Orders of magnitude (temperature)

Orders of magnitude (temperature)
Temperature in °C compared to the thermodynamic scale in electron volts, which are also used as a unit of temperature.
List of orders of magnitude for temperature
Factor Multiple Item
10−∞ 0 K absolute zero: free bodies are still, no interaction within or without a thermodynamic system
10−30 1 wK particular speeds bound paths to exceed size and lifetime of the universe
(see least-energy in orders of magnitude (energy))
10−18 1 aK macroscopic teleportation of matter
Hawking temperature of supermassive black holes
10−15 1 fK atomic waves coherent over inches
atomic particles decoherent over inches
10−12 1 pK 100 pK, lowest temperature ever produced, during the nuclear magnetic ordering at Helsinki University of Technology's Low Temperature Lab
450 pK, lowest temperature sodium Bose-Einstein condensate gas ever achieved in the laboratory, at MIT[1]
10−9 1 nK 50 nK, Fermi melting point of potassium-40
Bose melting point of bosonic atomic gases
Doppler-locked refrigerants in laser cooling and magneto-optical traps
10−6 1 μK nuclear demagnetization
10−3 1 mK radio excitations
1.7 mK, temperature record for helium-3/helium-4 dilution refrigeration, and the lowest temperature which may be sustained for arbitrarily long time with known techniques.
2.5 mK, Fermi melting point of helium-3
60 mK adiabatic demagnetization of paramagnetic molecules
300 mK in evaporative cooling of helium-3
700 mK, helium-3/helium-4 mixtures begin phase separation
950 mK, melting point of helium
microwave excitations
1 1 K 1 K at the Boomerang nebula, the coldest natural environment known
1.5 K, melting point of overbound helium
2.19 K, lambda point of overbound superfluid helium
2.725 K, cosmic microwave background
4.1 K, superconductivity point of mercury
4.22 K, boiling point of bound helium
5.19 K, critical temperature of helium
7.2 K, superconductivity point of lead
9.3 K, superconductivity point of niobium
101 10 K Fermi melting point of valence electrons for superconductivity
14.01 K, melting point of bound hydrogen
20.28 K, boiling point of bound hydrogen
33 K, critical temperature of hydrogen
44 K mean on Pluto
53 K mean of Neptune
63 K, melting point of bound nitrogen
68 K mean of Uranus
77.35 K, boiling point of bound nitrogen
90.19 K, boiling point of bound oxygen
92 K, superconductivity point of Y-Ba-Cu-oxide (YBCO)
Everyday substances near liquid air's temperature with incipient Fermi-condensate populations result in spontaneose luminescence, loss or lack of hysteresis, inductive and capacitive electronic moments that readily adsorb or expel or float upon unlike substances:[2]
102 100 K infrared excitations
135 K, highest-temperature superconductor at ambient pressure, mercury barium calcium copper oxide
165 K, glass point of supercooled water
183.75 K (–89.4 °C), coldest air recorded on Earth
192 K, Debye temperature of ice
273.15 K (0 °C), melting point of bound water
273.16 K (0.01 °C), temperature of triple point of water (defining constant)
~293 K, room temperature
373.15 K (100 °C), boiling point of bound water
647 K, critical point of superheated water
737.5 K, mean on Venus

See detailed list below

103 1 kK visible light excitations
500–2200 K on brown dwarfs (photosphere)
1170 K at wood fire
1300 K in lava flows, open flames
1500 K in basalt lava flows
~1670 K at blue candle flame
1811 K, melting point of iron (lower for steel)
1830 K in Bunsen burner flame
1900 K at the Space Shuttle orbiter hull in 8 km/s dive
2022 K, boiling point of lead
2230 K, Debye temperature of carbon
2320 K at open hydrogen flame
2150–2450 K at open hydrocarbon flame
3683 K, melting point of tungsten
3925 K, sublimation point of carbon
4160 K, melting point of hafnium carbide
4800 K, 10 MPa, triple point of carbon[3]
5000 K, 12 GPa melting point of diamond[4]
5100 K in cyanogen-dioxygen flame
5516 K at dicyanoacetylene (carbon subnitride)-ozone flame
5650 K at Earth's Inner Core Boundary
5780 K on Sun
5933 K, boiling point of tungsten
6000 K, mean of the Universe 300,000 years after the Big Bang
7445 K, 850 GPa;[5] 8750 K, 520 GPa;[6] 5400 K, 220 GPa,[7] critical point of diamond/solid III
7735 K, a monatomic ideal gas has one electron volt of kinetic energy
ultraviolet excitations
8801 K, 10.56 GPa[8] 7020.5 K, 797 MPa,[9] critical point of carbon
anionic sparks
104 10 kK 10 kK on Sirius A
10–15 kK in mononitrogen recombination
15.5 kK, critical point of tungsten
25 kK, mean of the Universe 10,000 years after the Big Bang
26 kK on white dwarf Sirius B
28 kK in record cationic lightning over Earth
4–8–40–160 kK on white dwarfs
30–400 kK on a planetary nebula's asymptotic giant helium star
37 kK in proton-electron reactions
38 kK on Eta Carinae
50 kK at protostar (core)
53 kK on Wolf-Rayet star R136a1
54.5 kK on ON2 III(f*) star LH64-16[10]
>200 kK on Butterfly Nebula
~300 kK at 17 meters from Little Boy's detonation
Fermi boiling point of valence electrons
X-ray excitations
106 1 MK γ-ray excitations
1 MK at old neutron stars, brown dwarfs, and gravital deuterium fusion range
1–3–10 MK above Sun (corona)
2.4 MK at T Tauri stars and gravital lithium-6 fusion range
2.5 MK at red dwarfs and gravital protium fusion range
8 MK in solar wind
10 MK at orange dwarfs and gravital helium-3 fusion range
13.6 MK at Sun
10–30–100 MK in stellar flares
20 MK in novæ
23 MK, beryllium-7 fusion range
60 MK above Eta Carinae
85 MK (15 keV) in a magnetic confinement fusion plasma
200 MK at helium star and gravital helium-4 fusion range
230 MK, gravital carbon-12 fusion range
460 MK, gravital neon fusion-disproportionation range
5–530 MK in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor's plasma
750 MK, gravital oxygen fusion range
109 1 GK 1 GK, everything 100 seconds after the Big Bang
1.3–1.7 GK, gravital silicon fusion range
3 GK in electron-positron reactions
10 GK in supernovæ
10 GK, everything 1 second after the Big Bang
700 GK in quasars' accretion discs
740 GK, Hagedorn temperature or Fermi melting point of pions
1012 1 TK 0.1–1 TK at new neutron star
0.5–1.2 TK, Fermi melting point of hadrons into quark-gluon plasma
3–5 TK in proton-antiproton reactions
Z0 electronuclear excitations
10 TK, 100 microseconds after the Big Bang
45–67 TK at collapsar of a gamma ray burst
300–900 TK at proton-nickel conversions in the Tevatron's Main Injector
1015 1 PK 0.3–2.2 PK at proton-antiproton collisions
1018 1 EK 2–13 EK at heavy nuclear conversions in the Large Hadron Collider
1021 1 ZK dark matter at active galactic nuclei
1024 1 YK 0.5–7 YK at ultra-high-energy cosmic ray collisions
1027 1 000 YK electrocoloral excitations
everything 10−35 seconds after the Big Bang
1030 106 YK 14.2 million YK, Planck temperature of Planck particles and geons or kugelblitzen
everything 5×10−44 seconds after the Big Bang
1033 109 YK theory of everything excitations[citation needed]
extradimensional gauge freedom[citation needed]
Landau poles[citation needed]

Detailed list for 100 K to 1000 K

Most ordinary human activity takes place at temperatures of this order of magnitude. Circumstances where water naturally occurs in liquid form are shown in light grey.

Kelvin Degrees
100 K −173.15 °C −279.67 °F
125 K −148 °C −234 °F superconductivity point of Tl-Ba-Cu-oxide
138 K −135 °C −211 °F superconductivity point of Hg-Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-oxide
140 K −130 °C −200 °F mean on Saturn
150 K −120 °C −190 °F mean on Jupiter
183.9 K −89.2 °C −128.6 °F coldest record on Earth, at Vostok
194.6 K −78.5 °C −109.3 °F sublimation point of carbon dioxide (dry ice)
210 K −63 °C −80 °F mean on Mars
234.3 K −38.83 °C −37.89 °F melting point of mercury
255 K −18 °C −0.4 °F recommended for keeping food frozen
255.4... K −17.7... °C 0 °F coldest brine-ice solution found by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
272 K −1.1 °C 30 °F chilly sea
273.15 K 0.00 °C 32.00 °F melting point of water (at STP)
278 K 5 °C 41 °F recommended for keeping food cool
287 K 14 °C 57 °F mean on Earth
293.6 K 20.5 °C 68.9 °F coldest human body survived
295 K 21 °C 70 °F room temperature
304 K 31 °C 88 °F melting point of butter
307 K 34 °C 93 °F kindling point of white phosphorus
308 K 35 °C 95 °F warmest sea measured, at the Red Sea
310 K 37 °C 98.6 °F standard human body
315 K 42 °C 108 °F usually deadly human fever
326 K 54 °C 129 °F hottest reliably reported air temperature on Earth, at Death Valley, USA - reported on four separate occasions.
330 K 58 °C 136.4 °F hottest claimed air temperature on Earth, at Al 'Aziziyah in Libya - this reading is not generally considered reliable.
330 K 60 °C 140 °F recommended for keeping food warm
336 K 63 °C 145.4 °F milk pasteurization
340 K 70 °C 160 °F food is well done
hot springs at which some bacteria thrive
350 K 77 °C 170 °F poaching of food
355 K 82 °C 180 °F recommended for coffee brewing
366 K 93 °C 200 °F simmering of food
372 K 99 °C 210 °F cake is well done
373.15 K 100 °C 212 °F boiling point of water
380 K 105 °C 225 °F oven on very low
smoke point of raw safflower oil
syrup is concentrated to 75% sugar
400 K 127 °C 260 °F Concorde nose tip during supersonic flight
410 K 140 °C 275 °F oven on low
435 K 160 °C 320 °F syrup is concentrated to 100% sugar
440 K 170 °C 325 °F oven on low-medium
450 K 175 °C 350 °F oven on medium
mean on Mercury
smoke point of butter
470 K 200 °C 400 °F oven on medium-high
485 K 210 °C 410 °F kindling point of diesel fuel
490 K 220 °C 425 °F oven on high
kindling range of paper
510 K 240 °C 475 °F oven on very high
kindling range of automotive fuel
525 K 250 °C 485 °F smoke point of milkfat
540 K 265 °C 510 °F smoke point of refined safflower oil
600.65 K 327.5 °C 621.5 °F melting point of lead
740 K 460 °C 870 °F mean on Venus
749 K 476 °C 889 °F kindling point of magnesium
760 K 480 °C 900 °F electric oven on the self-cleaning cycle
809 K 536 °C 997 °F kindling point of hydrogen
933.47 K 660.32 °C 1220.58 °F melting point of aluminium
1000 K 726.85 °C 1340.33 °F


  1. ^ . http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/18214. 
  2. ^ http://1911encyclopedia.org/Liquid_Gases "Liquid Gases". Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th edition: Classic Encyclopedia. (1911, 2006)
  3. ^ A. I. Savvatimscij, "Melting point of graphite and liquid carbon", Physics 46 (12) 1295–1303 (2003), Uspèxi Fizichèscix Nauc, Russian Academy of Sciences
  4. ^ C. C. Yang and S. Li, "Size-Dependent Temperature-Pressure Phase Diagram of Carbon", J. Phys. Chem. C 112 (5), 1423–1426 (2008)
  5. ^ Alfredo A. Correa, Stanimir A. Bonev, Giulia Galli, "Carbon under extreme conditions: Phase boundaries and electronic properties from first-principles theory", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 8 Dec 2005.
  6. ^ Xiaofei Wang, Sandro Scandolo, Roberto Car, "Carbon Phase Diagram from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics", Phys. Rev. Let. 95, 185701 (2005)
  7. ^ Gerald I. Kerley and Lalit Chhabildas, "Multicomponent-Multiphase Equation of State for Carbon", Sandia National Laboratories (2001)
  8. ^ James N. Glosli and Francis H. Ree, "Liquid-liquid Phase Transformation in Carbon", Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4659–4662 (1999)
  9. ^ Man Chai Chang, Ryoo Ryong, Mu Shik Jhon, "Thermodynamic properties of liquid carbon", Carbon, Volume 23, Issue 5, 481-485 (1985)
  10. ^ Philip Massey et al, "The Physical Properties and Effective Temperature Scale of O-type Stars as a Function of Metallicity. I. A Sample of 20 Stars in the Magellanic Clouds", The Astrophysical Journal, 608:1001–1027 (2004)

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