Carsten Borchgrevink


Carsten Borchgrevink

Infobox person
name = Carsten Egeborg Borchgrevink


image_size = 200px
name = Carsten Egeborg Borchgrevink
birth_date = birth date|1864|12|1
birth_place = Oslo, Norway
death_date = death date and age|1934|4|21|1864|12|1
death_place = Oslo, Norway
education = Gjertsen College, Oslo, and Royal Forestry School, Tharandt, Saxony
spouse = Constance Prior Borchgrevink, née Standen
children = 2 sons, 2 daughters
parents = Henrik Christian Borchgrevink and Annie, née Ridley
occupation = Forester, surveyor, schoolmaster and Antarctic explorer

Carsten Egeberg Borchgrevink (1 December 1864 – 21 April 1934), was an Anglo-Norwegian polar explorer who in 1898–1900 led the Southern Cross Expedition to the Antarctic, at the beginning of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. He was thus the precursor of Robert Falcon Scott, Ernest Shackleton, Roald Amundsen and all the other great names associated with this age. He had been introduced to the world of exploration when he joined a whaling expedition in 1894, during which he briefly set foot on the Antarctic continent, claiming to be the first to do so.

His own expedition, which was British-financed and sailed under the British flag, was the first to over-winter on the Antarctic continent. Borchgrevink took his ship "Southern Cross" as far south as the Great Ice Barrier, unvisited since the expedition of Sir James Ross nearly sixty years previously. Here he discovered the inlet which later became known as the Bay of Whales, where he ascended the Barrier and, with two companions, sledged about ten miles south to set a new Farthest South record at 78°50'S. On its return to England the expedition was received with only moderate interest, despite its achievements. Reports suggested chaotic organisation and lack of leadership, and the English edition of Borchgrevink's expedition account, published in 1901, was perceived as boastful, journalistic and unreliable.cite web|last= Swan|first= R.A.|title= Borchgrevink, Carsten Egeberg (1864–1934)|url= http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A070353b.htm|publisher= Australian Dictionary of Biography|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 6 September]

After his experiences with the "Southern Cross", Borchgrevink abandoned polar exploration. His only subsequent expedition was to the West Indies, in 1902, to study the effects of volcanic activity. Thereafter he settled in Oslo with his British wife and four children, leading a life outside the limelight. During these years his polar work was recognised and honoured in America, Denmark and Austria, and in 1912 he received a handsome tribute to his pioneering activities from Roald Amundsen, conqueror of the South Pole. However, it was not until 1930 that Britain's Royal Geographical Society paid him due recognition through the award of its Patron's Medal, admitting that justice had not been done at the time to the work of the Southern Cross expedition. The year previously the Norwegian Parliament had awarded him an annual pension.

Early life

Carsten Borchgrevink was born in Oslo, the son of a Norwegian lawyer, Henrik Christian Borchgrevink, and an English mother Annie, née Ridley. He was educated at Gjerstsen College, Oslo and later (1885–88) at the Royal Forestry School at Tharandt, Saxony.cite web|title= Southern Cross Expedition Members|url=http://www.heritage-antarctica.org/english/expedition-members/|publisher= Antarctic Heritage Trust|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 7 September] After completing his forestry training he emigrated to Australia. For four years he worked with government surveying teams in Queensland and New South Wales, before settling in the small New South Wales town of Bowenfels, where he became a teacher in languages and natural sciences at Cooerwull Academy. His character at this time is described as "restless, voluble and flamboyant", [Huntford, p. 27] with a passion for adventure and exploration. His initial interest in polar exploration may have been sparked by the work of the recently-formed Australian Antarctic Committee, and when an opportunity came, in 1894, to join Henrik Bull's whaling expedition to Antarctic waters, Borchgrevink was quick to seize it.

Voyage of the "Antarctic"

Henrik Bull was a Norwegian businessman and entrepreneur who, like Borchgrevink, had settled in Australia in the late 1880s. As a business venture he planned to take a sealing and whaling expedition into Antarctic waters, and approached Melbourne's learned societies with a view to sharing costs on a joint commercial and scientific expedition. However, the societies had their own plans, and discussions foundered on differences of aims.cite web|last= McConville|first= Andrew|title= Henrik Bull, the Antarctic Exploration Committee and the first confirmed landing on the Antarctic continent|url= http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract;jsessionid=E6F3CB49DC9459D939F832532360E368.tomcat1?fromPage=online&aid=967620|publisher= Cambridge University Press|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 7 September] Bull returned to Norway to organise his expedition. where he found financial backing which enabled him to acquire a ship, which he named "Antarctic", a crew, and an experienced whaling captain, Leonard Kristensen.cite web|title= Norway's Forgotten Explorer|url= http://www.heritage-antarctica.org/english/forgotten-explorer/|publisher= Antarctic Heritage Trust|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 8 September] "Antarctic" sailed from Tønsberg, Norway, on 20 September 1893, and reached Melbourne early in 1894. Borchgrevink, who followed Antarctic news avidly through correspondence with Australia's learned societies, was anxious to join an expedition in any capacity. In Melbourne he persuaded Bull to take him on as a deck-hand and part-time scientist. During the following months the sealing activities around the sub-Antarctic islands proved successful, but whales proved elusive. Bull therefore decided to take "Antarctic" further south, to areas where the presence of whales had been reported by earlier expeditions.cite web|title= The First Landing on the Antarctic Mainland|url= http://www.heritage-antarctica.org/english/first-landing/|publisher= Antarctic Heritage Trust|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 8 September] "Antarctic" penetrated the pack ice and sailed into the Ross Sea, but still found whales elusive. In January 1895 the ship was in the vicinity of Cape Adare, at the northern extremity of the Victoria Land coast, and conditions were calm. As the ship neared the coastline a boat was lowered, containing Bull, Kristensen, Borchgrevink and others of the crew. A landing was made on a shingled foreshore below the cape; exactly who went ashore first became a matter of contention, both Kristensen and Borchgrevink claiming the honour, along with a 17-year-old New Zealand seaman Alexander von Tunzelmann, who said that he had "leapt out to hold the boat steady". [cite web|title= Antarctic History|url=http://www.antarctica.org.nz/02-history/index.html|publisher= www.antarctica.org.nz|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 17 September] . This was the first confirmed landing on the Antarctic continent, although it may have been preceded by that of the American whaling captain John Davis, on the Antarctic Peninsula in 1821. [cite web|title= An Antarctic Timeline|url= http://www.south-pole.com/p0000052.htm|publisher= www.south-pole.com|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 29 August]

While ashore at Cape Adare, Borchgrevink collected specimens of rocks and lichens, the latter the first samples of vegetable life from the Antarctic continent to receive scientific analysis.cite web|author = Borchgrevink, Carstens|title= "First on the Antarctic Continent|url= http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=aMRgMxzhEI8C&pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=Southern+Cross+Expedition&source=web&ots=VRxj1EM4Dl&sig=OxChuy-HeNPhHXJA0kMm3n26jio&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=8&ct=result#PPP1,M1|publisher = George Newnes Ltd|date= 1901|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 11 August Introduction, p. III] He also spent time studying the cape's foreshore in detail, assessing its potential as a site where a future expedition might land and establish winter quarters.cite web|author = Borchgrevink, Carstens|title= "First on the Antarctic Continent|url= http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=aMRgMxzhEI8C&pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=Southern+Cross+Expedition&source=web&ots=VRxj1EM4Dl&sig=OxChuy-HeNPhHXJA0kMm3n26jio&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=8&ct=result#PPP1,M1|publisher = George Newnes Ltd|date= 1901|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 11 August pp. 4–5 ] . A landing was also made at Possession Island, where Bull and Borchgrevink left a message in a tin box, as future proof of their presence there.cite web|title= Carsten Borchgrevink (1864-1934)|url= http://www.south-pole.com/p0000087.htm|publisher= www.south-pole.com|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 8 September]

outhern Cross Expedition

eeking support

With the idea of an expedition forming in his mind, Borchgrevink hurried to London, where the Sixth International Geographical Congress was being hosted by the Royal Geographical Society. On 1 August 1895 he addressed the conference, giving a detailed account of the Cape Adare landing site, "a place where a scientific expedition might safely stop, even during the winter months". He saw the location as "a safe situation for houses, tents and provisions", hopefully adding that in this place "the unbound forces of the Antarctic Circle do not display the full severity of their powers". He also implied that there was an easy, accessible route from the cape to the interior of South Victoria Land. He ended his speech by declaring his willingness to lead such an expedition himself. Hugh Robert Mill, the Royal Geographical Society's librarian who was present at the Congress, reported reactions to the speech: "His blunt manner and abrupt speech stirred the academic discusions with a fresh breeze of realism [...] He had a dynamic quality [...] that boded well". Congress passed a unanimous broad resolution in support of Antarctic exploration, proposing that "the various scientific societies throughout the world should urge, in whatever way seems to them most effective, that this work be undertaken before the close of the century", without any specific endorsement of Borchgrevink.cite web|author = Borchgrevink, Carstens|title= "First on the Antarctic Continent|url= http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=aMRgMxzhEI8C&pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=Southern+Cross+Expedition&source=web&ots=VRxj1EM4Dl&sig=OxChuy-HeNPhHXJA0kMm3n26jio&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=8&ct=result#PPP1,M1|publisher = George Newnes Ltd|date= 1901|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 11 August pp. 9–10 ] .

For the next two years Borchgrevink travelled in Europe and in Australia, seeking support and backing for his expedition ideas, but without success. He found that the Royal Geographical Society had, since 1893, been harbouring their own plans for Antarctic exploration. Under the influence of its strong-minded president Sir Clements Markham, the RGS project was being envisaged less as a scientific endeavour than as an attempt to relive the naval glories of a half century previously. [Crane, p. 75] It was the RGS plans which attracted the interest of the learned societies, rather than Borchgrevink's more modest proposals for a private expedition. He received, he recorded, "tons of moral support", but financial backing was not forthcoming. "It was up a steep hill that I had to roll my Antarctic boulder", he wrote.

ir George Newnes

During his travels Borchgrevink met Sir George Newnes, a leading British magazine publisher and cinema pioneer whose portfolio included the "Westminster Gazette", "Tit-Bits", "Country Life" and the "Strand Magazine". [cite web|title= Who's who of Victorian cinema|url= http://www.victorian-cinema.net/newnes.htm|publisher = victorian-cinema.net|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 9 September] It was not unusual for publishers to support exploration—Newnes's great rival Alfred Harmsworth (later Lord Northcliffe) had recently financed Frederick Jackson's expedition to Franz Josef Land, and had pledged financial backing to the RGS's National Antarctic Expedition.Jones, p. 59] Newnes was sufficiently impressed by Borchgrevink to offer to meet the full costs of his proposed expedition—around £40,000 (at least £3 million in 2008 values). [cite web|title= Measuringworth|url= http://www.measuringworth.com/uscompare/|publisher= The Institute for the Measurement of Worth|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 9 September] This generosity infuriated Sir Clements Markham and the geographical establishment, who saw Borchgrevink as a pennless Norwegian nobody who had secured British money which they believed was theirs by right.Huxley, p. 25] Markham denounced Borchgrevink as a "liar and a fraud", an attitude towards him which persisted even after his expedition's eventual return.

Newnes stipulated that the expedition should sail under a British flag, and should be styled the "British Antarctic Expedition", Preston, p. 14] even though the great majority of its personnel would be Norwegian. In the event, of the combined ship and shore parties, only two of the 29 were British, with one Australian.

Expedition

With funding assured, Bochgrevink went to Norway where he purchased the 521-ton whaling ship "Pollux", renamed her "Southern Cross", and had her fitted out for Antarctic service. He paid particular attention to the installation of what in his expedition account he described as "our splendid engines", which were fitted in Norway because "a big strike of mechanics made it impossible to get the work finished up to the time in Britain".cite web|author = Borchgrevink, Carstens|title= "First on the Antarctic Continent|url= http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=aMRgMxzhEI8C&pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=Southern+Cross+Expedition&source=web&ots=VRxj1EM4Dl&sig=OxChuy-HeNPhHXJA0kMm3n26jio&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=8&ct=result#PPP1,M1|publisher = George Newnes Ltd|date= 1901|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 10 Sept pp. 11–12 ] . He describes various component parts, all executed to the standards of the Nowegian Veritas, Norway's premier shipping organisation. After the crew and scientific staff had been assembled, "Southern Cross" sailed from London in August 1898 and, following a stopover in Australia, arrived at Cape Adare on 17 February 1899. Here, on the site which Borchgrevink had described to the Congress, the first shore base on the Antarctic continent was set up, and named "Camp Ridley" in honour of Borchgrevink's mother. On 2 March the ship departed, leaving a shore party of ten, assorted provisions and equipment, and 70 dogs, to spend the winter in their isolated quarters.cite web|title = The Southern Cross Expedition|url= http://www.anta.canterbury.ac.nz/resources/sth_cross/arrival.html|publisher= www.anta.canterbury.ac.nz|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 10 August (Arrival at Cape Adare)]

Louis Bernacchi, the party's Australian physicist, was later to write; "In many respects, Borchgrevink was not a good leader"Crane, pp. 74–75] He was no autocrat, but as polar historian Ranulph Fiennes recorded, in the absence of a framework of hierarchy a state of "democratic anarchy" prevailed, with "dirt, discord and inactivity" the order of the day. [Fiennes, p. 43] As time progressed, tempers wore thin; there was nervous irritation, and boredom. [Crane, p. 153] There were accidents: a candle left burning caused extensive fire damage, and on another occasion several members of the party were almost asphyxiated by fumes from the stove. Borchgrevink did attempt to establish some sort of routine, and scientific work was carried on throughout, but as he wrote himself, in reference to the general lack of fellowship: "The silence roars in one's ears". Moreover, Borchgrevink was not a trained scientist, and his inability to handle apparatus or make observations was a concern to his scientific staff.cite web|title= The Southern Cross Expedition|url= http://www.anta.canterbury.ac.nz/resources/sth_cross/depart.html|publisher= www.anta.canterbury.ac.nz|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 10 September Departure of the Expedition] To further dampen morale the group's zoologist, Nikolai Hansen, fell ill, failed to respond to treatment, and died on 14 October. [cite web|title= The Southern Cross Expedition|url= http://www.anta.canterbury.ac.nz/resources/sth_cross/burial.html|publisher= www.anta.canterbury.ac.nz|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 10 September First Burial on the Continent] When winter finally ended and sledging activity became possible, Borchgrevink's assumptions about the ease of passage into the South Victoria Land interior proved false; the glaciated mountain ranges around Cape Adare precluded any inland exploration, confining the party to a restricted area around the cape and Robertson Bay.With the return of the "Southern Cross" at the end of January 1900, Borchgrevink was anxious to get away from Cape Adare, so the camp was abandoned. According to Borchgrevink, sufficient fuel and provisions was left that could have lasted another year. "Southern Cross" sailed southward, following the Victoria Land coastline and finally reaching the Great Ice Barrier discovered by Sir James Clark Ross during his 1839–43 voyage. Borchgrevink noted that the Barrier had receded southwards by some convert|30|mi|km from the location reported by Ross. An inlet in the Barrier edge was discovered, which in later years was to become known as the Bay of Whales. Here, on 16 February 1900 Borchgrevink, the Englishman William Colbeck and the Sami dog-handler Per Savio ascended the Barrier (the first such ascent) with dogs and sledges, and travelled ten miles (16 km) south, to create a new Farthest South record at 78°50'S. "Southern Cross" visited other Ross Sea islands before turning northwards, reaching New Zealand on 1 April,cite web|title= The Forgotten Expedition|url= http://www.heritage-antarctica.org/english/forgotten-expedition/|publisher= Antarctic Heritage Trust|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 11 September] and arriving back in England on 6 June 1900.

Return and reception

"Southern Cross"'s reception, on its return to England, was lukewarm. There was residual resentment in geographical circles, harboured especially by Sir Clements Markham, that Borchgrevink was an unwelcome competitor for public funds. His acceptance of Newnes's gift, it was argued, had deprived the National Antarctic Expedition of money that would have "got it on its legs". In any event, public attention in England was firmly firmly fixed on the forthcoming national expedition, to which Robert Falcon Scott had just been appointed commander, [Crane, p. 89. Scott accepted his appointment on 11 June, five days after Borchgrevink's return.] rather than on a venture which appeared British only in name. [cite web|title= The Southern Cross Expedition|url= http://www.anta.canterbury.ac.nz/resources/sth_cross/equip.html|publisher= www.anta.canterbury.ac.nz|acessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 11 September Despite the heavily Norwegian composition of the party, Borchgrevink attemped to emphasise its British nature, flying the Duke of York's flag and landing miniature Union Jacks "for purposes of survey and extension of the British Empire".] Borchgrevink's credentials were not helped by the "bragging note" sounded in various articles which were published in Newnes's magazines, nor by the journalistic style of his rapidly-written expedition account, "First on the Antarctic Continent", the English edition of which appeared in 1901.

Borchgrevink continued to lecture in England and in Scotland, where he was awarded the silver medal of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society. He claimed that his expedition had been a great success, stating that the Antarctic regions could be "another Klondyke", rich with fish, birds, seals and minerals.cite web|title= The Southern Cross Expedition|url= http://www.anta.canterbury.ac.nz/resources/sth_cross/results.html|publisher= www.anta.canterbury.ac.nz|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 11 September Results of the Expedition] He listed his expedition's achievements: proof that an expedition could live on Victoria Land over winter; a year's continuous magenetic and meteorological observations; an estimate of the current position of the South Magnetic Pole; discoveries of new species of insect and shallow-water fauna; coastal mapping of Robertson Bay and the discovery of a new island which he named after the Duke of York; the first landings on various Ross Sea islands, including on Ross Island at the foot of Mount Terror; finally, the scaling of the Great Ice Barrier and the sledging to 78°50'S, "the furthest south ever reached by man".cite web|author = Borchgrevink, Carstens|title= "First on the Antarctic Continent|url= http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=aMRgMxzhEI8C&pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=Southern+Cross+Expedition&source=web&ots=VRxj1EM4Dl&sig=OxChuy-HeNPhHXJA0kMm3n26jio&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=8&ct=result#PPP1,M1|publisher = George Newnes Ltd|date= 1901|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 11 Sept p. 7] Against these results could be set the fact that Borchgrevink's choice of site had ruled out any serious geographical exploration of the interior, [Crane, p. 75] and that the scientific results were less than had been anticipated, due in part to the unexplained loss of many of Nikolai Hanson's natural history notes.

During the years following his return Borchgrevink was honoured by the American Geographical Society, and was made a Knight of St Olaf by his own sovereign, King Oscar II of Sweden. [Norway was a part of the Swedish kingdom between 1814 and 1905.] Later he received equivalent honours from Denmark and Austria, although in England his work was for many years largely disregarded, acknowledged only by an honorary fellowship of the Royal Geographical Society. Historian David Crane suggests that much of the negative reception in England followed from the hostility and contempt of Markham, and that if Borchgrevink had been a British naval officer he would have been treated differently. In any event, after leading one brief expedition to the West Indies in 1902, to study the effects of recent volcanic activity, Borchgrevink settled permanently in Norway. He never returned to the Antarctic.

Post-expedition life

In 1902 Borchgrevink embarked on his only other expedition of substance, to the West Indies on behalf of the National Geographic Society, to study the effects of recent volcanic activity in the region. On his return he virtually retired into private life. In September 1896 he had married an English bride, Constance Prior Standen, with whom he now settled in Slemdal, near Oslo, where two sons and two daughters were born, and where Borchgrevink devoted himself to sporting and literary activities. In Norway he divided opinion; Roald Amundsen was a long-time friend and supporter, [Preston, p. 14] whereas Fridtjof Nansen, according to Scott, spoke of him as a "tremendous fraud". [Crane, p. 94] When Amundsen returned from his South Pole conquest in 1912 he paid full tribute to Borchgrevink's pioneering work: "We must acknowledge that in ascending the Barrier, Borchgrevink opened the way to the south and threw aside the greatest obstacle to the expeditions that followed". [Amundsen, pp. 25–26] .

During the remaining years of the "Heroic Age" he was rarely consulted, and felt resentment over the lack of regard for his Antarctic expertise.cite web|last= Borchgrevink|first= Christopher Hawkins|title= Carsten Egeberg Borchgrevink (1864-1934) - Polar Explorer|url= http://borchgrevink.info/family/pdfs/articles_polar_explorer_005.pdf?PHPSESSID=05d3aee146d3749e2cafafb1dece1f56|publisher= Slekten Borchgrevink Anno 2004|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 11 September] His poor financial circumstances came to the attention of the Norwegian parliament, which in 1929, when he was 65 years of age, awarded him a life pension of NOK3,000. [In 1931 there were 19.9 NOK to the £, giving a sterling value of about £150 to NOK3,000, with a present-day equivalent value of around £6,700. See cite web|title= Answers: Norwegian Krone|url= http://www.answers.com/topic/norwegian-krone-1|publisher= www.answers.com|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 23 September and cite web|title= Measuring Worth|url= http://www.measuringworth.com/ppoweruk/|publisher= www.measuringworth.com|accessyear= 2008|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 23 September] In 1934 came belated recognition from London—the Royal Geographical Society awarded him its Patron's Medal, proclaiming that the magnitude of the difficulties overcome by Borchgrevink had been underestimated. "It was only after the work of Scott's Northern Party [...] that we were able to realise the improbability that any explorer could do more in the Cape Adare district than Mr Borchgrevink had accomplished. It appeared, then, that justice had not been done at the time to the pioneer work of the Southern Cross expedition".

Death and commemoration

Carsten Borchgrevink died in Oslo on 21 April 1934. A number of geographical features in Antarctica commemorate his name; the Borchgrevink Coast of Victoria Land, between Cape Adare and Cape Washington; the Borchgrevink Glacier and Glacier Tongue in Victoria Land; the Borchgrevinkisen glacier in Queen Maud Land. His name is also carried the small Arctic fish "Pagothenia borchgrevinki".

References

ources

*cite book|authorlink= Roald Amundsen|last= Amundsen|first= Roald|title= "The South Pole: Vol. I"|publisher= C. Hurst & Co|year= 1976|location= London|isbn= 0-903983-47-8
*cite web|last= Borchgrevink|first= Carsten|title= "First on the Antarctic Continent|url= http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=aMRgMxzhEI8C&pg=PA24&lpg=PA24&dq=Southern+Cross+Expedition&source=web&ots=VRxj1EM4Dl&sig=OxChuy-HeNPhHXJA0kMm3n26jio&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=8&ct=result#PPP1,M1|publisher = George Newnes Ltd|date= 1901|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 11 August
*cite web|last= Borchgrevink|first= Christopher Hawkins|title= Carsten Egeberg Borchgrevink (1864-1934) - Polar Explorer|url= http://borchgrevink.info/family/pdfs/articles_polar_explorer_005.pdf?PHPSESSID=05d3aee146d3749e2cafafb1dece1f56|publisher= Slekten Borchgrevink Anno 2004|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 11 September
*cite book|last= Crane|first= David|title= "Scott of the Antarctic"|publisher= HarperCollins|year= 2005|location= London|isbn= 0-00-715068-7
*cite book|authorlink= Ranulph Fiennes|last= Fiennes|first= Ranulph|title= "Captain Scott"|publisher= Hodder & Stoughton|year= 2003|location= London|isbn= 0-340-82697-5
*cite book|authorlink= Roland Huntford|last= Huntford|first= Roland|title= "Shackleton"|publisher= Hodder & Stoughton|year= 1985|location= London|isbn= 0-340-25007-0
*cite book|authorlink= Elspeth Huxley|last= Huxley|first= Elspeth|title= "Scott of the Antarctic"|publisher= Weidenfeld and Nicolson|year= 1977|location= London|isbn= 0-297-77433-6
*cite book|last= Jones|first= Max|title= "The Last Great Quest"|publisher= Oxford University Press|year= 2003|location= Oxford|isbn= 0-19-280483-9
*cite web|last= McConville|first= Andrew|title= Henrik Bull, the Antarctic Exploration Committee and the first confirmed landing on the Antarctic continent|url= http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract;jsessionid=E6F3CB49DC9459D939F832532360E368.tomcat1?fromPage=online&aid=967620|publisher= Cambridge University Press|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 7 September
*cite book|last= Preston|first= Diana|title= "A First Rate Tragedy"|publisher= Constable & Co.|location= London|year= 1997|isbn= 0-09-479530-4
*cite web|last= Swan|first= R.A.|title= Borchgrevink, Carsten Egeberg (1864–1934)|url= http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A070353b.htm|publisher= Australian Dictionary of Biography|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 6 September
*cite web|title= An Antarctic Timeline|url= http://www.south-pole.com/p0000052.htm|publisher= www.south-pole.com|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 29 August
*cite web|title= Answers: Norwegian Krone|url= http://www.answers.com/topic/norwegian-krone-1|publisher= www.answers.com|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 23 September
*cite web|title= Antarctic History|url=http://www.antarctica.org.nz/02-history/index.html|publisher= www.antarctica.org.nz|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 17 September
*cite web|title= Carsten Borchgrevink (1864-1934)|url= http://www.south-pole.com/p0000087.htm|publisher= www.south-pole.com|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 8 September
*cite web|title= First Landing on the Antarctic Mainland|url= http://www.heritage-antarctica.org/english/first-landing/|publisher= Antarctic Heritage Trust|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 8 September
*cite web|title= The Forgotten Expedition|url= http://www.heritage-antarctica.org/english/forgotten-expedition/|publisher= Antarctic Heritage Trust|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 11 September
*cite web|title= Measuringworth|url= http://www.measuringworth.com/uscompare/|publisher= The Institute for the Measurement of Worth|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 9 September
*cite web|title= Norway's Forgotten Explorer|url= http://www.heritage-antarctica.org/english/forgotten-explorer/|publisher= Antarctic Heritage Trust|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 8 September
*cite web|title= Southern Cross Expedition Members|url=http://www.heritage-antarctica.org/english/expedition-members/|publisher= Antarctic Heritage Trust|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 7 September
*cite web|title = The Southern Cross Expedition|url= http://www.anta.canterbury.ac.nz/resources/sth_cross/arrival.html|publisher= www.anta.canterbury.ac.nz|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 10 August (Arrival at Cape Adare)

External links

*cite web|title= Geology Collection|url= http://www.huntsearch.gla.ac.uk/cgi-bin/foxweb/huntsearch/SummaryResults.fwx?collection=geology&Searchterm=borchgrevink|publisher= Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery|accessyear= 2008|accessdaymonth= 23 September (The first scientific specimens recovered from mainland Antarctica)


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  • Carsten Borchgrevink — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Carsten Egeberg Borchgrevink Carsten Borchgrevink …   Wikipedia Español

  • Carsten Borchgrevink — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Borchgrevink. Carsten Borchgrevink …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Borchgrevink — Carsten Borchgrevink Carsten Egeberg (nach anderen Quellen: Eggeberg) Borchgrevink (* 1. Dezember 1864 in Christiania, Norwegen; † 23. April 1934 in Oslo) war ein norwegischer Naturforscher und Polarreisender. Im ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Carsten Egeberg Borchgrevink — Carsten Borchgrevink Carsten Egeberg (nach anderen Quellen: Eggeberg) Borchgrevink (* 1. Dezember 1864 in Christiania, Norwegen; † 23. April 1934 in Oslo) war ein norwegischer Naturforscher und Polarreisender. Im ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Borchgrevink — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Borchgrevink peut désigner : Carsten Borchgrevink, un explorateur polaire Glacier Borchgrevink, un glacier nommé d après l explorateur polaire… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Borchgrevink Glacier — (coord|73|4|S|168|30|E|type:glacier region:AQ|display=inline,title) is a large glacier in the Victory Mountains, Victoria Land, draining south between Malta Plateau and Daniell Peninsula, and thence projecting into Glacier Strait, Ross Sea, as a… …   Wikipedia

  • Borchgrevink — Borchgrevink, Carsten, Südpolfahrer, geb. 1. Dez. 1864 in Kristiania, erforschte seit 1888 Australien, 1898 1900 (Süd )Viktorialand (bis 78° 50 s.B.) und 1902 Westindien; lebt in Kristiania. Er schrieb: »First on the antarctic continent« (1901;… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Carstens Borchgrevink — Carsten Borchgrevink Carsten Borchgrevink Carsten Egeberg Borchgrevinck (né le 1er décembre 1864 à Kristiania en Norvège mort en 1934 à Slemdal, Oslo, Norvège), était un professeur et explorateur. Il mena l …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Glacier Borchgrevink — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Borchgrevink. Glacier Borchgrevink Latitude Longitude …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Southern Cross Expedition — The Southern Cross Expedition, officially known as the British Antarctic Expedition 1898 ndash;1900, was the first British venture of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration, and was the forerunner of the much more celebrated expeditions of… …   Wikipedia


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