Cashew


Cashew

taxobox
name = Cashew


image_caption = Cashews ready for harvest in Guinea-Bissau
regnum = Plantae
unranked_divisio = Angiosperms
unranked_classis = Eudicots
unranked_ordo = Rosids
ordo = Sapindales
familia = Anacardiaceae
genus = "Anacardium"
species = "A. occidentale"
binomial = "Anacardium occidentale"
binomial_authority = L.|
The cashew ("Anacardium occidentale"; syn. "Anacardium curatellifolium" A.St.-Hil.) is a tree in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The plant is native to northeastern Brazil. Its English name derives from the Portuguese name for the fruit of the cashew tree, "caju", which in turn derives from the indigenous Tupi name, "acajú". It is now widely grown in tropical climates for its cashew "nuts" (see below) and cashew apples.

It is a small evergreen tree growing to 10-12m (~32 ft) tall, with a short, often irregularly-shaped trunk. The leaves are spirally arranged, leathery textured, elliptic to obovate, 4 to 22 cm long and 2 to 15 cm broad, with a smooth margin. The flowers are produced in a panicle or corymb up to 26 cm long, each flower small, pale green at first then turning reddish, with five slender, acute petals 7 to 15 mm long.

What appears to be the fruit of the cashew tree is an oval or pear-shaped accessory fruit or false fruit that develops from the receptacle of the cashew flower. Called the cashew apple, better known in Central America as "marañón", it ripens into a yellow and/or red structure about 5–11 cm long. It is edible, and has a strong "sweet" smell and a sweet taste. The pulp of the cashew apple is very juicy, but the skin is fragile, making it unsuitable for transport. It is often used as a flavor in agua fresca.

The true fruit of the cashew tree is a kidney or boxing-glove shaped drupe that grows at the end of the pseudofruit. Actually, the drupe develops first on the tree, and then the peduncle expands into the pseudofruit. Within the true fruit is a single seed, the cashew nut. Although a nut in the culinary sense, in the botanical sense the fruit of the cashew is a seed. The seed is surrounded by a double shell containing a dermatogenic phenolic resin, urushiol, a potent skin irritant toxin also found in the related poison ivy. Some people are allergic to cashew nuts, but cashews are a less frequent allergen than nuts or peanuts.

Other names include: cajueiro, cashu, casho, acajuiba, caju, acajou, acaju, acajaiba, alcayoiba, anacarde, anacardier, anacardo, Andi parippu (in Malayalam), cacajuil, cajou, gajus, godambi (in Kannada), jeedi pappu (in Telugu), jocote maranon, maranon, merey, Mundhiri paruppu (Tamil), noix d’acajou, pomme cajou, pomme, jambu, jambu golok, jambu mete, jambu monyet, jambu terong, kasoy (Tagalog), and hạt điều in Vietnamese language. In the Antilles in Puerto Rico, it is known as pajuil, Indian nut in Slovenia, and in the Dominican Republic as the cajuil. The pseudofruit is the main part used as raw fruit.

Cashew industry

Originally spread from Brazil by the Portuguese, the cashew tree is now cultivated in all regions with a sufficiently warm and humid climate. It is produced in around 32 countries of the world. The world production figures of cashew crop, published by the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), was around 3.1 million tons per annum. The major raw cashew producing countries with their production figures in 2006 (as per the FAO) are Vietnam (941,600 tons), Nigeria (636,000 tons), India called Kaju (573,000 tons), Brazil (236,140 tons) and Indonesia (122,000 tons).

World’s total area under the cultivation of cashew is around 33,900 km². India ranks first in area utilized for cashew production, though its yields are relatively low. The world’s average yield is 817 pounds per acre (916 kg/hectare) of land

Collectively, Vietnam, Nigeria, India and Brazil account for more than 90% of all cashew kernel exports.

Uses

Medicine and industry

Cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL), a by-product of processing cashew, is mostly composed of anacardic acids. These acids have been used effectively "in vivo" against tooth abcesses due to their lethality to gram-positive bacteria. They are also active against a wide range of other gram-positive bacteria. Many parts of the plant are used by the Patamona of Guyana medicinally. The bark is scraped and soaked overnight or boiled as an antidiarrheal. Seeds are ground up into powders used for antivenom for snake bites. The nut oil is used topically as an antifungal and for healing cracked heels. [ [http://www.mnh.si.edu/biodiversity/bdg/medicinal/MedPlantsGui1.pdf Medicinal Plants of the Guyanas] ]

Anacardic acid is also used in the chemical industry for the production of cardanol, which is used for resins, coatings, and frictional materials.cite journal|title=A Nutty Chemical |date=September 8, 2008 |volume=86 |issue=36 |pages=26-27 |author=Alexander H. Tullo |journal=Chemical and Engineering News]

Culinary

The cashew is a popular snack, and its rich flavor means that it is often eaten on its own, lightly salted. Cashews are sold covered in chocolate, but due to their higher price compared to peanuts and almonds are not as common in candy, except from higher quality manufacturers. Cashews also factor in Thai cuisine generally in whole form, and in Indian cuisine often ground into sauces such as shahi korma.The cashew can also be used in cheese alternatives for vegans, typically in homemade cheese recipes.

In Brazil, the cashew fruit juice is popular all across the country and is usually consumed with sugar.

Common name

* Hindustani - Kajoo
* Sinhala - Kadju

ee also

* Wild Cashew - the species "Anacardium excelsum"
* Anacardium Giganteum, also known as Wild Cashew, used medicinally.
* Semecarpus anacardium, (the Oriental Anacardium) is a native of India and is closely related to the cashew

Gallery

Cashew Fruit- Stages of Development

References

*Morton, Julia F. "Fruits of Warm Climates". ISBN-13: 978-0961018412

External links

* [http://www.organiccashewnuts.com Green Caravan - Fair Trade Organic Cashew Company: Organic Cashew Nuts]
* [http://www.madhulikaonline.com/kaju-based-sweets.html Traditional Indian Sweets made out of Cashews - Madhulika Sweets Online web portal]
* [http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/index.html Fruits of Warm Climates online]
* [http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Anacardium_occidentale.html Handbook of Energy Crops - "Anacardium occidentale" L.]
* [http://www.rain-tree.com/cajueiro.htm Cajueiro - Tropical plant database by Raintree Nutrition]
* [http://www.cardolite.com/www/cnsl_history.htm History of the industrial use of Cashew Nutshell Liquid]
* [http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/anacardium.html King's American Dispensatory: Anacardium occidentale (Cashew-Nut)]
* [http://organiccashewnuts.com/cashewresearch.htm Research Paper on the Cashew Processing Industry in West Africa]
* [http://www.anacardium.info Anacardium.info] is a cashew portal with more than 200 documents available. Presentation in French, most documents in English
* [http://www.eastwind.org East Wind Community] An intentional egalitarian community in Missouri that produces various natural and organic nut butters.
* [http://www.crnindia.com/commodity/cashew.html Cashew industry overview 2005]
* [http://www.flickr.com/photos/humanityashore/668159430/ Ladybirds on Cashew Tree, Sri Lanka]
* [http://www.cashew.lk Sri Lanka Cashew Corporation]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • cashew — UK [ˈkæʃuː] / UK [kæˈʃuː] / US [ˈkæˌʃu] / US [kæˈʃu] or cashew nut UK / US noun [countable] Word forms cashew : singular cashew plural cashews Word forms cashew nut : singular cashew nut plural cashew nuts a curved nut eaten as a food …   English dictionary

  • Cashew — Ca*shew (k[.a]*sh[=oo] ), n. [F. acajou, for cajou, prob. from Malay k[=a]yu tree; cf. Pg. acaju, cf. {Acajou}.] 1. (Bot.) A tree ({Anacardium occidentale}) of the same family which the sumac. It is native in tropical America, but is now… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • cashew — [kash′o͞o; ] also [, kə sho͞o′] n. [aphetic < Fr acajou < Port acajú < Tupí] 1. a tropical evergreen tree (Anacardium occidentale) of the cashew family, with kidney shaped, poisonous nuts, each at the end of an edible, pear shaped… …   English World dictionary

  • cashew — ► NOUN (also cashew nut) ▪ the edible kidney shaped nut of a tropical American tree. ORIGIN Tupi …   English terms dictionary

  • cashew — 1704, aphetic of Fr. acajou, from older Port. acajê from Tupi (Brazil) acajuba, name of the tree that produces the nut …   Etymology dictionary

  • cashew — see cachou …   Modern English usage

  • Cashew — Kaschu Cashewbaum (A. occidentale), Illustration aus Koehler 1887 Systematik Unterklasse: Rosenähnliche (Rosidae) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • cashew — /kash ooh, keuh shooh /, n. 1. a tree, Anacardium occidentale, native to tropical America, having milky juice, simple, leathery leaves, and yellowish pink flowers in open clusters. 2. Also called cashew nut. the small, kidney shaped, edible nut… …   Universalium

  • cashew — noun a) A tree in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae, native to northeastern Brazil, now widely grown in tropical climates for its cashew nuts and cashew apples. b) A cashew nut. Syn: acajou …   Wiktionary

  • cashew — noun Etymology: Portuguese cajú, acajú, from Tupi akajú Date: 1598 a tropical American tree (Anacardium occidentale of the family Anacardiaceae, the cashew family) grown for a phenolic oil and the edible kernel of its nut and for a gum from its… …   New Collegiate Dictionary