Coast Salish languages


Coast Salish languages
Coast Salish
Geographic
distribution:
Strait of Georgia (British Columbia, Canada) and Puget Sound (Washington state)
Linguistic classification: Salishan
Subdivisions:
Central Coast Salish
Tsamosan

Coast Salish languages are a subgroup of the Salishan language family. These languages are spoken by First Nations or Native American peoples inhabiting the territory that is now the southwest coast of British Columbia around the Strait of Georgia and Washington state around Puget Sound. The term "Coast Salish" also refers to the cultures in British Columbia and Washington who speak one of these languages or dialects.

Contents

Geography

The Coast Salish languages are spoken around most of the Georgia and Puget Sound Basins, an area that encompasses the sites of the modern-day cities of Vancouver, British Columbia, Seattle, Washington, and others. Archeological evidence indicates that Coast Salish peoples may have inhabited the area as far back as 9000 BCE. What is now Seattle, for example, has been inhabited since the end of the last glacial period (c. 8,000 BCE—10,000 years ago).[1]

In the past, the Nuxálk (or Bella Coola) of British Columbia's Central Coast have also been considered Coast Salish. This language shares at least one phonological change with Coast Salish (the merger of the Proto-Salish pharyngeal approximants with the uvular fricatives), but it also displays certain similarities to the Interior Salish languages. If it is indeed a member of the Coast Salish branch, it was the first to split off from the rest.

Language group: Peoples speaking a Coast Salish language

Listings are from north to south. Peoples generally inhabited the mentioned watershed and the shores if a body of water is mentioned, as well as further environs. Adjacent tribes or nations often shared adjacent resources and other practices, so boundaries were seldom distinct.

Vancouver Island

Vancouver Island

  • Island Comox (Courtenay area, east coast, central Vancouver Island)—K'omox
  • Mainland Comox (Sliammon and Homalco), Powell River-Toba Inlet, BC South Coast
  • T'souke, Sooke. (southern Vancouver Island) —North Straits Salish
  • Snuneymuxw (Nanaimo, southeast Vancouver Island, north of the Saanich)—Hunquminum
  • Saanich (Victoria area and north, southeastern Vancouver Island; also north coast of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington)—North Straits Salish
  • Somena (Cowichan Valley, west and interior southern Vancouver Island, west of the Snuneymuxw)—Hunquminum

Lower Mainland and Sunshine Coast

Lower Mainland and Sunshine Coast

Strait of Juan de Fuca and Puget Sound

Puget Sound, the Strait of Juan de Fuca, excluding Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands, are categorized north to south but otherwise are alphabetical. Northern Lushootseed is spoken around northern Puget Sound, Southern Lushootseed around central and south Sound.[3] Before treaties of 1854–1855, more than fifty named tribes existed, each with one or more winter villages and several summer camps as well as traditionally allocated resource sites.[4]

  • Duwamish, Dkhʷ'Duw'Absh and Xacuabš (metropolitan Seattle, central Puget Sound east to blend with the Sammamish) —Lushootseed
  • Smulkamish, Green River valley near Enumclaw (south central Puget Sound) —Lushootseed[5]
  • Sammamish, eastern Duwamish (central Puget Sound, east) —Lushootseed
  • Snoqualmie, Sduqʷalbixʷ (Snoqualmie River, central Puget Sound, east hills)—Lushootseed
  • Stkehlmish sacakałəbš, treaty SK-tahl-mish (north central Puget Sound, east) —Lushootseed
  • Suquamish, Suqʷabš (Agate Pass, central Puget Sound, northwest) —Lushootseed
  • Nisqually, sqʷaliʼabš (Deschutes and Nisqually rivers, southern Puget Sound)—Lushootseed
  • Muckleshoot, bəpubšł, Inland Duwamish (Black, Green, and White rivers, southeast Puget Sound)—Lushootseed
  • Puyallup, Spuyaləqəlpubšut (Puyallup River, south southeast Puget Sound)—Lushootseed
  • Sahewamish, Sʼəhiwʼabš (southwest Puget Sound, west) —Lushootseed
  • Squaxin Island Tribe (Case Inlet, southern Puget Sound) —Lushootseed[6]

Southwest Washington

See also

  • Interior Salish
  • Tillamook (extinct Salishan language.)

Notes and references

  1. ^ Carlson, Keith Thor (ed.) (2001). A Stó:lō-Coast Salish Historical Atlas. Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre. pp. 6–18. ISBN 1-5505-4812-3. 
  2. ^ Following source (Bates, Hess, & Hilbert) does not cover.
  3. ^ Dassow of Bates, Hess, & Hilbert (1994), pp. vii–iix
  4. ^ Suttles & Lane (1990), pp. 486–7
  5. ^ Forsman and Lewarch, Archaeology of the White River Valley, White River Journal, April 2001.[1]
  6. ^ (1) Dassow in Bates, Hess & Hilbert (1994), p. iix
    (1.1) Clallam is used for Klallam.
    (1.2) This is linguistic, so Duwamish and Sammamish blend between them as well as their being closely related.
    (2) Suttles & Lane (1990), pp. 486–7
  7. ^ Following source (Suttles & Lane) does not cover.

Bibliography

Further reading

External links


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