Supersaturation


Supersaturation
Enormous, highly pure, single crystal substances can be grown from a solution at the metastable boundary between an unsaturated and supersaturated solution. Here, a monopotassium phosphate crystal grown to create frequency doubling optics for the NIF laser.[1]

The term supersaturation refers to a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances. It can also refer to a vapor of a compound that has a higher (partial) pressure than the vapor pressure of that compound.

Contents

Condensation

Small particles (seeds) can trigger the separation of the dissolved material from the solvent or condensation of the vapor. Seeds triggering the conversion of vapor are referred to as condensation nuclei, as in the case of water vapor. In the solid form these seeds can lead to the formation of crystallites or even large single crystals. Supersaturation is a measure of the deviation of a dissolved salt crystal from its equilibrium state.

Preparation

Supersaturated solutions are prepared or result when some condition of a saturated solution is changed, for example increasing temperature, decreasing volume of the saturated Liquid (as by evaporation), or increasing pressure.

Examples

Carbonated water is a supersaturated solution of carbon dioxide gas in water. At the elevated pressure in the bottle, more carbon dioxide can dissolve in water than at atmospheric pressure. At atmospheric pressure, the carbon dioxide gas escapes very slowly from the supersaturated liquid. This process may be accelerated by the presence of nucleation sites within the solution, such as small bubbles, caused by shaking the bottle, or another solute, such as sugar powder or a widget. A Diet Coke and Mentos eruption is a rather extreme example. Some beverage products such as ales and stouts, e.g. Guinness, rely on this effect to produce the 'head' on the surface of the poured product. This has led to the invention of the widget, a device developed to produce enhanced bubble seeding in liquids, especially with dual supersaturated gas phases (carbon dioxide and nitrogen) (see patents by Nicholas Fitzpatrick and Kuzniarski).

Scuba divers' tissues become saturated with breathing gases during a dive. Supersaturation is a theoretical term describing a state in which the tension of a dissolved gas is greater than its inspired partial pressure when the diver ascends, in contrast to Henry's law.[1] If the diver ascends too fast, these gases form bubbles, resulting in decompression sickness.[2] The term was popularized by J.S. Haldane.[1][3]

In air that is supersaturated, water droplets may precipitate upon being disturbed. This can be observed in a cloud chamber. In the more general context a precipitate may form.

Supersaturated solutions of sugar and water are commonly used to make rock candy.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Glossary of diving and hyperbaric terms. Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society. 1978. ISBN 0-930406-01-X. 
  2. ^ Thalmann ED, Parker EC, Survanshi SS, Weathersby PK (1997). "Improved probabilistic decompression model risk predictions using linear-exponential kinetics". Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine 24 (4): 255–74. PMID 9444058. http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/2276. Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  3. ^ Boycott, A. E.; G. C. C. Damant, John Scott Haldane. (1908). "The Prevention of Compressed-air Illness". Journal of Hygiene 8 (3): 342–443. doi:10.1017/S0022172400003399. PMC 2167126. PMID 20474365. http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/7489. Retrieved 2009-05-31. 

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Supersaturation — Su per*sat u*ra tion, n. The operation of supersaturating, or the state of being supersaturated. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • supersaturation — index overage, plethora, surfeit, surplus Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • supersaturation — persotinimas statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. supersaturation vok. Übersättigung, f rus. пересыщение, n pranc. sursaturation, f …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • supersaturation — noun Date: 1791 the state of being supersaturated …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • supersaturation — See supersaturate. * * * …   Universalium

  • supersaturation — noun a) The condition of a solution being more highly concentrated that is normally possible b) the condition of a vapour having a higher saturation vapour pressure than is normally possible See Also: supersaturated …   Wiktionary

  • supersaturation —    A liquid that is over saturated with respect to whatever particles may be contained in the fluid …   Lexicon of Cave and Karst Terminology

  • supersaturation — n. (Chemistry, Physics) act of supersaturating; state of being supersaturated …   English contemporary dictionary

  • supersaturation — su·per·saturation …   English syllables

  • supersaturation — noun see supersaturate …   Useful english dictionary


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