2 9 9 7 9 Ret 4 8 Ret 9 10 6 6 Ret 1986 Arrows A8
BMW M12 S4 (t/c) G BRA ESP SMR MON BEL CAN DET FRA GBR GER HUN AUT ITA POR MEX AUS 1 10th Marc Surer Ret Ret 9 9 9 Christian Danner Ret 11 Ret Ret Ret 6 8 11 9 Ret Thierry Boutsen Ret 7 7 8 Ret Ret Ret NC NC 10 Ret Ret 7 10 7 Ret 1987 Arrows A10 Megatron S4 (t/c) G BRA SMR BEL MON DET FRA GBR GER HUN AUT ITA POR ESP MEX JPN AUS 11 6th Derek Warwick Ret 11 Ret Ret Ret Ret 5 Ret 6 Ret Ret 13 10 Ret 10 Ret Eddie Cheever Ret Ret 4 Ret 6 Ret Ret Ret 8 Ret Ret 6 8 4 9 Ret 1988 Arrows A10B Megatron S4 (t/c) G BRA SMR MON MEX CAN DET FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR ESP JPN AUS 23 5th Derek Warwick 4 9 4 5 7 Ret Ret 6 7 Ret 5 4 4 Ret Ret Ret Eddie Cheever 8 7 Ret 6 Ret Ret 11 7 10 Ret 6 3 Ret Ret Ret Ret 1989 Arrows A11 Ford V8 G BRA SMR MON MEX USA CAN FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR ESP JPN AUS 13 7th Derek Warwick 5 5 Ret Ret Ret Ret 9 6 10 6 Ret Ret 9 6 Ret Martin Donnelly 12 Eddie Cheever Ret 9 7 7 3 Ret 7 DNQ 12 5 Ret DNQ Ret Ret 8 Ret 1990 Arrows A11
Ford V8 G USA BRA SMR MON CAN MEX FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR ESP JPN AUS 2 9th Michele Alboreto 10 Ret DNQ DNQ Ret 17 10 Ret Ret 12 13 12 9 10 Ret DNQ Bernd Schneider 12 DNQ Alex Caffi Ret DNQ 5 8 DNQ Ret 7 9 9 10 9 13 9 DNQ 1991 Arrows A11C
Porsche V12 G USA BRA SMR MON CAN MEX FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR ESP JPN AUS 0 NC Alex Caffi DNQ DNQ DNQ DNQ Stefan Johansson Ret DNQ Michele Alboreto Ret DNQ DNQ Ret Ret Ret Footwork FA12C Ford V8 Stefan Johansson DNQ DNQ 0 NC Alex Caffi DNPQ DNPQ DNQ DNPQ DNPQ DNPQ 10 15 Michele Alboreto Ret Ret DNQ DNQ DNPQ DNQ 15 Ret DNQ 13 1992 Footwork FA13 Mugen Honda V10 G RSA MEX BRA ESP SMR MON CAN FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR JPN AUS 6 7th Michele Alboreto 10 13 6 5 5 7 7 7 7 9 7 Ret 7 6 15 Ret Aguri Suzuki 8 DNQ Ret 7 10 11 DNQ Ret 12 Ret Ret 9 Ret 10 8 8 1993 Footwork FA13B
Mugen Honda V10 G RSA BRA EUR SMR ESP MON CAN FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR JPN AUS 4 9th Derek Warwick 7 9 Ret Ret 13 Ret 16 13 6 17 4 Ret Ret 15 14 10 Aguri Suzuki Ret Ret Ret 9 10 Ret 13 12 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 7 1994 Footwork FA15 Ford V8 G BRA PAC SMR MON ESP CAN FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR EUR JPN AUS 9 9th Christian Fittipaldi Ret 4 13 Ret Ret DSQ 8 9 4 14 Ret Ret 8 17 8 8 Gianni Morbidelli Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 5 Ret 6 Ret 9 11 Ret Ret 1995 Footwork FA16 Hart V8 G BRA ARG SMR ESP MON CAN FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR EUR PAC JPN AUS 5 8th Gianni Morbidelli Ret Ret 13 11 9 6 14 Ret Ret 3 Max Papis Ret Ret Ret Ret 7 Ret 12 Taki Inoue Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 9 Ret Ret Ret Ret 12 8 15 Ret Ret 12 Ret 1996 Footwork FA17 Hart V8 G AUS BRA ARG EUR SMR MON ESP CAN FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA POR JPN 1 9th Ricardo Rosset 9 Ret Ret 11 Ret Ret Ret Ret 11 Ret 11 8 9 Ret 14 13 Jos Verstappen Ret Ret 6 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 10 Ret Ret Ret 8 Ret 11 1997 Arrows A18 Yamaha V10 B AUS BRA ARG SMR MON ESP CAN FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA AUT LUX JPN EUR 9 8th Damon Hill DNS 17 Ret Ret Ret Ret 9 12 6 8 2 13 Ret 7 8 12 Ret Pedro Diniz 10 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 8 Ret Ret Ret Ret 7 Ret 13 5 13 Ret 1998 Arrows A19 Arrows V10 B AUS BRA ARG SMR ESP MON CAN FRA GBR AUT GER HUN BEL ITA LUX JPN 6 7th Pedro Diniz Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 6 9 14 Ret Ret Ret 11 5 Ret Ret Ret Mika Salo Ret Ret Ret 9 Ret 4 Ret 13 Ret Ret 14 Ret DNS Ret 14 Ret 1999 Arrows A20 Arrows V10 B AUS BRA SMR MON ESP CAN FRA GBR AUT GER HUN BEL ITA EUR MAL JPN 1 9th Pedro de la Rosa 6 Ret Ret Ret 11 Ret 11 Ret Ret Ret 15 Ret Ret Ret Ret 13 Toranosuke Takagi 7 8 Ret Ret 12 Ret DSQ 16 Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 2000 Arrows A21 Supertec V10 B AUS BRA SMR GBR ESP EUR MON CAN FRA AUT GER HUN BEL ITA USA JPN MAL 7 7th Pedro de la Rosa Ret 8 Ret Ret Ret 6 Ret Ret Ret Ret 6 16 16 Ret Ret 12 Ret Jos Verstappen Ret 7 14 Ret Ret Ret Ret 5 Ret Ret Ret 13 15 4 Ret Ret 10 2001 Arrows A22 Asiatech V10 B AUS MAL BRA SMR ESP AUT MON CAN EUR FRA GBR GER HUN BEL ITA USA JPN 1 10th Jos Verstappen 10 7 Ret Ret 12 6 8 10 Ret 13 10 9 12 10 Ret Ret 15 Enrique Bernoldi Ret Ret Ret 10 Ret Ret 9 Ret Ret Ret 14 8 Ret 12 Ret 13 14 2002 Arrows A23 Cosworth V10 B AUS MAL BRA SMR ESP AUT MON CAN EUR GBR FRA GER HUN BEL ITA USA JPN 2 11th Heinz-Harald Frentzen DSQ 11 Ret Ret 6 11 6 13 13 Ret DNQ Ret Enrique Bernoldi DSQ Ret Ret Ret Ret Ret 12 Ret 10 Ret DNQ Ret
- ^ For the purposes of the World Constructors Championship, a constructor is the combination of the person or body which designs the chassis and engine of the entry, thus Arrows-Ford and Arrows-BMW are recognised as separate entries in the championship.
Further use of Arrows chassis
The chassis and intellectual property rights for the chassis were later bought by Paul Stoddart, the then-head of the Minardi team as a potential replacement for his own team's chassis. The new Super Aguri F1 team bought the 2002 cars and ran them (with some modifications) as the SA05 during the first races of the 2006 season. One of these cars was said to have been on display at Melbourne airport before being acquired by Super Aguri. After being returned to the factory to be updated to comply with the 2006 regulations, the car was taken back to Melbourne for the Australian Grand Prix. An update still based on the same chassis was designated the SA06 and made its début at the 2006 German Grand Prix. The SA05 and SA06 did not score a single point in the 2006 season.
- ^ http://www.martinsharp.com/index.php?actionid=!@0Kr.3Tzpuf2&pageid=55&viewtype=normal
- ^ "Risky Business The TWR Arrows Years 1996-2002". www.f1rejects.com. http://www.f1rejects.com/centrale/arrows/index.html. Retrieved 2008-01-06.
Arrows Grand Prix International:
Personnel: Franco Ambrosio | Alan Rees | Jackie Oliver | Tony Southgate
Cars: FA1 | A1 | A1B | A2 | A3 | A4 | A5 | A6 | A7 | A8 | A9 | A10 | A10B | A11 | A11B
Personnel: Wataru Ohashi | Jackie Oliver | Alan Jenkins
Cars: A11C | FA12 | FA13 | FA13B | FA14 | FA15 | FA16 | FA17
Personnel: Tom Walkinshaw
Cars: A18 | A19 | A20 | A21 | A22 | A23
Formula One constructors Current constructors (2011) Former constructors
AFM · AGS · Alfa Romeo · Alta · Amon · Andrea Moda · Apollon · Arrows · Arzani-Volpini · Aston-Butterworth · Aston Martin · ATS (Italy) · ATS (Germany) · BAR · Behra-Porsche · Bellasi · Benetton · BMW · Boro · Brabham · Brawn · BRM · BRP · Bugatti · Cisitalia · Coloni · Connaught · Connew · Cooper · Cosworth · Dallara · De Tomaso · Delahaye · Derrington-Francis · Eagle · Eifelland · Emeryson · EMW · ENB · Ensign · ERA · EuroBrun · Ferguson · FIRST · Fittipaldi · Fondmetal · Footwork · Forti · Frazer Nash · Fry · Gilby · Gordini · Greifzu · Haas/Lola · Hesketh · Hill · HWM · Honda · Jaguar · JBW · Jordan · Kauhsen · Klenk · Kojima · Kurtis Kraft · Lancia · Larrousse · LDS · LEC · Leyton House · Life · Ligier · Lola · Lotus (Team Lotus) · Lyncar · Maki · March · Martini · Maserati · Matra · MBM · McGuire · Merzario · Midland · Milano · Minardi · Modena · Onyx · OSCA · Osella · Pacific · Parnelli · Penske · Porsche · Prost · RAM · RE · Rebaque · Reynard · Rial · Scarab · Scirocco · Shadow · Shannon · Simtek · Spirit · Spyker · Stebro · Stewart · Super Aguri · Surtees · Talbot · Talbot-Lago · Tec-Mec · Tecno · Theodore · Token · Toleman · Toyota · Trojan · Tyrrell · Vanwall · Veritas · Williams (FWRC) · Wolf · ZakspeedAlthough World Championship races held in 1952 and 1953 were run to Formula Two regulations, constructors who only participated during this period are included herein to maintain Championship continuity. Constructors whose only participation in the World Championship was in the Indianapolis 500 races between 1950 and 1960 are not listed.
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