- Wyclif's Bible
Wyclif's Bible is the name now given to a group of
Bible translationsinto Middle Englishthat were made under the direction of, or at the instigation of, John Wycliffe. They appeared over a period from approximately 1382to 1395. [Catholic Encyclopedia [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15367a.htm Versions of the Bible] ] These Bible translations were the chief inspiration and chief cause of the Lollardmovement, a pre- Reformationmovement that rejected many of the distinctive teachings of the Roman Catholic Church. In the early Middle Ages, most Christian people encountered the Bible only in the form of oral versions of scriptures, verses and homilies in Latin. At that time, only the educated (and those wealthy enough to become educated) could read and understand Latin. Wycliffe’s idea was to translate the Bible into the language of the common people, giving them the chance to read the Bible and develop their own interpretation of it, rather than the Church’s condensed and biased version.
"“ […] it helpeth Christian men to study the Gospel in that tongue in which they know best Christ’s sentence.”" [Robinson, Henry Wheeler. The Bible in its Ancient and English Versions. Greenwood Press Publishers: Westport, Connecticut. 1970. 137-145. ]
Long thought to be the work of Wycliffe himself, it is now generally believed that the Wycliffite translations were the work of several hands.
Nicholas of Herefordis known to have translated a part of the text; John Purveyand perhaps John Trevisaare names that have been mentioned as possible authors. The translators worked from the Vulgate, the Latin Biblethat was the standard Biblical text of Western Christianity. They included in the testaments those works which would later be called deuterocanonical along with 3 Esdras which is now called 2 Esdrasand Paul's epistle to the Laodiceans.
Although unauthorized, the work was popular. Wycliffite Bible texts are the most common
manuscriptliterature in Middle English. Over 250 manuscripts of the Wycliffite Bible survive; its nearest competitor is the essay on the " Prick of Conscience" that survives in 117 copies.Fact|date=April 2007
Surviving copies of the Wycliffite Bible fall into two broad textual families, an "early" version and a later version. Both versions are flawed by a slavish regard to the word order and syntax of the Latin originals; the later versions give some indication of being revised in the direction of
idiomatic English. A wide variety of Middle English dialects are represented. The second, revised group of texts is much larger than the first. Some manuscripts contain parts of the Bible in the earlier version, and other parts in the later version; this suggests that the early version may have been meant as a rough draft that was to be recast into the somewhat better English of the second version. The second version, though somewhat improved, still retained a number of infelicities of style, as in its version of Genesis1:3
:Latin Vulgate: Dixitque Deus: Fiat lux, et facta est lux:Early Wyclif: And God said: Be made light, and made is light:Later Wyclif: And God said: Light be made; and light was made:King James: And God said: Let there be light; and there was light
The familiar verse of is rendered in the later Wyclif version as:
:"For God louede so the world that he yaf his oon bigetun sone, that ech man that beliueth in him perische not, but haue euerlastynge lijf."
The Wycliffite Bible, and its popularity, caused the kingdom of
Englandand the established Roman Catholic Church to undertake a drastic campaign to suppress it. In the early years of the 15th century, Henry IV (" De haeretico comburendo"), Archbishop Thomas Arundel, and Henry Knighton(to name a few) published criticism and enacted some of the severest religious censorship laws in Europe at that time. Even twenty years after Wycliffe's death, at the Oxford Convocation of 1408, it was solemnly voted that no translation of the Bible should be made without prior approval.
* [http://www.studylight.org/desk/?l=en&query=Matthew+1§ion=2&translation=wyc&oq=Matthew&new=1 Studylight version of The Wycliffe Bible (1395)] Searchable by phrase or chapter/verse reference.
* [http://www.sbible.boom.ru/wyc/wycle.htm John Wyclif] ; contains a text of the Wycliffite Bible
* [http://wesley.nnu.edu/biblical_studies/wycliffe/ John Wycliffe Translation] from Wesley NNU; gives each book on a single page
* [http://www.geocities.com/thecatholicconvert/biblegrahamch11.html Vernacular Scriptures before Wycliff]
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15722a.htm Catholic Encyclopedia article on John Wyclif]
For further reading
* David Daniell, "The Bible in English" (Yale, 2003); ISBN 0-300-09930-4
* Josiah Forshall and Frederic Madden, eds., "The Holy Bible: Wycliffite Versions", 4 vols. (Oxford 1850)
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