List of Sahaba not giving bay'ah to Abu Bakr


List of Sahaba not giving bay'ah to Abu Bakr

There is a List of Sahaba not giving bay'ah to Abu Bakr. A bay'ah is the Islamic term for a formal oath of allegiance, the Sahaba were the companions of Muhammad.

Introduction

After the death of the Muhammad, Abu Bakr came into power following the meeting at the Saqifah of Banu Sa'ida, becoming the first Sunni Caliph. However, this decision was initially opposed by several prominent people, something attested to in prominent sources that are regarded as authentic by both Shi'a and Sunni scholars Bukhari|8|82|817] .

While no one source lists all these persons, this article lists the individuals as mentioned in a multitude of sources, and provides the sources where each name appears, and the context in which they are mentioned.

Additionally, not all sources state how long each individual withheld his bay'ah. Shi'as have maintained that Ali never paid allegiance to Abu Bakr, and there is support for this in both Shi'a and Sunni historical texts. A few Sunni sources, however, have suggested that Ali withheld for only six months. The details of whether Ali ever consented to pay allegiance to Abu Bakr is not mentioned in the sources themselves, but are generally taken as added by latter interpretors. Shi'a ideology maintains that Ali was forcibly taken to Abu Bakr, who later staged a mock allegiance ceremony to consolidate his power.

Compact List

Muhajirun


*Abu Dharr al-Ghifari
*Miqdad ibn Aswad
*Ammar ibn Yasir
*Khalid ibn Sa`id A Shi'i-Sunni dialogue on al-Islam.org [http://al-islam.org/murajaat/80.htm] ]
*Buraida Aslami
*Miqdad ibn Umar

Banu Hashim


*Ali Gave bayh a short time later. Bukhari|5|59|546] The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon, section [http://www.ccel.org/g/gibbon/decline/volume2/chap50.htm Reign of Abubeker; A.D. 632, June 7.] ] Shi'a encyclopedia [http://www.al-islam.org/Organizations/Aalimnetwork/msg00166.html] quoting from Ibn Qutaybah, Muhammad al-Bukhari, Massudi, Ibn Abu al-Hadid] Ibn Qutaybah, vol. 1, p.29; quoted in Ayoub, 2003, 18 [http://islamichistory.wordpress.com/files/2006/12/the-succession-to-muhammad-web-edition.ppt] ] Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, vol. 3, p.208; Ayoub, 2003, 21 [http://islamichistory.wordpress.com/files/2006/12/the-succession-to-muhammad-web-edition.ppt] ] Imamate: The Vicegerency of the Prophet by Sa'id Akhtar Rizvi, quoting Ibn Qutaybah on [http://www.al-islam.org/ Al-islam.org] [http://www.al-islam.org/imamate/3.htm] ] muslim|19|4352]
*Fatima bint Muhammad- daughter of the Prophet (SAW)
*Hassan ibn Ali (AS)-son of Fatima and Ali (AS)
*Hussain ibn Ali (AS)- son of Fatima and Ali (AS)
*Zainab bint Ali (AS)- daughter of Fatima and Ali(AS)
*Umm Kalthum bint Ali (AS)-Daughter of Fatima and Ali (AS)
*`Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib
*Fadl ibn Abbas
*`Abd Allah ibn `Abbas
*The rest of the Banu Hashim [A man asked al-Zuhri, “Did Ali not give his oath of allegiance for six months?” “No, nor anyone of the Banu Hashim until Ali rendered his,” he replied. Source: History of the Prophets and Kings, Volume 9, pages 196, 197. State University of New York Press, 1993. Translated by Ismail K. Poonawala]

Banu Asad


*Zubayr ibn al-Awwam

Ansars


*Abu Ayyub al-Ansari
*Jabir ibn Abd-Allah
*Uthman ibn Hunaif
*Hudhaifa ibn Yaman
*Khuzaima ibn Thabit
*Abu'l-Hathama ibn Tihan
*Sahl ibn Hunaif
*Farwah ibn `Amr ibn Wadqah al-Ansari

Banu Khazraj


*Sa'd ibn Ubaida To be with the Truthful by Muhammad al-Tijani, quoting Sahih Bukhari on [http://www.al-islam.org/ Al-islam.org] [http://www.quran.al-islam.org/truthful/2.htm] ]
*Ubay ibn Ka'b

Uncategorized


*Salman the Persian Peshawar Nights on Al-Islam.org [http://www.al-islam.org/peshawar/7.2.html] ] Tarikh al-Yaqubi, as quoted in Peshawar Nights on [http://www.al-islam.org/ Al-islam.org] [http://www.al-islam.org/peshawar/7.2.html] ]
*Uthman ibn Hunaif Tarikh al-Yaqubi, as quoted in Peshawar Nights on [http://www.al-islam.org/ Al-islam.org] [http://www.al-islam.org/peshawar/7.2.html] . Also, a list composed of sources such as Ibn Hajar Asqalani and Baladhuri, each in his Ta'rikh, Muhammad Bin Khawind Shah in his Rauzatu's-Safa, Ibn Abdu'l-Birr in his Isti'ab ]
*Zayd ibn Arqam
*Al-Bara ibn Azib
*Qais ibn Sa'd

Detailed list

Banu Hashim

*PresentScholar|Edward Gibbon|18th|non-Muslim narrates "After the simple inauguration of Abubeker, he was obeyed in Medina, Mecca, and the provinces of Arabia: the Hashemites alone declined the oath of fidelity; and their chief, in his own house, maintained, above six months, a sullen and independent reserve; without listening to the threats of Omar, who attempted to consume with fire the habitation of the daughter of the apostle."

Ali

*PresentScholar|Muhammad al-Bukhari|9th|Sunni|Shafi'i narrates "'Ali and Zubair and whoever was with them, opposed us, while the emigrants gathered with Abu Bakr. " and "Ali noticed a change in the people's attitude towards him. So Ali sought reconciliation with Abu Bakr and gave him an oath of allegiance. 'Ali had not given the oath of allegiance during those months (i.e. the period between the Prophet's death and Fatima's death, Fatima's (daughter of Muhammad) funeral was held secret and Ali did not inform Abu Bakar as per will of Fatim)...(and Ali said) But we used to consider that we too had some right in this affair (of rulership) and that he (i.e. Abu Bakr) did not consult us in this matter, and therefore caused us to feel sorry"
*PresentScholar|Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj|9th|Sunni|Shafi'i|Jariri narrates the same as Muhammad al-Bukhari .
*PresentScholar|Ibn Qutaybah|9th|Sunni narrates "I am the servant of God and the brother of the Messenger of God. I am thus more worthy of this office than you. I shall not give allegiance to you [Abu Bakr & Umar] when it is more proper for you to give bay’ah to me. You have seized this office from the Ansar using your tribal relationship to the Prophet as an argument against them. Would you then seize this office from us, the ahl al-bayt by force? Did you not claim before the Ansar that you were more worthy than they of the caliphate because Muhammad came from among you – and thus they gave you leadership and surrendered command? I now contend against you with the same argument…It is we who are more worthy of the Messenger of God, living or dead. Give us our due right if you truly have faith in God, or else bear the charge of wilfully doing wrong ... Umar, I will not yield to your commands: I shall not pledge loyalty to him.' Ultimately Abu Bakr said, 'O 'Ali! If you do not desire to give your bay'ah, I am not going to force you for the same.' "
*PresentScholar|Ya'qubi|9th|Sunni narrates "A group of Muhajirs and Ansars kept themselves aloof from allegiance to Abu Bakr and were followers of Hazrat Ali.
*PresentScholar|Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari|10th|Sunni|Shafi'i|Jariri narrates "What prevented us from allegiance to you was not our denial of your virtue, nor was it envy of anything with which God has favoured you. Rather we believe that we have a rightful share in this affair, which you have denied us"
*PresentScholar|Ibn Abu al-Hadid|13th|Mu'tazili says that they did not dare to force Ali into Baya while Fatimah was alive .
*PresentScholar|Edward Gibbon|18th|non-Muslim narrates "After the simple inauguration of Abubeker, he was obeyed in Medina, Mecca, and the provinces of Arabia: the Hashemites alone declined the oath of fidelity; and their chief, in his own house, maintained, above six months, a sullen and independent reserve; without listening to the threats of Omar, who attempted to consume with fire the habitation of the daughter of the apostle."

`Abbas ibn `Abd al-Muttalib

*PresentScholar|Ibn Qutaybah|9th|Sunni narrates that Al-`Abbas ibn `Abdul-Muttalib had told Abu Bakr that "If you demanded what you demanded through kinship to the messenger of allah, then you had confiscated our own. If you had demanded it due to your position among Muslims, then ours is a more prestigious than yours. If this affair is accomplished when the believers are pleased with it, then it cannot be so as long as we are displeased therewith."" [A Shi'i-Sunni dialogue quoting from Al-Imama wa al-Siyasa page 16 [http://al-islam.org/murajaat/80.htm] ]
*PresentScholar|Ya'qubi|9th|Sunni narrates "A group of Muhajirs and Ansars kept themselves aloof from allegiance to Abu Bakr and were followers of Hazrat Ali. Among them were Abbas Bin Abdu'l-Muttalib..."

Fadl ibn Abbas

*PresentScholar|Ya'qubi|9th|Sunni narrates "A group of Muhajirs and Ansars kept themselves aloof from allegiance to Abu Bakr and were followers of Hazrat Ali. Among them were Abbas Bin Abdu'l-Muttalib, Fazl Bin Abbas..."

Banu Asad

Al-Zubayr

*PresentScholar|Muhammad al-Bukhari|9th|Sunni|Shafi'i narrates "'Ali and Zubair and whoever was with them, opposed us, while the emigrants gathered with Abu Bakr. "
*PresentScholar|Ya'qubi|9th|Sunni narrates "A group of Muhajirs and Ansars kept themselves aloof from allegiance to Abu Bakr and were followers of Hazrat Ali. Among them were ...Zubair Ibnu'l-'Awwam Bin As..."

Banu Khazraj

a'd ibn Ubaida

*PresentScholar|Muhammad al-Bukhari|9th|Sunni|Shafi'i narrates that Umar said: "...we Sa'd ibn 'Ubadah, when someone of them said:: You have killed Sa'd ibn 'Ubadah. I said: May Allah kill Sa'd ibn 'Ubadah."

Ubay ibn Ka'b

*PresentScholar|Ya'qubi|9th|Sunni narrates "A group of Muhajirs and Ansars kept themselves aloof from allegiance to Abu Bakr and were followers of Hazrat Ali. Among them were ... Ubay ibn Ka'b..."

Other

Khalid ibn Sa`id

*PresentScholar|Ya'qubi|9th|Sunni narrates "A group of Muhajirs and Ansars kept themselves aloof from allegiance to Abu Bakr and were followers of Hazrat Ali. Among them were ... Khalid ibn Sa`id..."

alman al-­Farsi

*PresentScholar|Ya'qubi|9th|Sunni narrates "A group of Muhajirs and Ansars kept themselves aloof from allegiance to Abu Bakr and were followers of Hazrat Ali. Among them were ... Salman al-­Farsi..."

Abu Dharr al-Ghifari

*PresentScholar|Ya'qubi|9th|Sunni narrates "A group of Muhajirs and Ansars kept themselves aloof from allegiance to Abu Bakr and were followers of Hazrat Ali. Among them were ... Abu Dharr al-Ghifari..."

Ammar ibn Yasir

*PresentScholar|Ya'qubi|9th|Sunni narrates "A group of Muhajirs and Ansars kept themselves aloof from allegiance to Abu Bakr and were followers of Hazrat Ali. Among them were ... Ammar ibn Yasir..."

Al-­Bara' ibn `Azib

*PresentScholar|Ya'qubi|9th|Sunni narrates "A group of Muhajirs and Ansars kept themselves aloof from allegiance to Abu Bakr and were followers of Hazrat Ali. Among them were ... Al-­Bara' ibn `Azib..."

unni view

hi'a view

Shi'a view this list as an evidence that Muhammad's closest companions were firmly against Abu Bakr gaining power, and often enumerate this kinds of lists as an argument [Peshawar Nights on [http://www.al-islam.org/ Al-islam.org] [http://www.al-islam.org/peshawar/7.2.html] ] .

References


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