- Islam and science
The relationship between
scienceand Islamis a matter of controversy. In the Muslim world, many believe that modern science was first developed in the Muslim world rather than in Europeand Western countries, that "all the wealth of knowledge in the world has actually emanated from Muslim civilization," and what people call "the scientific method", is actually "the Islamic method." [Egyptian Muslim geologist Zaghloul El-Naggar quoted in [http://discovermagazine.com/2007/jul/science-and-islam Science and Islam in Conflict] Discover magazine 06.21.2007] ["Modern Europe's industrial culture did not originate in Europe but in the Islamic universities of Andalusia and of the East. The principle of the experimental method was an offshoot of the Islamic concept and its explanation of the physical world, its phenomena, its forces and its secrets." From: Qutb, Sayyad, "Milestones", p.111] Muslims often cite verse 239 from Surah Al-Baqara—- "He has taught you what you did not know." [cite web | title = Islam, Knowledge, and Science - USC MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts | url = http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/introduction/woi_knowledge.html ] —- in support of their view that the Qur'an promotes the acquisition of new knowledge.
In stark contrast, others worry that the contemporary Muslim world suffers from a "profound lack of scientific understanding," and lament that, for example, in countries like
Pakistaneven post-graduate physics students have been known to blame earthquakeson "sinfulness, moral laxity, deviation from the Islamic true path," while "only a couple of muffled voices supported the scientific view that earthquakes are a natural phenomenon unaffected by human activity." ["Islam and science – unhappy bedfellows", Pervez Hoodbhoy, 2006. Formerly at http://www.globalagendamagazine.com/2006/Hoodbhoy.asp (dead link can be accessed in the [http://web.archive.org/web/20060426230059/http://www.globalagendamagazine.com/2006/Hoodbhoy.asp Internet archive] )]
The development of scientific thought and knowledge has caused differing reactions among Muslims. In the Muslim world today, most of the focus on the relation between Islam and science involves scientific interpretations of the Quran (and sometimes the
Sunna) that claim to show these sources make prescient statements about the nature of the universe, biological development and other phenomena later confirmed by scientific research, and proof of the divine origin of the Qur'an. This effort has been criticized by some scientists and philosophers as containing logical fallacies, [ [http://www.secweb.org/index.aspx?action=viewAsset&id=168 Secular Web Kiosk and Bookstore ] ] being unscientific, likely to be disproven by evolving scientific theories. [Cook, Michael, "The Koran: A Very Short Introduction," Oxford University Press, (2000), p.30] [see also: Ruthven, Malise, "A Fury For God," London ; New York : Granta, (2002), p.126]
Islamhas its own worldview system including beliefs about "ultimate reality, epistemology, ontology, ethics, purpose, etc." Mehdi Golshani, "Can Science Dispense With Religion?"] Muslimsbelieve that the Qur'anis the literal word and the final revelation of Godfor the guidance of humankind.
Science in the broadest sense refers to any falsifiable system of knowledge attained by verifiable means, [See, e.g., the entry "Science" in the Oxford English Dictionary ISBN 0-19-522217-2] and in a narrower sense to a system of acquiring knowledge based on empiricism,
experimentation, and methodological naturalism, as well as to the organized body of knowledgehumans have gained by such research. Scientists maintain that scientific investigation must adhere to the scientific method, a process for evaluating empirical knowledgethat explains observable events in natureas results of natural causes, rejecting supernaturalnotions.
One of the most important features of Science, notably Physics is the precise quantitative prediction based on its current level understanding of a phenomenon. In this aspect it differs from many religious texts where physical phenomena are depicted in a very qualitative way, often by the use of words carrying several meanings.
Classical Islamic science
history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under Islamic civilization between the 8th and 16th centuries, during what is known as the Islamic Golden Age. [cite journal|first=A. I.|last=Sabra|authorlink=A. I. Sabra|title=Situating Arabic Science: Locality versus Essence|journal=Isis|year=1996|volume=87|pages=654–670|url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0021-1753%28199612%2987%3A4%3C654%3ASASLVE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-M|issue=4|doi=10.1086/357651quote|"Let us begin with a neutral and innocent definition of Arabic, or what also may be called Islamic, science in terms of time and space: the term "Arabic" (or "Islamic") "science" the scientific activities of individuals who lived in a region that might extended chronologically from the eighth century A.D. to the beginning of the modern era, and geographically from the Iberian Peninsula and north Africa to the Indus valley and from the Southern Arabia to the Caspian Sea—that is, the region covered for most of that period by what we call Islamic Civilization, and in which the results of the activities referred to were for the most part expressed in the Arabic Language. We need not be concerned over the refinements that obviously need to be introduced over this seemingly neutral definition."] It is also known as Arabic science since the majority of texts during this period were written in Arabic, the " lingua franca" of Islamic civilization. Despite these terms, not all scientists during this period were Muslimor Arab, as there were a number of notable non-Arab scientists (most notably Persians), as well as some non-Muslim scientists, who contributed to scientific studies in the Islamic world.
A number of modern scholars such as
Fielding H. Garrison, [ Fielding H. Garrison, "History of Medicine"] Bertrand Russell, [Prof. Osman Bakar ( Georgetown University), [http://www.al-huda.com/Article_5%205.htm Islam's Contribution to Human Civilization: Science and Culture] , CIC's annual Ottawa dinner, October 15, 2001.] Abdus Salamand Hossein Nasrconsider modern scienceand the scientific methodto have been greatly influenced by Muslim scientists who introduced a modern empirical, experimental and quantitativeapproach to scientific inquiry. Some scholars, notably Donald Routledge Hill, Ahmad Y Hassan, [ Ahmad Y Hassanand Donald Routledge Hill(1986), "Islamic Technology: An Illustrated History", p. 282, Cambridge University Press.] Abdus Salam, [ Abdus Salam, H. R. Dalafi, Mohamed Hassan (1994). "Renaissance of Sciences in Islamic Countries", p. 162. World Scientific, ISBN 9971507137.] and George Saliba, George Saliba(1994), "A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam", p. 245, 250, 256-257. New York University Press, ISBN 0814780237.] have referred to their achievements as a Muslim scientific revolution, [Abid Ullah Jan (2006), "After Fascism: Muslims and the struggle for self-determination", "Islam, the West, and the Question of Dominance", Pragmatic Publishings, ISBN 978-0-9733687-5-8.] [Salah Zaimeche (2003), [http://www.muslimheritage.com/uploads/Introduction_to_Muslim%20Science.pdf An Introduction to Muslim Science] , FSTC.] though this does not contradict the traditional view of the Scientific Revolutionwhich is still supported by most scholars. [Grant, Edward. The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages: Their Religious, Institutional, and Intellectual Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1996.] [Herbert Butterfield, The Origins of Modern Science, 1300-1800.] [ Thomas Kuhn, The Copernican Revolution, (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Pr., 1957), p. 142.]
According to many historians, science in Islamic civilization flourished during the
Middle Ages, but began declining at some time around the 14th [Islam by Alnoor Dhanani in "Science and Religion", 2002, p.88] to 16th Ahmad Y Hassan, [http://www.history-science-technology.com/Articles/articles%208.htm Factors Behind the Decline of Islamic Science After the Sixteenth Century] ] centuries. At least some scholars blame this on the "rise of a clerical faction which froze this same science and withered its progress." ["Islamic Technology: An Illustrated History" by Ahmad Y. al-Hassan and Donald Hill, Cambridge University Press, 1986, p.282] Examples of conflicts with prevailing interpretations of Islam and science - or at least the fruits of science - thereafter include the demolition of Taqi al-Din's great Istanbul observatory of al-Dinin Galata, "comparable in its technical equipment and its specialist personnel with that of his celebrated contemporary, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe." But while Brahe's observatory "opened the way to a vast new development of astronomical science," Taqi al-Din's was demolished by a squad of Janissaries, "by order of the sultan, on the recommendation of the Chief Mufti," sometime after 1577 AD. [Aydin Sayili, The Observatory in Islam and its place in the General History of the Observatory (Ankara: 1960), pp. 289 ff.] ["Islamic Technology: An Illustrated History" by Ahmad Y. al-Hassan and Donald Hill, Cambridge University Press, 1986, p.282]
It is believed that it was the
empiricalattitude of the Qur'an and Sunnahwhich inspired medieval Muslim scientists, in particular Alhazen (965-1037), [Bettany, Laurence (1995), "Ibn al-Haytham: an answer to multicultural science teaching?", "Physics Education" 30: 247-252  )] Citation |last=Steffens |first=Bradley |year=2006 |title=Ibn al-Haytham: First Scientist |publisher= Morgan ReynoldsPublishing |isbn=1599350246 ( cf.Citation|first=Bradley|last=Steffens|title=Who Was the First Scientist?|publisher=Ezine Articles)] to develop the scientific method.Ahmad, I. A. (June 3, 2002), [http://images.agustianwar.multiply.com/attachment/0/RxbYbQoKCr4AAD@kzFY1/IslamicCalendar-A-Case-Study.pdf The Rise and Fall of Islamic Science: The Calendar as a Case Study] , "Faith and Reason: Convergence and Complementarity", Al Akhawayn University. Retrieved on 2008-01-31.] [C. A. Qadir (1990), "Philosophy and Science in the lslumic World", Routledge, London)] [citation|first=I. A.|last=Ahmad|title=The impact of the Qur'anic conception of astronomical phenomena on Islamic civilization|journal=Vistas in Astronomy|volume=39|issue=4|year=1995|pages=395-403] It is also known that certain advances made by medieval Muslim astronomers, geographers and mathematicians was motivated by problems presented in Islamic scripture, such as Al-Khwarizmi's (c. 780-850) development of algebrain order to solve the Islamic inheritance laws, [cite journal|last=Gandz|first=Solomon|year=1938|title=The Algebra of Inheritance: A Rehabilitation of Al-Khuwārizmī|id=ISSN|0369–7827|journal=Osiris|volume=5|pages=319–391] and developments in astronomy, geography, spherical geometryand spherical trigonometryin order to determine the direction of the Qibla, the times of Salahprayers, and the dates of the Islamic calendar. [Harvard reference |last=Gingerich |first=Owen |year=1986 |date=April 1986 |url=http://faculty.kfupm.edu.sa/PHYS/alshukri/PHYS215/Islamic_astronomy.htm |title=Islamic astronomy |journal= Scientific American|volume=254 |issue=10 |page=74 |accessdate=2008-05-18 ]
Other such examples include
Ibn al-Nafis(1213-1288), who discovered the pulmonary circulationin 1242 and used his discovery as evidence for the orthodox Islamic doctrine of bodily resurrection. [Harvard reference |last=Fancy |first=Nahyan A. G. |year=2006 |title=Pulmonary Transit and Bodily Resurrection: The Interaction of Medicine, Philosophy and Religion in the Works of Ibn al-Nafīs (d. 1288) |journal=Electronic Theses and Dissertations |publisher= University of Notre Dame|url=http://etd.nd.edu/ETD-db/theses/available/etd-11292006-152615 |pages=232-3 ] Ibn al-Nafis also used Islamic scripture as justification for his rejection of wineas self-medication. [Harvard reference |last=Fancy |first=Nahyan A. G. |year=2006 |title=Pulmonary Transit and Bodily Resurrection: The Interaction of Medicine, Philosophy and Religion in the Works of Ibn al-Nafīs (d. 1288) |journal=Electronic Theses and Dissertations |publisher= University of Notre Dame|url=http://etd.nd.edu/ETD-db/theses/available/etd-11292006-152615 |pages=49-59 & 232-3 ] Ali Kuşçu's (1403-1474) support for the Earth's rotationand his rejection of Aristotelian cosmology (which advocates a stationary Earth) was also motivated by religious opposition to Aristotleby orthodox Islamic theologians such as Al-Ghazali. [Harvard reference |last=Ragep |first=F. Jamil |year=2001a |title=Tusi and Copernicus: The Earth's Motion in Context |journal=Science in Context |volume=14 |issue=1-2 |pages=145–163 |publisher= Cambridge University Press] [F. Jamil Ragep (2001), "Freeing Astronomy from Philosophy: An Aspect of Islamic Influence on Science", "Osiris", 2nd Series, Vol. 16, Science in Theistic Contexts: Cognitive Dimensions, p. 49-64, 66-71.] Criticisms against alchemy and astrology were also motivated by religion, such as the views of astrologers conflicting with orthodox Islam. [Harvard reference |last=Saliba |first=George |authorlink=George Saliba |year=1994 |title=A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam |publisher= New York University Press|isbn=0814780237 |pages=60 & 67-69]
Arrival of modern science in Islamic world
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, modern science arrived in the Muslim world but it wasn't the science itself that affected Muslim scholars. Rather, it "was the transfer of various philosophical currents entangled with science that had a profound effect on the minds of Muslim scientists and intellectuals. Schools like Positivism and Darwinism penetrated the Muslim world and dominated its academic circles and had a noticeable impact on some Islamic theological doctrines." There were different responses to this among the Muslim scholars: [ Mehdi Golshani, "Does science offer evidence of a transcendent reality and purpose?", June 2003 ] These reactions, in words of Professor
Mehdi Golshani, were the following:
#Some rejected modern science as corrupt foreign thought, considering it incompatible with Islamic teachings, and in their view, the only remedy for the stagnancy of Islamic societies would be the strict following of Islamic teachings. [ Mehdi Golshani, "Does science offer evidence of a transcendent reality and purpose?", June 2003 ]
#Other thinkers in the Muslim world saw science as the only source of real enlightenment and advocated the complete adoption of modern science. In their view, the only remedy for the stagnation of Muslim societies would be the mastery of modern science and the replacement of the religious worldview by the scientific worldview.
#The majority of faithful Muslim scientists tried to adapt Islam to the findings of modern science; they can be categorized in the following subgroups: (a) Some Muslim thinkers attempted to justify modern science on religious grounds. Their motivation was to encourage Muslim societies to acquire modern knowledge and to safeguard their societies from the criticism of Orientalists and Muslim intellectuals. (b) Others tried to show that all important scientific discoveries had been predicted in the Qur'an and Islamic tradition and appealed to modern science to explain various aspects of faith. (c) Yet other scholars advocated a re-interpretation of Islam. In their view, one must try to construct a new theology that can establish a viable relation between Islam and modern science. The Indian scholar,
Sayyid Ahmad Khan, sought a theology of nature through which one could re-interpret the basic principles of Islam in the light of modern science. (d) Then there were some Muslim scholars who believed that empirical science had reached the same conclusions that prophets had been advocating several thousand years ago. The revelation had only the privilege of prophecy.
#Finally, some Muslim philosophers separated the findings of modern science from its philosophical attachments. Thus, while they praised the attempts of Western scientists for the discovery of the secrets of nature, they warned against various empiricist and materialistic interpretations of scientific findings. Scientific knowledge can reveal certain aspects of the physical world, but it should not be identified with the alpha and omega of knowledge. Rather, it has to be integrated into a metaphysical framework—consistent with the Muslim worldview—in which higher levels of knowledge are recognized and the role of science in bringing us closer to God is fulfilled.
Mehdi Golshani, "Can Science Dispense With Religion?"]
Compatibility of Islam and the development of science
Whether Islamic culture has promoted or hindered scientific advancement is disputed. Islamists such as Sayyid Qutb argue that since "Islam appointed" Muslims "as representatives of God and made them responsible for learning all the sciences," [Qutb, Sayyid, "Milestones", p.112] science cannot but prosper in a society of true Muslims. Many "classical and modern [sources] agree that the Qur'an condones, even encourages the acquisition of science and scientific knowledge, and urges humans to reflect on the natural phenomena as signs of God's creation." Some scientific instruments produced in classical times in the Islamic world were inscribed with Qur'anic citations. Many Muslims agree that doing science is an act of religious merit, even a collective duty of the Muslim community. Qur'an and Science,
Encyclopedia of the Qur'an]
Others say traditional interpretations of Islam are not compatible with the development of science. Author Rodney Stark, explains Islam's lag behind the West in scientific advancement after (roughly) 1500 AD to opposition by traditional
ulemato efforts to formulate systematic explanation of natural phenomenon with "natural laws." They believed such laws were blasphemous because they limit "Allah's freedom to act" as He wishes. This principle was enshired in aya 14:4: "Allah sendeth whom He will astray, and guideth whom He will," which (they believed) applied to all of creation not just humanity. [Stark, Rodney, "The Victory of Reason", Random House, 2005, p.20-1]
In the early twentieth century ulema forbade the learning of foreign languages and dissection of human bodies in the medical school in Iran. [Mackey, "The Iranians : Persia, Islam and the Soul of a Nation", 1996, p.179] The ulama at the Islamic university of
Al-Azharin Cairo taught the Ptolemaic astronomical system (in which the sun circles the earth) until compelled to adopt the Copernican system by the Egyptian government in 1961. ["In the Path of God : Islam and Political Power" by Daniel Pipes, c1983 p.113]
In recent years, the lagging of the Muslim world in science is manifest in the disproportionately small amount of scientific output as measured by citations of articles published in internationally circulating science journals, annual expenditures on research and development, and numbers of research scientists and engineers. [Abdus Salam, "Ideals and Realities: Selected Essays of Abdus Salam" (Philadelphia: World Scientific, 1987), p. 109. ] Skepticism of science among some Muslims is reflected in issues such as resistance in Muslim northern
Nigeriato polio inoculation, which some believe is "an imaginary thing created in the West or it is a ploy to get us to submit to this evil agenda." [Nafiu Baba Ahmed, Secretary General of the Supreme Council for Shariain Nigeria, telling the BBChis opinion of polio and vaccination. In northern Nigeria "more than 50% of the children have never been vaccinated against polio," and as of 2006 and more than half the world's polio victims live. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4862012.stm Nigeria's struggle to beat polio, BBC News, 31 March 20] ]
Qur'an and Science
The belief that Qur'an had prophesied scientific theories and discoveries has become a strong and wide-spread belief in the contemporary Islamic world; these prophecies are often provided as a proof of the divine origin of the Qur'an.
The scientific facts claimed to be in the Qur'an exist in different subjects, including creation, astronomy, the animal and vegetables kingdom, and human reproduction.
"a time is fixed for every prophecy; you will come to know in time" (quran-usc|6|67). Islamic scholar
Zaghloul El-Naggarthinks that this verse refers to the scientific facts in the Qur'an that would be discovered by the world in modern time, centuries after the revelation.
This believe is, however, arguable in the Muslim world, while some support it, other Muslim scholars oppose the believe, claiming that the Qur'an is not a book of science;
al-Biruni, one of the most celebrated Muslim scientists of the classical period, assigned to the Qur'an a separate and autonomous realm of its own and held that the Qur'an "does not interfere in the business of science nor does it infringe on the realm of science." Ahmad Dallal, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, "Quran and science" ] These scholars argued for the possibility of multiple scientific explanation of the natural phenomena, and refused to subordinate the Qur'an to an ever-changing science.
pecific science-related issues in the Quran and the Hadith
Fossils of ancient humans
Here are three basic verses in Qur'an which are related to human creation:cite journal | quotes = | author = Saleem, Shehzad | date = | year = 2000 | month = May | title = The Qur’anic View on Creation | journal = Renaissance | volume = 10 | issue = 5 | pages = | doi = |id =
ISSN[http://worldcatlibraries.org/issn/1606-9382 1606-9382] | url = http://www.renaissance.com.pk/maytitl20.htm | format = | accessdate = 2006-10-11 ] (Quran-usc|3|59, Quran-usc|4|1, Quran-usc-range|32|7|9)According to the first two verses, Adam and Evewere directly created by God from clay. They did not descend from any other species as proposed by Charles Darwin. The rest of mankind is the progeny of Adam and Eve. The third verse implies that there were three stages in their creation, and can be interpreted in two ways:
**Adam and Eve were created from clay
**They subsequently developed the ability to reproduce at a later age
**Finally, after some more time elapsed, they entered the third phase in which they were perfected both physically and spiritually, and received the divine spirit from God.
*Second possibility: All these three phases did not pass on the first humans created, rather each of the phases lasted for many years during which many life forms were created from clay having the characteristic of their respective periods together with that of the previous one.
**Human forms were initially directly created from clay because they did not have the ability to reproduce. This first stage may have lasted for millions of years, and in it, the humans forms' physical forms after passing through various stages culminated in the homo sapiens of today. Millions of species may have been created from clay like this. Among them, many went extinct and the others lived to enter the second phase, the first of which were Adam and Eve.
**The human forms now had the ability to reproduce and direct creation was no longer required.
Adam and Evewere the first directly created pair from clay which had this ability to reproduce. In the second phase, except Adam and Eveall other pairs who had the ability to reproduce pairs were not perfected and later died away.
** It was this very pair which entered the third phase and was perfected physically so that it could receive the divine spirit from the God and be blessed with the faculties of sense and reason as is specified by the last part of the verse.
Under the second interpretation, the fossils which we find today belong to the millions of people created from clay in the first and second phases.
Conception and inherited characteristics
The most prominent of the ancient Greek thinkers who wrote on medicine were
Hippocrates, Aristotle, and Galen. Hippocrates and Galen, in contrast with Aristotle, wrote that the contribution of females to children is equal to that of males, and the vehicle for it is a substance similar to the semenof males. Basim Musallam, "Sex and Society in Islam." Cambridge University Press.] Basim Musallam writes that the ideas of these men were widespread through the pre-modern Middle East: "Hippocrates, Aristotle, and Galen were as much a part of Middle Eastern Arabic culture as anything else in it." Basim Musallam, "Sex and Society in Islam" Cambridge University Press.] The sayings in the Quran and those attributed to Muhammad in the Hadithinfluenced generations of Muslim scientists by siding with Galen and Hippocrates. Basim Musallamwrites: "... the statements about parental contribution to generation in the "hadith" paralleled the Hippocratic writings, and the view of fetal development in the Quran agreed in detail with Galen's scientific writings." Basim Musallam, "Sex and Society in Islam." Cambridge University Press.] He reports that the highly influential medieval Hanbalischolar Ibn Qayyim, in his book "Kitab al-tibyan fi aqsam al-qur'an", cites the following statement of the prophet from the Sahih Muslim:
Ibn Qayyim also quotes a different hadith from the same collection, which is quoted by other Muslim authors as well. Having been asked the question "from what is man created," the Prophet replies:
Relationship between religion and science
Bahá'í Faith and science
Criticism of the Qur'an
Qur'an and science
Qur'an and miracles
* [http://ptonline.aip.org/journals/doc/PHTOAD-ft/vol_60/iss_8/49_1.shtml Science and the Islamic world—The quest for rapprochement] - by
Pervez Hoodbhoy; By Professor Mehdi Golshani
* [http://www.csc.twu.ca/byl/golshani.doc Can Science Dispense With Religion?]
* [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0QYQ/is_1_1/ai_n6145343 Does science offer evidence of a transcendent reality and purpose?]
* [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0QYQ/is_1_3/ai_n15947582 Some important questions concerning the relationship between science and religion]
*"The Developing Human (Keith L.Moore") http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rb0uZefwQnc
; By Professor Seyyed Hossein Nasr
* [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0QYQ/is_1_1/ai_n6145347 Islam, science and Muslims]
* [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0QYQ/is_2_3/ai_n15944549 Islam, Muslims, and modern technology]
* [http://www.cis-ca.org/index.php Center for Islam and Science]
* [http://www.muslimheritage.com/ Explore Islamic achievements and contributions to science]
* [http://www.nooran.org/en/index.htm Commission on Scientific Signs]
* [http://www.scq.ubc.ca/is-there-such-a-thing-as-islamic-science-the-influence-of-islam-on-the-world-of-science/ Is There Such A Thing As Islamic Science? The Influence Of Islam On The World Of Science]
* [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=technology&res=9802E4D91730F933A05753C1A9679C8B63 How Islam Won, and Lost, the Lead in Science]
* [http://iht.com/articles/2007/07/14/africa/14doctors-web.php Radicalism among Muslim professionals worries many]
* [http://ptonline.aip.org/journals/doc/PHTOAD-ft/vol_60/iss_8/49_1.shtml Science and the Islamic world—The quest for rapprochement] -
* [http://www.prospect-magazine.co.uk/article_details.php?id=4244 Islamic failure] -
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