- Australian real estate investment trust
An Australian Real Estate Investment Trust (A-REIT) is a unitised portfolio of property assets, listed on a stock exchange, usually the
Australian Stock Exchange(ASX). In Australia, such investment structures were known as a listed property trust (LPT) prior to March 2008 but were renamed to be more consistent with international terms.cite web
title = ASX A-REITs
Australian Securities Exchange
url = http://www.asx.com.au/products/real_estate_infrastructure/property_trusts.htm
accessdate = 2008-08-22 ] Unit trusts of property assets which are not listed on a stock exchange are known as unlisted property trusts.
An A-REIT usually owns a portfolio of large properties, which, due to their size and value, cannot be bought by the average private
investor. Thus, these large investments are broken up into units of smaller value that can be purchased by private investors, who become unit holders.
LPTs first emerged in the Australian sharemarket in the early 1970s. Around this time they were viewed as a substitute for direct property investing, with enhanced
liquidityoffered as they were listed. Despite a slow start, the LPT sector has grown rapidly. From less than $5 billion in the early 1990s, the sector reached a market capitalisationof $43.8 billion in August 2002.
Until recently, the largest A-REIT managers are
Westfield Group, Lend Lease, AMP Henderson Global Investors, Macquarie Bankand ING.
Unit holders trade on an open market and the value of the unit price is determined by
demand and supply.
A-REITs are normally listed on the
Australian Stock Exchange(ASX). The Bendigo Stock Exchange, the Newcastle Stock Exchange, and the Australia Pacific Exchangeare also capable of hosting trusts.
A-REITs are a form of listed investment company (LIC) and are considered as such by the ASX. Any A-REIT listed on the ASX has to conform to the reporting standards set out by the ASX.
The income from A-REITs comes primarily from
rent. Rents are usually quoted on a dollar per square metre basis. In contrast to residential rents, which are well regulated, in commercial leases there are differing types of rentals or leases.
Many buildings are purchased as
going concerns and come ready-stocked with tenants, while some A-REITs are also involved in development. Accumulated rents are the gross incomeof an A-REIT. From this there are a number of expenses that reduce the gross income to a net incomesuch as management and maintenance expenses, interest, land taxetc.
Other sources of income include naming or signage rights, roof space for
telecommunicationcompanies, and car parking rental.
Property trusts must distribute at least 90 percent of their income back to the unit holders. The balance of any monies that are not distributed are held as
retained earnings, which are then used to smooth earnings and distributions in future years.
A-REITs can hold either domestic or international property assets. Outside of Australia, the main countries in which A-REITs hold assets are the
United States, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom.
Net tangible assets (NTA) is the balance sheet value of the underlying properties in an A-REIT. It has long been regarded as an important measure of the true value of an A-REIT. A-REITs that trade above their NTA were for a long time considered to be overvalued. Conversely, if the A-REIT traded at a discount to its NTA, it was considered to be trading at a discount to the realisable value of its underlying assets. As a result, in the past most A-REITs tended to trade at close to their NTA over the long-term average.
One of the main benefits of an A-REIT is that it can offer investors a good degree of diversification.
Tenant diversity offers a spread of income risk for an A-REIT. As rent is the primary source of income for an A-REIT, the greater the number and type of tenant, the lower the risk to the income of an A-REIT resulting from tenant default.
Geographic diversification offers A-REITs exposure to differing local economies. It means having assets in more than one State and within States, by being diversified between state regions. Geographic diversification is sometimes across national borders as well.
Diversification by property asset class is also of benefit. The asset classes are those covering office, industrial, retail and also hotel and leisure. It helps to spread the risk in a portfolio as the property value cycles are driven by different underlying economic fundamentals in each sector.
The day-to-day management of the properties owned by an A-REIT are generally contracted out to professional property managers.
Management of the asset is usually tendered for on a regular basis. This is considerably desirable for A-REITs as it helps to keep the property managers diligent if they think that they may lose their management rights.
Real estate investment trust
General Property Trust
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