- History of the Jews in Iran
The beginnings of Jewish history in
Irandate back to late biblical times. The biblical books of Isaiah, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Chronicles, and Esther contain references to the life and experiences of Jews in Persia. In the book of Ezra, the Persian kings are credited with permitting and enabling the Jews to return to Jerusalemand rebuild their Temple; its reconstruction was affected "according to the decree of Cyrus, and Darius, and Artaxerxesking of Persia" (Ezra 6:14). This great event in Jewish history took place in the late sixth century BCE, by which time there was a well-established and influential Jewish community in Persia.
Persian Jews have lived in the territories of today's
Iranfor over 2,700 years, since the first Jewish diasporawhen Shalmaneser Vconquered the (Northern) Kingdom of Israel ( 722 BCE) and sent the Israelitesinto captivity at Khorasan. In 586 BCE, the Babylonians expelled large populations of Jews from Judeato the Babylonian captivity.
Jews who migrated to ancient Persia mostly lived in their own communities. The Persian Jewish communities include the ancient (and until the mid-20th century still extant) communities not only of Iran, but of parts of what is now
Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, northwestern India, Kirgizstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.
Some of the communities have been isolated from other Jewish communities, to the extent that their classification as "Persian Jews" is a matter of linguistic or geographical convenience rather than actual historical relationship with one another. During the peak of the Persian Empire, Jews are thought to have comprised as much as 20% of the population. [http://www.dangoor.com/74034.html]
Encyclopædia Britannica: "The Jews trace their heritage in Iran to the Babylonian Exileof the 6th century BC and, like the Armenians, have retained their ethnic, linguistic, and religious identity." [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-230041/Iran] But Library of Congress's country study on Iran states that "Over the centuries the Jews of Iran became physically, culturally, and linguistically indistinguishable from the non-Jewish population. The overwhelming majority of Jews speak Persian as their mother language, and a tiny minority, Kurdish." [http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-6443.html]
Cyrus the Great and Jews
Three times during the 6th century BCE, the
Jews (Hebrews) of the ancient Kingdom of Judahwere exiled to Babylonby Nebuchadnezzar. These three separate occasions are mentioned in Jeremiah (52:28-30). The first exile was in the time of Jehoiachinin 597 BCE, when the Temple of Jerusalemwas partially despoiled and a number of the leading citizens removed. After eleven years (in the reign of Zedekiah) a fresh rising of the Judaeans occurred; the city was razed to the ground, and a further deportation ensued. Finally, five years later, Jeremiah records a third captivity. After the overthrow of Babylonia by the Achaemenid Empire, Cyrus the Greatgave the Jews permission to return to their native land ( 537 BCE), and more than forty thousand are said to have availed themselves of the privilege, (See Jehoiakim; Ezra; Nehemiahand Jews). Cyrus also allowed them to practice their religion freely (See Cyrus Cylinder) unlike the previous Assyrian and Babylonian rulers.
Cyrus had ordered rebuilding the
Second Templein the same place as of the first, however he died before it was completed. Darius the Great, after a short lived rule of Cambysescame in to power of the Persian empire and ordered the completion of the temple. This was done under the stimulus of the earnest counsels and admonitions of the prophets Haggaiand Zechariah. It was ready for consecration in the spring of 515 BCE, more than twenty years after the return from captivity.
Haman and Jews
Book of Esther, Hamanwas an Agagitenoble and vizierof the empireunder Persian King Ahasuerus, generally identified by Biblical scholars as possibly being Xerxes Iin 6th century BCE. Haman and his wife Zeresh instigated a plot to kill all the Jews of ancient Persia. The plot was foiled by Queen Esther; and, as a result, Haman and his 10 sons were hanged. The events of the Book of Estherare celebrated on the Jewish holiday Purim.
Jewish sources contain no mention of the
Parthian influence; the very name "Parthia" does not occur. The Armenian prince Sanatroces, of the royal house of the Arsacides, is mentioned in the "Small Chronicle" as one of the successors (diadochoi) of Alexander. Among other Asiatic princes, the Roman rescript in favor of the Jews reached Arsacesas well (I Macc. xv. 22); it is not, however, specified which Arsaces. Not long after this, the Partho-Babylonian country was trodden by the army of a Jewish prince; the Syrian king, AntiochusSidetes, marched, in company with Hyrcanus I., against the Parthians; and when the allied armies defeated the Parthians ( 129 BC) at the River Zab (Lycus), the king ordered a halt of two days on account of the Jewish Sabbathand Feast of Weeks. In 40 BCthe Jewish puppet-king, HyrcanusII., fell into the hands of the Parthians, who, according to their custom, cut off his ears in order to render him unfit for rulership. The Jews of Babylonia, it seems, had the intention of founding a high-priesthood for the exiled Hyrcanus, which they would have made quite independent of the Land of Israel. But the reverse was to come about: the Judeans received a Babylonian, Ananel by name, as their high priest which indicates the importance enjoyed by the Jews of Babylonia. Still in religious matters the Babylonians, as indeed the whole diaspora, were in many regards dependent upon the Land of Israel. They went on pilgrimages to Jerusalemfor the festivals.
Parthian Empirewas an enduring empire that was based on a loosely configured system of vassal kings. Certainly this lack of a rigidly centralized rule over the empire had its draw backs, such as the rise of a Jewish robber-state in Nehardea (see Anilai and Asinai). Yet, the tolerance of the Arsaciddynasty was as legendary as the first Persian dynasty, the Achaemenids. There is even an account that indicates the conversion of a small number of Parthian vassal kingsof Adiabeneto Judaism. These instances and others show not only the tolerance of Parthian kings, but is also a testament to the extent at which the Parthians saw themselves as the heir to the preceding empire of Cyrus the Great. So protective were the Parthians of the minority over whom they ruled, that an old Jewishsaying indicates, "“When you see a Parthian charger tied up to a tomb-stone in the Land of Israel, the hour of the Messiah will be near”". The Babylonian Jewswanted to fight in common cause with their Judean brethren against Vespasian; but it was not until the Romans waged war under Trajanagainst Parthiathat they made their hatred felt; so, that it was in a great measure owing to the revolt of the Babylonian Jews that the Romans did not become masters of Babylonia too. Philospeaks of the large number of Jews resident in that country, a population which was no doubt considerably swelled by new immigrants after the destruction of Jerusalem. Accustomed in Jerusalem from early times to look to the east for help, and aware, as the Roman procurator Petronius was, that the Jews of Babylon could render effectual assistance, Babyloniabecame with the fall of Jerusalem the very bulwark of Judaism. The collapse of the Bar Kochba revoltno doubt added to the number of Jewish refugees in Babylon.
In the continuous struggles between the
Parthiansand the Romans, the Jewshad every reason to hate the Romans, the destroyers of their sanctuary, and to side with the Parthians: their protectors. Possibly it was recognition of services thus rendered by the Jews of Babylonia, and by the Davidic house especially, that induced the Parthian kings to elevate the princes of the Exile, who till then had been little more than mere collectors of revenue, to the dignity of real princes, called " Resh Galuta". Thus, then, the numerous Jewishsubjects were provided with a central authority which assured an undisturbed development of their own internal affairs.
By the early third century, Persian influences were on the rise again. In the winter of 226 CE,
Ardashir Ioverthrew the last Parthian king ( Artabanus IV), destroyed the rule of the Arsacids, and founded the illustrious dynasty of the Sassanids. While Hellenistic influence had been felt amongst the religiously tolerant Parthians, [ [http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/exhibit/parthians/essay.html] (see esp para's 3 and 5] [ [http://www.loyno.edu/~seduffy/parthians.html] (see esp para. 2)] [ [http://parents.berkeley.edu/madar-pedar/jewshistory.html] (see esp para. 20)] the Sassanids intensified the Persian side of life, favored the Pahlavilanguage, and restored the old monotheistic religion of Zoroastrianismwhich became the official state religion. [ [http://www.parthia.com/parthia_arts.htm#Language Art & Culture ] ] This resulted in the suppression of other religions. [ [https://www.utexas.edu/cola/depts/lrc/eieol/armol-4.html] (see esp para. 5)] A priestly Zoroastrian inscription from the time of King Bahram II (276–293 CE) contains a list of religions (including Judaism, Christianity, Buddhism etc.) that Sassanid rule claimed to have "smashed". [ [http://parents.berkeley.edu/madar-pedar/jewshistory.html] (see esp para. 23)] Shapur I("Shvor Malka", which is the Aramaic form of the name) was friendly to the Jews. His friendship with Shmuelgained many advantages for the Jewishcommunity. Shapur II's mother was Jewish, and this gave the Jewish community relative freedom of religion and many advantages. He was also friend of a Babylonian rabbiin the Talmudnamed Raba (Talmud), Raba's friendship with Shapur II enabled him to secure a relaxation of the oppressive laws enacted against the Jewsin the Persian Empire. In addition, Raba sometimes referred to his top student Abaye with the term Shvur Malka meaning "Shaput [the] King" because of his bright and quick intellect.
Of course, both
Christiansand Jewssuffered occasional persecution; but the latter, dwelling in more compact masses in cities like Isfahan, were not exposed to such general persecutions as broke out against the more isolated Christians. Generally, this was a period of occasional persecutions for the Jews, followed by long periods of benign neglect in which Jewish learning thrivedFact|date=February 2007. In the 5th century, the Jews suffered from persecuton in the reigns of Yazdagerd IIand Peroz. [Ghirshman (1954), p. 300]
Early Islamic period (634 to 1255)
Islamic conquest of Persia, Jews, along with Christians and Zoroastrians, were assigned the status of dhimmis, inferior subjects of the Islamic empire. Dhimmis were allowed to practice their religion, but were forced to pay taxes ( jizya, a poll tax, and initially also kharaj, a land tax) in favor of the Arab Muslimconquerors. Dhimmis were also required to submit to a number of social and legal disabilities; they were prohibited from bearing arms, riding horses, testifying in courts in cases involving a Muslim, and frequently required to wear clothings, clearly distinguishing them from Muslims. Although some of these restrictions were sometimes relaxed, the overall condition of inequality remained in force until the Mongol invasion.Littman (1979), pp. 2–3]
Mongol rule (1256 to 1318)
In 1255, Mongols led by
Hulagu Khanbegan a charge on Persia, and in 1257 they captured Baghdad, thus ending the Abbasidcaliphate. In Persia and surrounding areas, the Mongols established a division of the Mongol Empireknown as Ilkhanate. Because in Ilkhanate all religions were considered equal, Mongol rulers abolished the unequal status of the dhimmiclasses. One of the Ilkhanate rulers, ArghunKhan, even preferred Jews and Christians for the administrative positions and appointed Sa'd al-Daula, a Jew, as his vizier. The appointment, however, provoked resentment from the Muslim clergy, and after Arghun's death in 1291, al-Daula was murdered and Persian Jews suffered a period of violent clergy-instigated persecutions from the Muslim populace. The contemporary Christian historian Bar Hebraeuswrote that the violence committed against the Jews during that period "neither tongue can utter, nor the pen write down".Littman (1979), p. 3]
Ghazan Khan's conversion to Islam in 1295 heralded for Persian Jews a pronounced turn for the worse, as they were once again relegated to the status of dhimmis.
Öljeitü, Ghazan Khan's successor, pressured some Jews to convert to Islam. The most famous such convert was Rashid al-Din, a physician, historian and statesman, who adopted Islam in order to advance his career at Öljeitü's court. However, in 1318 he was executed on fake charges of poisoning Öljeitü and for several days crowds had been carrying his head around his native city of Tabriz, chanting "This is the head of the Jew who abused the name of God; may God's curse be upon him!" About 100 years later, Miranshahdestroyed Rashid al-Din's tomb, and his remains were reburied at the Jewish cemetery. Rashid al-Din's case illustrates a pattern that differentiated the treatment of Jewish converts in Persia from their treatment in other Muslim lands, except North Africa. In most Muslim countries, converts were welcomed and easily assimilated into the Muslim population. In Persia, however, Jewish converts were usually stigmatized on account of their Jewish ancestry for many generations. [Lewis (1984), pp. 100–101]
afavid and Qajar dynasties (1502 to 1925)
Further deterioration in the treatment of Persian Jews occurred during the reign of the Safavids who proclaimed
Shi'a Islamthe state religion. Shi'ism assigns great importance to the issues of ritual purity ― tahara, and non-Muslims, including Jews, are deemed to be ritually unclean ― najis― so that physical contact with them would require Shi'as to undertake ritual purification before doing regular prayers. Thus, Persian rulers, and to an even larger extent, the populace, sought to limit physical contact between Muslims and Jews. Jews were not allowed to attend public baths with Muslims or even to go outside in rain or snow, ostensibly because some impurity could be washed from them upon a Muslim. [Lewis (1984), pp. 33–34]
The reign of Shah Abbas I (1588–1629) was initially benign; Jews prospered throughout Persia and were even encouraged to settle in Isfahan, which was made a new capital. However, toward the end of his rule, the treatment of Jews became harsher; upon advice from a Jewish convert and Shi'a clergy, the shah forced Jews to wear a distinctive badge on clothing and headgear. In 1656, all Jews were expelled from Isfahan because of the common belief of their impurity and forced to convert to Islam. However, as it became known that the converts continued to practice
Judaismin secret and because the treasury suffered from the loss of "jizya" collected from the Jews, in 1661 they were allowed to revert to Judaism, but were still required to wear a distinctive patch upon their clothings.
SunniMuslim Nadir Shah(1736–1747), who abolished Shi'a Islam as state religion, Jews experienced a period of relative tolerance when they were allowed to settle in the Shi'ite holy city of Mashhad. Yet, the advent of a Shi'a Qajardynasty in 1794 brought back the earlier persecutions. In the middle of the 19th century, J. J. Benjaminwrote about the life of Persian Jews: "…they are obliged to live in a separate part of town…; for they are considered as unclean creatures… Under the pretext of their being unclean, they are treated with the greatest severity and should they enter a street, inhabited by Mussulmans, they are pelted by the boys and mobs with stones and dirt… For the same reason, they are prohibited to go out when it rains; for it is said the rain would wash dirt off them, which would sully the feet of the Mussulmans… If a Jew is recognized as such in the streets, he is subjected to the greatest insults. The passers-by spit in his face, and sometimes beat him… unmercifully… If a Jew enters a shop for anything, he is forbidden to inspect the goods… Should his hand incautiously touch the goods, he must take them at any price the seller chooses to ask for them... Sometimes the Persians intrude into the dwellings of the Jews and take possession of whatever please them. Should the owner make the least opposition in defense of his property, he incurs the danger of atoning for it with his life... If... a Jew shows himself in the street during the three days of the Katel (Muharram)…, he is sure to be murdered." [Lewis (1984), pp. 181–183]
Lord Curzon described the regional differences in the situation of the Persian Jews in 19th century: "In Isfahan, where they are said to be 3,700 and where they occupy a relatively better status than elsewhere in Persia, they are not permitted to wear "kolah" or Persian headdress, to have shops in the bazaar, to build the walls of their houses as high as a Moslem neighbour's, or to ride in the street. In Teheran and
Kashanthey are also to be found in large numbers and enjoying a fair position. In Shiraz they are very badly off. In Bushire they are prosperous and free from persecution." [Lewis (1984), p. 167]
Another European traveller reported a degrading ritual to which Jews were subjected for public amusement:
At every public festival — even at the royal salaam [salute] , before the King’s face — the Jews are collected, and a number of them are flung into the hauz or tank, that King and mob may be amused by seeing them crawl out half-drowned and covered with mud. The same kindly ceremony is witnessed whenever a provincial governor holds high festival: there are fireworks and Jews. [Willis (2002), p. 230]
In the 19th century there were many instances of forced conversions and massacres, usually inspired by the Shi'a clergy. A representative of the "
Alliance Israélite Universelle", a Jewish humanitarian and educational organization, wrote from Tehranin 1894: "…every time that a priest wishes to emerge from obscurity and win a reputation for piety, he preaches war against the Jews". [Littman (1979), p. 10] In 1830, the Jews of Tabrizwere massacred; the same year saw a forcible conversion of the Jews of Shiraz. In 1839, many Jews were massacred in Mashhad and survivors were forcibly converted. However, European travellers later reported that the Jews of Tabriz and Shiraz continued to practice Judaism in secret despite a fear of further persecutions. Jews of Barforush were forcibly converted in 1866; when they were allowed to revert to Judaism thanks to an intervention by the French and British ambassadors, a mob killed 18 Jews of Barforush, burning two of them alive. [Littman (1979), p. 4.] [Lewis (1984), p. 168.] In 1910, the Jews of Shiraz were accused of ritually murdering a Muslim girl. Muslim dwellers of the city plundered the whole Jewish quarter, the first to start looting were the soldiers sent by the local governor to defend the Jews against the enraged mob. Twelve Jews, who tried to defend their property, were killed, and many others were injured. [Littman (1979), pp. 12–14] Representatives of the "Alliance Israélite Universelle" recorded other numerous instances of persecution and debasement of Persian Jews. [Lewis (1984), p. 183.]
Driven by persecutions, thousands of Persian Jews emigrated to
Palestinein the late 19th – early 20th century.Littman (1979), p. 5.]
Pahlavi dynasty (1925 to 1979)
Pahlavi dynastyimplemented modernizing reforms, which greatly improved the life of Jews (Charles Recknagel and Azam Gorgin of Radio Free Europe). The influence of the Shi'a clergy was weakened, and the restrictions on Jews and other religious minorities were abolished.Sanasarian (2000), p. 46] Reza Shah prohibited mass conversion of Jews and eliminated the Shi'ite concept of uncleanness of non-Muslims. Modern Hebrew was incorporated into the curriculum of Jewish schools and Jewish newspapers were published. Jews were also allowed to hold government jobs. [http://www.parstimes.com/history/jews_persia.html] However, Jewish schools were closed in 1920s. In addition, Reza Shahsympathized with Nazi Germany, making the Jewish community fearful of possible persecutions, and the public sentiment at the time was definitely anti-Jewish [http://www.parstimes.com/history/jews_persia.html] .
A spike in anti-Jewish sentiment occurred after the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 and continued until 1953 due to the weakening of the central government and strengthening of the clergy in the course of political struggles between the shah and prime minister
Mohammad Mossadegh. Eliz Sanasarian estimates that in 1948–1953, about one-third of Iranian Jews, most of them poor, emigrated to Israel.Sanasarian (2000), p. 47] David Littman puts the total figure of emigrants to Israel in 1948-1978 at 70,000.
The reign of shah
Mohammad Reza Pahlaviafter the deposition of Mossadegh in 1953, was the most prosperous era for the Jews of Iran. In 1970s, only 10 percent of Iranian Jews were classified as impoverished; 80 percent were middle class and 10 percent wealthy. Although Jews accounted for only a small percentage of Iran's population, in 1979 two of the 18 members of the Iranian Academy of Sciences, 80 of the 4,000 university lecturers, and 600 of the 10,000 physicians in Iran were Jews.
Prior to the Islamic Revolution in 1979, there were 80,000 Jews in Iran, concentrated in Teheran (60,000), Shiraz (8,000), Kermanshah (4,000), Isfahan (3,000), the cities of
Khuzistan, as well as Kashan, Tabriz, and Hamedan.
During the Islamic Revolution many of the Iranian Muslims, especially wealthy Muslim leaders in Tehran and many Muslim villages surrounding Esfahan and Kerman converted to leave the country once known for its love for the Jewish society. In late 1979s, the people whom converted was estimated at 50,000–90,000.
Prior to the independence of Israel in 1948,
Urmiawas home to 700 Aramaic-speaking Jewish families. As of 2006, only two sisters remain.
Islamic republic (since 1979)
At the time of the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948, there were approximately 140,000–150,000 Jews living in
Iran, the historical center of Persian Jewry. Over 85% have since migrated to either Israel or the United States, with the migration accelerating after the 1979 Islamic Revolution, when the population dropped from 100,000 to about 40,000. [ [http://csmonitor.com/cgi-bin/durableRedirect.pl?/durable/1998/02/03/intl/intl.3.html Jews in Iran Describe a Life of Freedom Despite Anti-Israel Actions by Tehran] ] On March 16, 1979, Habib Elghanian, the honorary leader of the Jewish community, was arrested on charges of "corruption", "contacts with Israel and Zionism", "friendship with the enemies of God", "warring with God and his emissaries", and " economic imperialism". He was tried by an Islamic revolutionary tribunal, sentenced to death, and executed on May 8, [Sanasarian (2000), p. 112] one of 17 Iranian Jews executed as spies since the revolution. [Sciolino, Elaine, "Persian Mirrors", Touchstone, (2000), p.223]
Estimates of the Jewish population in Iran vary. In mid- and late 1980s, it was estimated at 20,000–30,000, rising to around 35,000 in mid-1990s, [Sanasarian (2000), p. 48] and estimated at less than 40,000 nowadays, with around 25,000 residing in Tehran. However, Iran's Jewish community still remains the largest in the Middle East outside of Israel. [ [http://csmonitor.com/cgi-bin/durableRedirect.pl?/durable/1998/02/03/intl/intl.3.html Jews in Iran Describe a Life of Freedom Despite Anti-Israel Actions by Tehran] ]
Opinion over the condition of Jews in Iran is divided. One Jew active in arguing on behalf of a benevolence view of the Iranian Islamic government and society toward Jews is film producer
Haroun Yashyaei, who tells visitors and reporters the Ayatollah " Ruhollah Khomeinididn't mix up our community with Israel and Zionism," and "Take it from me, the Jewish community here faces no difficulties." [ [http://csmonitor.com/cgi-bin/durableRedirect.pl?/durable/1998/02/03/intl/intl.3.html Jews in Iran Describe a Life of Freedom Despite Anti-Israel Actions by Tehran] ] Privately many Jews complain to foreign reporters of "discrimination, much of it of a social or bureaucratic nature." The Islamic government appoints the officials who run Jewish schools, most of these being Muslims and requires that those schools must open on Saturdays, the Jewish Sabbath. Criticism of this policy was the downfall of the last remaining newspaper of the Iranian Jewish community which was closed in 1991 after it criticized government control of Jewish schools. [Sciolino, Elaine, "Persian Mirrors", Touchstone, (2000), p.218]
Further decline of Iran-Israel relations and Holocaust denial
Mahmoud Ahmadinejadand members of the Iranian government have resorted to threats against the State of Israeland in Holocaust denialthat have added to the precarious nature and insecurity of Iran's small remaining Jewish community.
Ahmadinejad levels charges such as "The Zionist regime is seeking baseless pretexts to invade Islamic countries and right now it is justifying its attacks with groundless excuses," he added. [ [http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/OLI567261.htm Iran's Ahmadinejad compares Israel to Hitler] ] On Aug 3rd, 2006, in a speech during an emergency meeting of Muslim leaders, Ahmadinejad called for "the elimination of the Zionist regime". While some media outlets immediately interpreted his words as another threat to "destroy Israel", [cite news|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/03/AR2006080300629.html|title=Ahmadinejad: Destroy Israel, End Crisis|first=Sean|last=Yoong|publisher=
Washington Post|date= 2006-08-03|accessdate=2006-12-12] [cite news|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20060813005931/http://edition.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/meast/08/03/iran.israel.ap/index.html|title=Iranian president: Destroy Israel|date= 2006-08-03|accessdate=2006-08-03] [cite news|url=http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=746081|title=Ahmadinejad's call to destroy Israel draws French condemnation|date= 2006-08-03|accessdate=2007-08-05] such interpretations have again been challenged. ["Nefarious agendas are evident in consistently translating "eliminating the occupation regime" as "destruction of Israel". "Regime" refers to governance, not populations or cities. "Zionist regime" is the government of Israel and its system of laws, which have annexed Palestinian land and hold millions of Palestinians under military occupation. Many mainstream human rights activists believe that Israel's "regime" must indeed be transformed, although they disagree how... [but] [n] one of [their] ideas about regime change signifies the expulsion of Jews into the sea or the ravaging of their towns and cities. All signify profound political change, necessary to creating a just peace." — " [http://www.counterpunch.org/tilley08282006.html Putting words into Ahmadinejad's mouth] ", Virginia Tilley, Counterpunch August 28 2006, accessed September 11 2007.] In the speech, Ahmadinejad said, "although the main solution is for the elimination of the Zionist regime, at this stage an immediate cease-fire must be implemented". He stated that the Middle East would be better off "without the existence of the Zionist regime". He called Israel an "illegitimate regime" with "no legal basis for its existence" and accused the United States of using Israel as a proxy to control the region and its oil resources; "The Zionist regime is used to reach this objective. The sole existence of this regime is for invasion and attack."
International Holocaust Cartoon Competition(2006) was a cartoon contest sponsored by the conservative Iranian newspaper " Hamshahri", to denounce what it called 'Western hypocrisy on freedom of speech'. The International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust(2006) was a two-day conference that opened on December 11, 2006in Tehran, Iran. The Iranian Foreign Minister, Manouchehr Mottaki, said the conference sought "neither to deny nor prove the Holocaust... [but] to provide an appropriate scientific atmosphere for scholars to offer their opinions in freedom about a historical issue."cite web|url=http://www.spiegel.Chancellor] Angela Merkel, after a meeting with Ehud Olmertsaid "I would like to make clear that we reject with all our strength the conference taking place in Iran about the supposed nonexistence of the Holocaust."
Ehud Olmert, the Prime Minister of Israel, "denounced the conference before embarking on a two-day trip to Germany" calling the gathering "a sick phenomenon that shows the depths of hatred of the fundamentalist Iranian regime."cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6167695.stm|title=Iran defends Holocaust conference|publisher=BBC News|date=2006-12-11|accessdate=2006-12-12] The 67 attendees from 30 countries [ [http://www.recordonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20061214/OPINION/612140314 "Holocaust deniers spread fiction in Iran. A gathering of ignorance disgraces its host nation"] , "Times-Herald Record", December 14, 2006.] cite web|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/11/world/middleeast/11cnd-iran.html|title=Holocaust Deniers and Skeptics Gather in Iran|first=Nazila|last=Fathi|publisher=New York Times|date=2006-12-11|accessdate=2006-12-12] included Yisroel Dovid Weissof Neturei Karta; David Duke, former Republican member of the Louisiana House of Representativesand Imperial Wizardof the Ku Klux Klan, Austrian Jew Moshe Aryeh Friedmanand Holocaust deniers Robert Faurissonand Fredrick Töben.
International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust
International Holocaust Cartoon Competition
Jews of Iran (documentary film)
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Israel
Shiraz blood libel
* Ghirshman, R. (1954). "Iran from the Earliest Times to the Islamic Conquest". Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books
* "Iran. 1997" (1997). "
Encyclopedia Judaica" (CD-ROM Edition Version 1.0). Ed. Cecil Roth. Keter Publishing House. ISBN 965-07-0665-8
* cite book |first=Eliz |last=Sanasarian|title=Religious Minorities in Iran
publisher=Cambridge University Press |location=Cambridge |year=2000 |id=ISBN 0-521-77073-4
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5kq3i_y_By8 BBC report on the lives of Jews in Iran ]
* [http://www.iranchamber.com/religions/history_of_iranian_jews1.php History of the Iranian Jews]
* [http://www.iranjewish.com TEHRAN JEWISH COMMITTEE (IRAN)]
* [http://www.dangoor.com/74034.html The Jews of Iraq]
* [http://www.mazdapub.com/Comprehensive-History-Jews.htm Comprehensive History of the Jews of Iran]
* [http://www.iranian.com/Opinion/May98/Jews/ The invisible Iranians]
* [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/anti-semitism/iranjews.html The Jewish Virtual Library's Iranian Jews page]
* [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2001/5691.htm International Religious Freedom Report, 2001. Iran] at
US State DepartmentBureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
* [http://www.livius.org/pan-paz/parthia/parthia01.html Parthia (Old Persian Parthava)]
* [http://www.cijoh.org/ Center for Iranian Jewish Oral History]
* [http://csmonitor.com/cgi-bin/durableRedirect.pl?/durable/1998/02/03/intl/intl.3.html Christian Science Monitor: "Jews in Iran Describe a Life of Freedom Despite Anti-Israel Actions by Tehran"]
* [http://www.jewishsf.com/content/2-0-/module/displaystory/story_id/10877/edition_id/208/format/html/displaystory.html Iranian Jews in U.S. recall their own difficult exodus as they cling to heritage, building new communities] , Julia Goldman, "
Jewish Telegraphic Agency" March 26, 1999
Asia topic|History of the Jews in
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History of the Jews in Qatar — The history of the Jews in Qatar is very limited.There are few Jews in Qatar, but the Anti Defamation League has protested the existence of antisemitic stereotypes in Qatar’s newspapers. Hindus, Buddhists, and others are not allowed to practice… … Wikipedia
History of the Jews in Italy — The Great Synagogue of Rome Part of a series of articles on … Wikipedia
History of the Jews in Armenia — The History of the Jews in Armenia dates back more than 2,000 years. Armenian KingdomTournebize holds that Assyrians deported Jews directly to Armenia, and not to the Khabur valley. Aslan mentions that Jews of Samaria were deported to Armenia.A… … Wikipedia
History of the Jews in India — A map of India, showing the main areas of Jewish concentration. The history of the Jews in India reaches back to ancient times. Indian Jews are a religious minority of India. Judaism was one of the first foreign religions to arrive in India in… … Wikipedia
History of the Jews in China — Part of a series of articles on Jews and Judaism … Wikipedia
History of the Jews in Malaysia — Malaysian Jews Total population Unknown Regions with significant populations Kuala Lumpur, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Penang Languages English, Malay, Hebrew, Persian, Arabic, Portu … Wikipedia
History of the Jews in Spain — Part of a series of articles on Jews and Judaism … Wikipedia