- Evolutionary music
Evolutionary music is the audio counterpart to
Evolutionary art, whereby algorithmic musicis created using an evolutionary algorithm. The process begins with a populationof individuals which by some means or other produce audio (e.g. a piece, melody, or loop), which is either initialized randomly or based on human-generated music. Then through the repeated application of computational steps analogous to biological selection, recombinationand mutationthe aim is for the produced audio to become more musical. Evolutionary sound synthesisis a related technique for generating sounds or synthesizerinstruments. Evolutionary music is typically generated using an interactive evolutionary algorithm where the fitness functionis the user or audience, as it is difficult to capture the aesthetic qualities of music computationally. However, research into automated measures of musical quality is also active. Evolutionary computation techniques have also been applied to harmonizationand accompanimenttasks. The most commonly used evolutionary computation techniques are genetic algorithms and genetic programming.
NEUROGEN ( [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=140338 Gibson & Byrne, 1991] ) employed a genetic algorithm to produce and combine musical fragments and a neural network (trained on examples of "real" music) to evaluate their fitness. A genetic algorithm is also a key part of the improvisation and accompaniment system [http://www.it.rit.edu/~jab/GenJam.html GenJam] which has been developed since 1993 by Al Biles. Al and GenJam are together known as the
Al Biles Virtual Quintetand have performed many times to human audiences. Since 1996 Rodney Waschka IIhas been using genetic algorithms for music composition including works such as " Saint Ambrose " [ [http://www.capstonerecords.org/CPS-8708.html Capstone Records:Rodney Waschka II - Saint Ambrose ] ] and his string quartets. [ [http://www.springerlink.com/content/j1up38mn7205g552/?p=e54526113482447681a3114bed6f5eef&pi=5 SpringerLink - Book Chapter ] ] In 1997 Brad Johanson and Riccardo Poli developed the [http://graphics.stanford.edu/~bjohanso/gp-music/ GP-Music System] which, as the name implies, used genetic programming to breed melodies according to both human and automated ratings. Several systems for drum loop evolution have been produced (including one commercial program called [http://www.geneffects.com/musing/ MuSing] ).
In 2007, Springer published two books on this topic. "Evolutionary Computer Music" edited by John "Al" Biles and Eduardo Reck Miranda is devoted exclusively to evolution in music with chapters on composition, performance, and improvisation and other aspects of music production and study using genetic algorithms. [ [http://www.springer.com/computer/information+systems/book/978-1-84628-599-8?detailsPage=toc Evolutionary Computer Music - Multimedia Information Systems Journals, Books & Online Media | Springer ] ] The other book, "The Art of Artificial Evolution" edited by Juan Romero and Penousal Machado examines applications in "art, music, and design". [ [http://art-artificial-evolution.dei.uc.pt/ The Art of Artificial Evolution: A Handbook on Evolutionary Art and Music ] ]
The EvoMUSART workshops ( [http://evonet.lri.fr/TikiWiki/tiki-index.php?page=EvoMUSART 2007] [http://evonet.lri.fr/eurogp2006/?page=evomusart 2006] [http://evonet.lri.fr/eurogp2005/?page=evomusart 2005] [http://evonet.lri.fr/eurogp2004/musartindex.html 2004] [http://evonet.lri.fr/eurogp2003/evomusart.html 2003] ) on evolutionary music and art are one of the main outlets for work on evolutionary music.
The [http://evonet.lri.fr/eurogp2004/songcontest.html EuroGP Song Contest] (a
punon Eurovision Song Contest) was held at [http://evonet.lri.fr/eurogp2004/index.html EuroGP 2004] . In this experiment several tens of users were first tested for their ability to recognise musical differences, and then a short piano-based melody was evolved.
Al Biles gave a [http://www.it.rit.edu/~jab/EvoMusic/BilesEvoMusicSlides.pdf tutorial on evolutionary music] at GECCO 2005 and co-edited a [http://www.springer.com/uk/home/generic/search/results?SGWID=3-40109-22-173674005-0 book] on the subject with contributions from many researchers in the field.
[http://askory.phratry.net/projects/evolutune/ Evolutune] is a small Windows application from 2005 for evolving simple loops of "beeps and boops". It has a graphical interface where the user can select parents manually.
The [http://phoenix.inf.upol.cz/~dostal/evm.html GeneticDrummer] is a Genetic Algorithm based system for generating human-competitive rhythm accompaniment.
* [http://www.it.rit.edu/~jab/EvoMusic/EvoMusBib.html Al Biles' Evolutionary Music Bibliography] - also includes pointers to work on evolutionary sound synthesis.
* [http://art-artificial-evolution.dei.uc.pt/ The Art of Artificial Evolution: A Handbook on Evolutionary Art and Music]
* "Evolutionary Computer Music." Miranda, Eduardo Reck; Biles, John Al (Eds.) London: Springer, 2007.
* "The Art of Artificial Evolution: A Handbook on Evolutionary Art and Music", Juan Romero and Penousal Machado (eds.), 2007, Springer
* "Creative Evolutionary Systems" by David W. Corne, Peter J. Bentley
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Evolutionary art — exploits the process of evolution to create an artwork which continually changes according to an evolutionary algorithm. In common with natural selection and animal husbandry, the members of a population undergoing artificial evolution modify… … Wikipedia
Evolutionary musicology — Not to be confused with Evolutionary music. Evolutionary musicology is a subfield of biomusicology that grounds the psychological mechanisms of music perception and production in evolutionary theory. It covers vocal communication in non human… … Wikipedia
Evolutionary linguistics — is the scientific study of the origins and development of language. The main challenge in this research is the lack of empirical data: spoken language leaves no traces. This led to an abandonment of the field for more than a century [for about 12 … Wikipedia
Music therapy — Intervention ICD 9 CM 93.84 MeSH … Wikipedia
Evolutionary origin of religions — Neolithic Potnia Theron type goddess, seated on a throne flanked by two lionesses, from Çatalhöyük. The evolutionary origin of religions theorizes about the emergence of religious behavior during the course of human evolution. Contents … Wikipedia
music, Western — Introduction history of Western music from ancient times to the present. All ancient civilizations entered historical times with a flourishing musical culture. That the earliest writers explained it in terms of legend and myth is… … Universalium
Interactive evolutionary computation — (IEC) or Aesthetic Selection is a general term for methods of evolutionary computation that use human evaluation. Usually human evaluation is necessary when the form of fitness function is not known (for example, visual appeal or attractiveness;… … Wikipedia
Computer music — is a term that was originally used within academia to describe a field of study relating to the applications of computing technology in music composition; particularly that stemming from the Western art music tradition. It includes the theory and … Wikipedia
List of atheists (music) — Music* Larry Adler (1914 ndash;2001): American musician, widely acknowledged as one of the world s most skilled harmonica players. [ I was among friends and family who packed a chapel at Golders Green crematorium on Friday to hear more than two… … Wikipedia
Prehistoric music — Musical eras Prehistoric Ancient (before AD 500) Early (500 – 1760) Common practice (1600 – 1900) Modern and contemporary (1900 – present) Prehistoric music ( … Wikipedia