- Sydney Chapman (mathematician)
**Sydney Chapman**FRS (29 January 1888 –16 June 1970 Obituary, The Times [*http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Obits/Chapman.html*] ] T. G. Cowling, Sydney Chapman. 1888-1970, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, Vol. 17, (Nov., 1971), pp. 53-89 ] ) was a Britishmathematician and geophysicist.Cite journal

doi = 10.1007/BF00177026

volume = 11

issue = 5

pages = 599-606

last = Akasofu

first = Syun-I.

title = In memoriam Sydney Chapman

journal = Space Science Reviews

accessdate = 2008-09-07

date = 1970-12-01

url = http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00177026]**Life**Chapman was born in Eccles, near

Manchester in England. In 1904 at age 16, Chapman entered theVictoria University of Manchester initially studying engineering in the department headed byOsborne Reynolds . Chapman was taught mathematics byHorace Lamb , the Bayer professor of mathematics, and JE Littlewood, who came from Cambridge in Chapman's final year at Manchester. Although he graduated with an engineering degree, Chapman had become so enthusiastic for mathematics that he stayed for one further year to take a mathematics degree. Following Lamb's suggestion, Chapman applied for a scholarship toTrinity College, Cambridge . He was at first awarded only a partial scholarship as asizar (meaning that he obtained financial support by acting as a servant other students), but from his second year onwards he received a full scholarship. He graduated as a wrangler in 1910. He began researching inpure mathematics underG. H. Hardy , but later that year was asked by Sir Frank Dyson to be his chief assistant at the Royal Greenwich Observatory. From 1914 to 1919 he returned to Cambridge as a lecturer in mathematics and a fellow of Trinity. He held theBeyer Chair of Applied Mathematics at the Manchester from 1919 to 1924, the same position held by Lamb, and then moved toImperial College London . During the Second World War he was Deputy Scientific Advisor to the Army Council.In 1946, Chapman was elected to the Sedleian Chair of Natural Philosophy at Oxford, and was appointed fellow of Queen's College. In 1953, on his retirement from Oxford, Chapman took research and teaching opportunities of different time durations all over the world, including at the

University of Alaska and the University of Colorado, but also as far afield as inIstanbul ,Cairo ,Prague , andTokyo .Chapman died in

Boulder, Colorado in 1970 at the age of 82.**Work**Chapman's most noted mathematical accomplishments were in the field of

stochastic processes (random processes), especiallyMarkov process es. In his study of Markovian stochastic processes and their generalizations, Chapman and the RussianAndrey Kolmogorov independently developed the pivotal set of equations in the field, the. Chapman is credited with working out, in 1930, the photochemical mechanisms that give rise to theChapman-Kolmogorov equation sozone layer Sydney Chapman, eighty: From His FriendsBy Sydney Chapman, Syun-Ichi Akasofu, Benson Fogle, Bernhard Haurwitz, University of Alaska (College). Geophysical Institute, National Center for Atmospheric Research (U.S.)Published by National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1968] .Chapman is also recognized as one of the pioneers of solar-terrestial physics. This interest stemmed from his early work on the kinetic theory of gases. Chapman studied magnetic storms and aurorae, developing theories to explain their relation to the interaction of the

Earth's magnetic field with thesolar wind . Chapman was President of the Special Committee for theInternational Geophysical Year (IGY). The idea of the IGY stemmed from a discussion in 1950 between Chapman and scientists includingJames Van Allen . The IGY was held in 1957-58, and resulted in great progress in fields including Earth and space sciences, as well as leading to the firstsatellite launches.**Honours**Chapman was bestowed many honours over his career including the

Smith Prize in 1913, election as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1919. Royal Society Bakerian lecturer in 1931, Royal Society Royal Medal in 1934,London Mathematical Society De Morgan Medal in 1944. In 1949, he was awarded theGold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society and was elected as aFellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1953. In 1964, he was awarded theCopley Medal of theRoyal Society . In addition to the Royal Society and the Royal Society of Edinburgh, he was elected to National Academies of Science of the United States, Norway, Sweden and Finland. He served as President of the London Mathematical Society during 1929-1931.The lunar Crater Chapman is named in his honour as is the Sydney Chapman Building on the campus of the

University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF). This building served as the first permanent home of UAF's Geophysical Institute.**ee also***

Chapman function

*Chapman-Kolmogorov equation s

*Ozone layer **References****External links***

* [*http://www.aip.org/history/ead/19990060_content.html Finding aid to papers of Sydney Chapman*] , Neils Bohr Library and Archives, accessed 07/09/2008

* [*http://www.gi.alaska.edu/chapman/ Sydney Chapman page at the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks*] includes sections from "Sydney Chapman, Eighty, From His Friends", accessed 04 Oct 2008

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**Sydney Chapman**— may refer to: *Sir Sydney Chapman (economist), (1871 ndash;1951), British economist and civil servant *Sydney Chapman (mathematician) FRS (1888 ndash;1970), British mathematician *Sir Sydney Chapman (politician) (born 1935), former British… … Wikipedia**Chapman (crater)**— Coordinates 50°24′N 100°42′W / 50.4°N 100.7°W / … Wikipedia**Chapman (surname)**— This article is about the surname Chapman. For other uses, see Chapman. Chapman Family name Meaning Business man or trader Chapman is a surname and perhaps an occupational surname. There is not a single agreed origin of the surname Chapman.… … Wikipedia**Chapman–Kolmogorov equation**— In mathematics, specifically in probability theory and in particular the theory of Markovian stochastic processes, the Chapman–Kolmogorov equation is an identity relating the joint probability distributions of different sets of coordinates on a… … Wikipedia**Chapman-Kolmogorov equation**— In mathematics, specifically in probability theory, and yet more specifically in the theory of Markovian stochastic processes, the Chapman Kolmogorov equation can be viewed as an identity relating the joint probability distributions of different… … Wikipedia**Chapman , Sydney**— (1888–1970) British mathematician and geophysicist Born in Eccles near Manchester, Chapman entered Manchester University in 1904 to study engineering. After graduating in 1907, his interest was diverted into more strictly mathematical areas, and… … Scientists**Chapman, Sydney**— ▪ British mathematician and physicist born Jan. 29, 1888, Eccles, Lancashire, Eng. died June 16, 1970, Boulder, Colo., U.S. English mathematician and physicist noted for his research in geophysics. Chapman was educated at Victorian… … Universalium**Andrey Kolmogorov**— Infobox Scientist name = Andrey Kolmogorov birth date = birth date|1903|4|25 birth place = Tambov, Imperial Russia nationality = Russian death date = death date and age|1987|10|20|1903|4|25 death place = Moscow, USSR field = Mathematician work… … Wikipedia**gas**— gasless, adj. /gas/, n., pl. gases, v., gassed, gassing. n. 1. Physics. a substance possessing perfect molecular mobility and the property of indefinite expansion, as opposed to a solid or liquid. 2. any such fluid or mixture of fluids. 3. any… … Universalium**List of alumni of Trinity College, Cambridge**— This is a selective list of notable alumni of Trinity College, Cambridge sorted into chronological order. Please note that some of the alumni noted hereafter are connected to Trinity through honorary degrees. Not all studied at the College:*… … Wikipedia