Bloodletting (or blood-letting, in modern medicine referred to as phlebotomy) was a tremendously popular medical practice from antiquity up to the late 19th century, a time span of almost 2,000 years. Bloodletting involves the withdrawal of often considerable quantities of
bloodfrom a patient in the belief that this would cure or prevent a great many illnesses and diseases. The practice has been abandoned for all except a few very specific conditions. It is conceivable that historically, in the absence of other treatments for hypertension, bloodletting could sometimes have had a beneficial effect in temporarily reducing blood pressureby a reduction in blood volume. However since hypertension is almost always asymptomaticand thus undiagnosable without modern methods, this effect was unintentional. In the overwhelming majority of cases, the historical use of bloodletting was harmful to patients.
Today the term "phlebotomy" refers to the drawing of blood for laboratory analysis or
blood transfusion(see Phlebotomy (modern)). Therapeutic phlebotomy refers to the drawing of a unit of blood in specific cases like hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, porphyria cutanea tardaetc., to reduce the amount of red blood cells.
In the ancient world
Bloodletting is one of the oldest medical practices, having been practiced among diverse ancient peoples, including the
Mesopotamians, the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Mayans, and the Aztecs. In Greece, bloodletting was in use around the time of Hippocrates, who mentions bloodletting but in general relied on dietary techniques. Erasistratus, however, theorized that many diseases were caused by "plethoras", or overabundances, in the blood, and advised that these plethoras be treated, initially, by exercise, sweating, reduced food intake, and vomiting. Herophilusadvocated bloodletting. Archagathus, one of the first Greek physicians to practice in Rome, practiced bloodletting extensively and gained a most sanguinary reputation.
"Bleeding" a patient to health was modeled on the process of menstruation. Hippocrates believed that menstruation functioned to "purge women of bad humors." Galen of Rome, a student of Hippocrates, began physician-initiated blood-letting. [Elsimar M. Coutinho, "Is Menstruation Obsolete?",Oxford University Press 1999] [See Wikipedia Article [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elsimar_M._Coutinho] ]
The popularity of bloodletting in Greece was reinforced by the ideas of
Galen, after he discovered the veins and arteries were filled with blood, not air as was commonly believed at the time. There were two key concepts in his system of bloodletting. The first was that blood was created and then used up, it did not circulate and so it could 'stagnate' in the extremities. The second was that humoral balance was the basis of illness or health, the four humoursbeing blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile, relating to the four Greek classical elements of air, water, earth and fire. Galen believed that blood was the dominant humour and the one in most need of control. In order to balance the humours, a physicianwould either remove 'excess' blood (plethora) from the patient or give them an emeticto induce vomiting, or a diureticto induce urination.
Galen created a complex system of how much blood should be removed based on the patient's age, constitution, the season, the weather and the place. Symptoms of plethora were believed to include
fever, apoplexy, and headache. The blood to be let was of a specific nature determined by the disease: either arterial or venous, and distant or close to the area of the body affected. He linked different blood vessels with different organs, according to their supposed drainage. For example, the vein in the right hand would be let for liverproblems and the vein in the left hand for problems with the spleen. The more severe the disease, the more blood would be let. Fevers required copious amounts of bloodletting.
Talmudrecommended a specific day of the week and days of the month for bloodletting, and similar rules, though less codified, can be found among Christian writings advising which saints' days were favourable for bloodletting. Islamic medical authors too advised bloodletting, particularly for fevers. The practice was probably passed to them by the Greeks; when Islamic theories became known in the Latin-speaking countries of Europe, bloodletting became more widespread. Together with cauteryit was central to Arabic surgery; the key texts "Kitab al-Qanun" and especially "Al-Tasrif li-man 'ajaza 'an al-ta'lif" both recommended it. It was also known in Ayurvedic medicine, described in the "Susruta Samhita".
In the 2nd millennium
Even after the humoral system fell into disuse, the practice was continued by surgeons and barber-surgeons. Though the bloodletting was often "recommended" by
physicians, it was carried out by barbers. This division of labourled to the distinction between physicians and surgeons. The red-and-white-striped pole of the barbershop, still in use today, is derived from this practice: the red represents the blood being drawn, the white represents the tourniquetused, and the pole itself represents the sticksqueezed in the patient's hand to dilate the veins. Bloodletting was used to 'treat' a wide range of diseases, becoming a standard treatment for almost every ailment, and was practiced prophylactically as well as therapeutically.
The benefits of bloodletting only began to be seriously questioned in the second half of the 1800s. While many physicians in
Englandat the time had lost faith in the general value of bloodletting, some still considered it beneficial in some circumstances, for instance to "clear out" infected or weakened blood or its ability to "cause hæmorrhages to cease" - as evidenced in a call for a "fair trial for blood-letting as a remedy" in 1871 [cite journal
title = Blood-letting
journal = British Medical Journal
volume = 1(533)
pages = 283–291
March 18, 1871
url = http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/pagerender.fcgi?artid=2260507&pageindex=1#page
March 21, 2008] Bloodletting persisted into the 20th century and was even recommended by Sir William Oslerin the 1923 edition his "Principles and Practice of Medicine". [http://www.library.ucla.edu/libraries/biomed/his/blood/]
At right are three photos and a diagram of a 19th century bloodletting device called a scarificator. It has a spring loaded mechanism with gears that snaps the blades out through slits in the front cover and back in, in a circular motion. The case is cast brass and the mechanism and blades steel. One knife bar gear has slipped teeth, turning the blades in a different direction than those on the other bars. The last photo and the diagram show the depth adjustment bar at the back and sides.
A number of different methods were employed. The most common was "phlebotomy" or "venesection" (often called "breathing a vein"), in which blood was drawn from one or more of the larger external veins, such as those in the forearm or neck. In "arteriotomy" an artery was punctured, although generally only in the temples. In "scarification" (not to be confused with
scarification, a method of body modification) the "superficial" vessels were attacked, often using a syringe, a spring-loaded lancet, or a glass cup that contained heated air, producing a vacuumwithin. A scarificator is a bloodletting tool used primarily in 19th century medicine. Leeches could also be used. The withdrawal of so much blood as to induce syncope(fainting) was considered beneficial, and many sessions would only end when the patient began to swoon. William Harveydisproved the basis of the practice in 1628, and the introduction of scientific medicine, "la méthode numérique", allowed Pierre Charles Alexandre Louisto demonstrate that phlebotomy was entirely ineffective in the treatment of pneumoniaand various fevers in the 1830s. Nevertheless, in 1840 a lecturer at the Royal College of Physicianswould still state that "blood-letting is a remedy which, when judiciously employed, it is hardly possible to estimate too highly" and Louis was dogged by the sanguinary Broussais, who could recommend leeches fifty at a time.
Bloodletting was used to treat almost every disease. One British medical text recommended bloodletting for acne, asthma, cancer, cholera, coma, convulsions, diabetes, epilepsy, gangrene, gout, herpes, indigestion, insanity, jaundice, leprosy, ophthalmia, plague, pneumonia, scurvy, smallpox, stroke, tetanus, tuberculosis, and for some one hundred other diseases. Bloodletting was even used to treat most forms of hemorrhaging such as nosebleed, excessive menstruation, or hemorrhoidal bleeding. Before surgery or at the onset of childbirth, blood was removed to prevent inflammation. Before amputation it was customary to remove a quantity of blood equal to the amount believed to circulate in the limb that was to be removed. [Carter (2005) p6]
Leeches became especially popular in the early nineteenth century. Through the 1830s the French imported about forty million leeches a year for medical purposes, and in the next decade, England imported six million leeches a year from France alone. Through the early decades of the century, hundreds of millions of leeches were used by physicians throughout Europe. [Carter (2005) p7]
Bloodletting was also popular in the young
United States of America, where Benjamin Rush(a signatory of the Declaration of Independence) saw the state of the arteries as the key to disease, recommending levels of blood-letting that were high, even for the time. George Washingtonwas treated in this manner following a horseback ridingaccident: almost 4 pounds (1.7 litres) of blood was withdrawn, contributing to his death by throat infectionin 1799.
One reason for the continued popularity of bloodletting (and purging) was that, while anatomical knowledge, surgical and diagnostic skills increased tremendously in Europe from the 17th century, the key to curing disease remained elusive and the underlying belief was that it was better to give any treatment than nothing at all. The psychological benefit of bloodletting to the patient (a
placebo effect) may sometimes have outweighed the physiological problems it caused. Bloodletting slowly lost favour during the 19th century, but a number of other ineffective or harmful treatments were available as placebos— mesmerism, various processes involving the new technology of electricity, many potions, tonics, and elixirs.
In the absence of other treatments bloodletting actually is beneficial in some circumstance, including the fluid overload of heart failure, and possibly simply to reduce blood pressure. In other cases, such as those involving agitation, the reduction in blood pressure might appear beneficial due to the sedative effect. In 1844
Joseph Pancoastlisted the advantages of bloodletting in "A Treatise on Operative Surgery". Not all of these reasons are outrageous nowadays:
:The opening of the superficial vessels for the purpose of extracting blood constitutes one of the most common operations of the practitioner. The principal results, which we effect by it, are 1st. The diminution of the mass of the blood, by which the overloaded
capillaryor larger vessels of some affected part may be relieved; 2. The modification of the force and frequency of the heart's action; 3. A change in the composition of the blood, rendering it less stimulating; the proportion of serum becoming increased after bleeding, in consequence of its being reproduced with greater facility than the other elements of the blood; 4. The production of syncope, for the purpose of effecting a sudden general relaxation of the system; and, 5. The derivation, or drawing as it is alleged, of the force of the circulation from some of the internal organs, towards the open outlet of the superficial vessel. These indications may be fulfilled by opening either a vein or an artery.
Today it is well-established that bloodletting is not effective for most diseases. Indeed it is mostly harmful, since it can weaken the patient and facilitate infections.Bloodletting is used today in the treatment of a few diseases, including
hemochromatosisand polycythemia; however these rare diseases were unknown and undiagnosable before the advent of scientific medicine. It is practiced by specifically trained practitioners in hospitals, using modern techniques.
In most cases, phlebotomy now refers to the removal of "small" quantities of blood for the purpose of performing
blood tests. For more details on this subject, see Phlebotomy (modern).
History of medicine
last = Carter | first = K. Codell
coauthors = Barbara R. Carter
title = Childbed fever. A scientific biography of Ignaz Semmelweis
publisher = Transaction Publishers
date = February 1, 2005
isbn = 978-1412804677
* [http://www.library.ucla.edu/libraries/biomed/his/blood/ UCLA Biomedical Library selection on bloodletting]
* [http://www.medicalantiques.com/medical/Scarifications_and_Bleeder_Medical_Antiques.htm Medical Antiques: Scarification and Bleeding]
* [http://www.phisick.com/zphleb.htm Pictures of antique bloodletting instruments]
* [http://www.pbs.org/wnet/redgold/basics/bloodletting.html PBS's "Red Gold: The Story of Blood"]
* [http://www.mtn.org/quack/devices/phlebo.htm Bloodletting devices and scarificator]
* [http://www.alllancets.com Huge collection of antique bloodletting instruments]
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