- Augustus Saint-Gaudens
bgcolour = #6495ED
name = Augustus Saint-Gaudens
caption = Augustus Saint Gaudens, 1905
birthdate = birth date |1848|3|1|
deathdate = death date and age |1907|8|3|1848|3|1|
nationality = American
Cooper Union, National Academy of Design, Ecole des Beaux-Arts.
influenced by =
Augustus Saint-Gaudens (
Dublin, March 1, 1848– Cornish, New Hampshire, August 3, 1907), was the Irish-born American sculptor of the Beaux-Arts generation who most embodied the ideals of the " American Renaissance." Raised in New York City, he traveled to Europe for further training and artistic study, and then returned to major critical success in the design of monuments commemorating heroes of the American Civil War, many of which still stand. In addition to his famous works such as the Robert Gould Shaw Memorial on Boston Common and the outstanding grand equestrian monuments to Civil War generals John A. Logan, atop a tumulusin Chicago, 1894-97, and William Tecumseh Sherman, at the corner of New York's Central Park, 1892-1903, Saint-Gaudens also maintained an interest in numismaticsand designed the twenty-dollar " double eagle" gold piece, for the US Mint in 1905-7, still considered the most beautiful American coin ever issued [ [http://www.usmint.gov/mint_programs/american_eagles/index.cfm?flash=yes&Action=american_eagle_silver US Mint: The American Eagles Program] .] as well as the $10 "Indian Head" gold eagle, both of which were minted from 1907 until 1933. In his later years he founded the "Cornish Colony," an artistic colony that included notable painters, sculptors, writers, and architects. His brother, Louis St. Gaudenswas also a well known sculptor with whom he occasionally collaborated.
Early life and career
Born in Dublin to a French father and an Irish mother, he was raised in
New York, after his parents immigrated to America when he was six months of age. He was apprenticed to a cameo-cutter but also took art classes at the Cooper Unionand the National Academy of Design. At 19, his apprenticeship completed, he traveled to Pariswhere he studied in the atelierof Francois Jouffroyat the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In 1870, he left Paris for Rome, to study artand architecture, and worked on his first commissions. There he met an American art student, Augusta Homer, whom he married in 1877. In New York he was a member of the Tilers, a group of prominent artists and writers, including Winslow Homer, William Merritt Chaseand Arthur Quartley.
Civil War commemorative commissions
In 1876 he received his first major commission; a monument to Civil War
Admiral David Farragut, in New York's Madison Square; his friend Stanford Whitedesigned an architectural setting for it, and when it was unveiled in 1881, its naturalism, its lack of bombast and its siting combined to make it a tremendous success, and Saint-Gaudens' reputation was established. in New York, 1892-1903, the first use of Robert Treat Paine’s pointing device for the accurate mechanical enlargement of sculpture models.
For the Lincoln Centennial in 1909 Saint-Gaudens produce another statue of the president. A seated figure, it is in Chicago's
Grant Park. (A copy was placed by Lincoln's tomb in Springfield.) The head was used for the commemorative postage stampissued on the 100th anniversary of Lincoln's birth. [ [http://www.us1909.com/367gaudens.html US 1909.com Saint-Gaudens] ]
Saint-Gaudens also created the
Charles Stewart Parnellmonument on Dublin's O'Connell Street. In 1887, when Robert Louis Stevensonmade his second trip to the United States, Saint-Gaudens had the opportunity to make the preliminary sketches for a five-year project of a medallion depicting Stevenson, in very poor health at the time, propped in bed writing. With minor modifications, this medallion was reproduced for the Stevenson memorial in St. Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh. Stevenson's cousin and biographer, Graham Balfour, deemed the work "the most satisfactory of all the portraits of Stevenson." Balfour also noted that Saint-Gaudens greatly admired Stevenson and had once said he would "gladly go a thousand miles for the sake of a sitting" with him.  A statue of philanthropist Robert Randall stands in the gardens of Sailors' Snug Harborin New York. A statue of Copper King, Marcus Daly, is at the entrance of The Montana School of Mines on the west end of Park St. in Butte Montana.
Teacher and advisor
His prominence brought him students, and he was an able and sensitive teacher. He tutored young
artists privately, taught at the Art Students League of New York, and took on a large number of assistants. He was an artistic advisor to the World's Columbian Expositionof 1893, an avid supporter of the American Academy in Rome, and part of the McMillan Commission, which brought into being L'Enfant's long-ignored master-plan for the nation's capital.
Through his career Augustus Saint-Gaudens' made a specialty of intimate private portrait panels in sensitive, very low relief, which owed something to the Florentine
He referred to his early relief portraits as "medallions" and took a great interest in the art of the coin: his twenty-dollar gold piece, the
double eaglecoin he designed for the US Mint, 1905-7, though it was adapted for minting, is still considered the most beautiful American coin ever issued.
Theodore Rooseveltto redesign the coinage of the nation at the beginning of the 20th century, Saint-Gaudens produced a beautiful high-relief $20 gold piece that was adapted into a flattened-down version by the United States Mint. The high-relief coin took up to eleven strikes to bring up the details, and only 12,367 of these coins were minted in 1907.cite web|url=http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/object.cfm?key=35&objkey=717|title=United States, $20, 1907|publisher=National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution|accessdate=2008-06-16]
Two major versions of his coins are known as the "Saint Gaudens High Relief Roman Numerals 1907" and the "Saint Gaudens Arabic Numerals 1907-1933." Other extremely rare types of Saint-Gaudens double eagles, minted in 1907, are prized by collectors and valued from $10,000 to millions of dollars.
The Saint-Gaudens obverse design was reused in the American Eagle gold bullion coins that were instituted in 1986. An "ultra-high relief" $20 (pure) gold coin will be issued by the U.S. Mint in 2009. [ [http://www.usmint.gov/pressroom/index.cfm?action=press_release&ID=914 UNITED STATES MINT TO PROVIDE A GOLDEN MOMENT AT WORLD'S FAIR OF MONEY® IN BALTIMORE] ]
Later life, founder of the Cornish Colony
Diagnosed with cancer in 1900, he decided to live at his Federal house with barn-studio set in the handsome gardens he had made, where he and his family had been spending summers since 1885, in Cornish, New Hampshire— though not in retirement; despite diminishing energy, he continued to work, producing a steady stream of reliefs and public sculpture. In 1904, he was one of the first seven chosen for membership in the
American Academy of Arts and Letters. That same year the large studio burned, with the irreplaceable loss of the sculptor's correspondence, his sketch books, and many works in progress.
Cornish, New Hampshire, Saint-Gaudens and his brother Louis attracted a summer colony of artists. The most famous included painters Maxfield Parrish, and Kenyon Cox, architect and garden designer Charles Platt, and sculptor Paul Manship. The colony of artists made for a dynamic social and creative environment, at the center of which stood Augustus Saint-Gaudens. Many other well known artists followed Saint-Gaudens to Cornish, forming what became known as the "Cornish Colony." Included were painters Maxfield Parrish, Thomas Dewing, George Deforest Brush and Kenyon Cox, dramatist Percy MacKaye, the American novelist Winston Churchill, architect, Charles A. Platt, and sculptors Paul Manshipand Louis Saint-Gaudens, Augustus' brother. After his death in 1907 it slowly disspiated. His house and gardens is now preserved as Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site.
His life-size sculpture representing the
Boston Massacrewas unfinished at his death, but as of|1995|lc=on is undergoing restoration at the National Historic Site.
Among the public collections holding works by Augustus Saint-Gaudens are the following:
The Addison Gallery of American Art (Andover, Massachusetts), the
Amon Carter Museum(Texas), the Art Gallery of the University of Rochester (New York), Brigham Young University Museum of Art (Utah), the Brooklyn Museum of Art(New York City), the Carnegie Museum of Art(Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania), the Cincinnati Art Museum, the Courtauld Institute of Art(London), the Currier Museum of Art(New Hampshire), the Delaware Art Museum, the Detroit Institute of Arts, the Honolulu Academy of Arts, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Mead Art Museum(Amherst College, Massachusetts), the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum of the Rhode Island School of Design, the Montclair Art Museum(New Jersey), Musée d'Orsay(Paris), the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, the National Academy of Design(New York City), the National Gallery of Art(Washington D.C.), the National Portrait Gallery (London), the North Carolina Museum of Art, the National Historic Site(New Hampshire), the Newark Museum(New Jersey), the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery(Lincoln, Nebraska), the Smithsonian American Art Museum(Washington D.C.), the Tate Gallery(London), the Toledo Museum of Art(Ohio) and the United States Senate Art Collection.
Saint-Gaudens appeared on a 1940 U.S.
postage stampin the Famous Americans series.
Society of American Artists
*Art Students League
* [http://www.amacad.org/publications/BookofMembers/ChapterS.pdf Augustus Saint-Gaudens]
* Armstrong, Craven, et al, "200 Years of American Sculpture", Whitney Museum of Art, NYC, 1976
* Balfour, Graham, "The Life of Robert Louis Stevenson", 12th ed. Metheun, London, 1913.
*Clemen, Paul, in "Die Kunst", Munich, 1910
*Cortissoz, Royal, "Augustus Saint-Gaudens", New York, 1907
* Craven, Wayne, "Sculpture in America", Thomas Y. Crowell Co, NY, NY 1968
*Dryfhout, John H., "Augustus Saint-Gaudens: The Portrait Reliefs", The National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Grossman Publishers, NY 1969
*Dryfhout, John H., "The 1907 United States Gold Coinage", Eastern National Park & Monument Association 1996
*Dryfhout, John H., "The Works of Augustus Saint-Gaudens", University Press of New England, Hanover 1982
*Greenthal, Kathryn, "Augustus Saint-Gaudens: Master Sculptor", The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New Your 1985
*Kvaran, Einar Einarsson, "St. Gaudens’ America", unpublished Manuscript
*Reynalds, Donald Martin, "Masters of American Sculpture: The Figurative Tradition From the American Renaissance to the Millennium", Abbeville Press, NY 1993
*Saint-Gaudens, Augustus, "The Reminiscences of Augustus Saint-Gaudens", Edited and Amplified by Homer Saint-Gaudens, Published By The Century Co. New York, MCMXIII
*Taft, Lorado, "The History of American Sculpture", MacMillan Co., New York, NY 1925
*Wilkinson, Burke, and David Finn, photographs, "Uncommon Clay: The Life and Works of Augustus Saint-Gaudens", Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, San Diego 1985
* [http://www.nps.gov/saga/index.htm Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site, New Hampshire]
* [http://www.nps.gov/history/NR/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/48GAUDENS/48GAUDENS.htm "Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site: Home of a Gilded Age Icon," a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan]
* [http://www.sgnhs.org/public2.html Major public works, illustrated]
* [http://www.netaxs.com/~reidgold/saint/ Saint-Gaudens twenty dollar gold coins]
* [http://www.numismatics.org/exhibits/SaintGaudensEXHIBT.htm Saint-Gaudens Exhibit, American Numismatic Society]
2. Balfour (1913), p. 171.
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