Campylobacter


Campylobacter

Taxobox
color = lightgrey
name = "Campylobacter"


image_width = 200px
image_caption = Campylobacter bacteria
regnum = Bacteria
phylum = Proteobacteria
classis = Epsilon Proteobacteria
ordo = Campylobacterales
familia = Campylobacteraceae
genus = "Campylobacter"
genus_authority = Sebald and Véron 1963
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = "C. coli" "C. concisus" "C. curvus" "C. fetus" "C. gracilis" "C. helveticus" "C. hominis" "C. hyointestinalis" "C. insulaenigrae" "C. jejuni" "C. lanienae" "C. lari" "C. mucosalis" "C. rectus" "C. showae" "C. sputorum" "C. upsaliensis"
The genus "Campylobacter", (meaning 'twisted bacteria') first discovered in 1963cite book | author = Nachmankin I; Szymanski CM; Blaser J (editors) | title = Campylobacter | edition = 3rd ed. | pages = pp 3–25 | publisher = ASM Press | year = 2008 | id = ISBN 9781555814373] , describes Gram-negative, spiral, microaerophilic bacteria. Motile, with either uni- or bi-polar flagella, the organisms have a somewhat curved, rod-like appearance, and are oxidase-positive.cite book | author = Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) | title = Sherris Medical Microbiology | edition = 4th ed. | pages = pp. 378–80 | publisher = McGraw Hill | year = 2004 | id = ISBN 0838585299 ] Campylobacter jejuni is now recognised as one of the main causes of bacterial foodborne disease in many developed countries.cite journal | author=Moore JE, "et al". | title="Campylobacter" | journal=Vet Res | year=2005 | pages=351–82 | volume=36 | issue=3 | pmid=15845230 | doi = 10.1051/vetres:2005012] At least a dozen species of "Campylobacter" have been implicated in human disease, with "C. jejuni" and "C. coli" the most common. "C. fetus" is a cause of spontaneous abortions in cattle and sheep, as well as it is an opportunisitic pathogen in humans.cite journal |author=Sauerwein R, Bisseling J, Horrevorts A |title=Septic abortion associated with Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus infection: case report and review of the literature |journal=Infection |volume=21 |issue=5 |pages=331–3 |year=1993 |pmid=8300253 | doi = 10.1007/BF01712458]

Genome

The genomes of several "Campylobacter" species have been sequenced, providing insights into their mechanisms of pathogenesis.cite journal | author=Fouts DE "et al". | title=Major structural differences and novel potential virulence mechanisms from the genomes of multiple "Campylobacter" species | journal=PLoS Biol | year=2005 | pages=e15 | volume=3 | issue=1 | doi = 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030015 |pmid= 15660156] The first "Campylobacter" genome to be sequenced was "C. jejuni", in 2000. [cite journal | author=Parkhill "et al." | title=The genome sequence of the food-borne pathogen "Campylobacter jejuni" reveals hypervariable sequences. | journal=Nature | year=2000 | volume=403 | pages=665–668 | doi=10.1038/35001088 | pmid=10688204 ]

"Campylobacter" species contain two flagellin genes in tandem for motility, "flaA and flaB". These genes undergo intergenic recombination, further contributing to their virulence. cite journal |author=Grant C, Konkel M, Cieplak W, Tompkins L |title=Role of flagella in adherence, internalization, and translocation of "Campylobacter jejuni" in nonpolarized and polarized epithelial cell cultures |journal=Infect Immun |volume=61 |issue=5 |pages=1764–71 |year=1993 |pmid=8478066] Non-motile mutants do not colonize.

Pathogenesis

Campylobacteriosis is an infection by campylobacter. [ [http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/campylobacter_g.htm cdc.gov] ] The common routes of transmission are fecal-oral, person-to-person sexual contact, ingestion of contaminated food or water, and the eating of raw meat. It produces an inflammatory, sometimes bloody, diarrhea, periodontitiscite journal
last = Humphrey
first = Tom "et al."
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Campylobacters as zoonotic pathogens: A food production perspective
journal = International Journal of Food Microbiology
volume = 117
issue = 3
publisher =
doi = 10.1016
date = 2007
url = http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T7K-4N0PPRG-1&_user=10&_coverDate=07%2F15%2F2007&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=74b7c07635a1873ca815b3139b56d2e0
doi_brokendate = 2008-06-25
] or dysentery syndrome, mostly including cramps, fever and pain. The infection is usually self-limiting and in most cases, symptomatic treatment by reposition of liquid and electrolyte replacement is enough in human infections. The use of antibiotics, on the other hand, is controversial.

Cause

One cause of the effects of campylobacteriosis is tissue injury in the gut. The sites of tissue injury include the jejunum, the ileum, and the colon. "C jejuni" appears to achieve this by invading and destroying epithelial cells.

Some strains of "C jejuni" produce a cholera-like enterotoxin, which is important in the watery diarrhea observed in infections. The organism produces diffuse, bloody, edematous, and exudative enteritis. In a small number of cases, the infection may be associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura through a poorly understood mechanism.

References

See also

* Periodontal disease

External links

* [http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/campylobacter_g.htm "Campylobacter" info from the CDC]


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