List of English words of Persian origin


List of English words of Persian origin

As Indo-European languages, English and Persian have many words of common Proto-Indo-European origin, and many of these cognate words often have similar forms. Examples of these include: English (Mother) and Persian (Madar), English (Father) and Persian (Pedar) and English (Brother) and Persian (Baradar). However, this article will be concerned with loanwords, that is, words in English that derive from Persian, either directly, or more often, via one or more intermediary languages.

Many words of Persian origin have made their way into the English language through different, often circuitous, routes. Some of them, such as "paradise", date to cultural contacts between the Persians and the ancient Greeks or Romans and through Greek and Latin found their way to English. Persian as the second important language of Islam has influenced many languages in the Muslim world, and its words have found their way beyond the Muslim world.

Persia remained largely impenetrable to English-speaking travelers well into the 19th century. Persia was protected from Europe by overland trade routes that passed through territory inhospitable to foreigners, while trade at Persian ports in the Persian Gulf was in the hands of locals. In contrast, intrepid English traders operated in Mediterranean seaports of the Levant from the 1570s, and some vocabulary describing features of Ottoman culture found their way into the English language. Thus many words in the list below, though originally from Persian, arrived in English through the intermediary of Turkish.

Many words also came into English through Hindustani during the British Raj. Persian was the lingua franca of India before British rule.

Other words of Persian origin found their way into European languages— and eventually reached English at second-hand— through the Moorish-Christian cultural interface in the Iberian peninsula during the Middle Ages thus being transmitted through Arabic.

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A

;Abbasi: A Persian coin or unit of weight; an Afghan coin. Etymology: Abbas plus Persian suffix i; literally, "of Abbas", with reference to Abbas I (died 1628), shah of Persia. [ "abbasi." MW.] Not to be confused with the Abbasi family or the Abbasid dynasty.

;Abkar: A wine manufacturer or seller, whose trade is subject to abkari tax. Etymology: Persian abkar, from ab "water, liquid" (from Old Persian pi-) + kar, "doer" (from Middle Persian). [ "abkar." MW.]

;Abkari: Etymology: "abkari." manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors or drugs. [ "abkari." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

;Absinthe: Etymology: Perhaps from Persian "aspand". alcoholic liqueur distilled from wine mixed with wormwood."absinthe", OED http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=absinthe ]

;Achaemenid: Etymology: Greekified of Old Persian Hakhaamanesh. The Old Persian Achaemenid empire from 559 B.C to 330 B.C. [ "achaemenid." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

;Achar: Etymology: Persian achar. a pickled article of food as prepared in India : a pickle or relish [ "achar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

;Afreet: Etymology: Arabic ifrit, probably from Persian afarida created being. a powerful evil jinni, demon, or monstrous giant in Arabic mythology. [ "afreet." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

;Afghanistan: Afghan combined with Persian suffix stan."stan", OED] Literally meaning "Land of Afghans" in Persian.

;Ahriman: from Persian "Ahriman". Zoroastrian conception of evil.

;Ahu: Etymology: Persian ahu, from Middle Persian ahuk. the common gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) of central Asia. [ "ahu." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

;ahung: Etymology: Chinese a-hong from Persian akhun. theologian, preacher. [ "ahung." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

;Ahura Mazda : from Old. Pers Auramazdâ. Zoroastrian conception of God literally meaning wise lord. [ [http://www.avesta.org/op/op.htm Old Persian Inscriptions] ]

;Akhundzada: Etymology: Hindi akhundzada, from Persian, from akhund teacher + zada son. In India the son of a head officer -- used as a title [ "akhundzada." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

;Algorithm : from the name of the Persian scientist Al-Khwarizmi."algorithm", OED] [ algorism." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

;Alkenkengi: from Arabic al-kakanj the ground-cherry originally from Persian kakunaj. [ "alkekengi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

;Amani: Etymology: Hindi & Persian aman, from Arabic amanah security. The aman+i (where the suffix i is Persian). [ amani. Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

;Angra Mainyu : older version of "Ahriman".

;Angaria : Etymology: Late Latin, from Greek angareia, from angaros royal (Persian) courier. In Roman and civil law : a compulsory service exacted by the government, a lord, or the church [ angaria." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

;Angel: Etymology: Middle English angel, from Old French angele, from Late Latin angelus, from Greek angelos (translation of Hebrew mal'kh), literally, messenger, probably of Iranian origin; akin to the source of Greek angaros imperial Persian courier; perhaps akin to Sanskrit angiras one of a group of luminous divine beings. a supernatural spirit especially in Persian, Jewish, Christian, and Islamic theologies that is commonly depicted as being winged and serving as God's messenger and divine intermediary and as special guardian of an individual or nation. [ "angel." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

;Apadana: Etymology: Old Persian apadana palace, from apa- away + dana container. the great hall in ancient Persian palaces. [ "apadana." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

;Armenia: etymology not necessarily Persian although first mentioned in the Old Persian inscription of the Achaemenids as Armina. "Arman". [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Armenia "Persian Armina, Armenian Hayasdan, or Hayq", Encyclopaedia Britannica: 11th Edition] ] [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-44266 Encyclopaedia Britannica Online] [ Old Persian Inscriptions [http://www.avesta.org/op/op.htm] ]

;arsenic : from "zarnig"."arsenic", OED]

;Arya :from "Ariya"."Arya", OED]

;Aryan : from Old Persian "Ariya"."Aryan", OED]

;As: Etymology: Persian. a Persian card game similar to poker and by some thought to be its progenitor. [ "as." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 Sep. 2006).]

;Asafetida: Etymology: Persian aza (mastic) + Latin foetida. tTe fetid gum resin of various Persian and East Indian plants of the genus Ferula occurring in the form of tears and dark-colored masses, having a strong odor and taste, and formerly used in medicine as an antispasmodic [ "asafetida." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 Sep. 2006). ]

;Asmodeus : evil spirit, prince of demons, from L. Asmodaeus, from Gk. Asmodaios, from Talmudic Heb. Ashmeday, from Avestan (Old-Iranian) Aesh-ma-dæva, lit. "Aeshma the deceitful.""Asmodeus", OED]

;Assassin: Sometimes considered a Persian word; see Assassin and Hashshashin for discussion.

;aubergine : from Persian بادنجان "Bâdinjân" itself maybe originally from Sanskrit."aubergine", OED]

;Aumildar: Etymology: from Arabic 'amal work + Persian -dar (agent suffix). A revenue collector in India. [ "aumildar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

;Avesta: see next entry.

;Avestan: Etymology: Avesta, sacred books of the ancient Zoroastrian religion (from Middle Persian Avastik) + English -an. of or relating to the Avesta or to Avestan. [ "avestan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

;Azadirachta: Etymology: New Latin, from Persian azad dirakht, literally, free or noble tree. [ "azadirachta." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

;Azedarach: Etymology: French azédarac, from Persian azad dirakht, literally, free or noble tree [ "azedarach." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

;Azha : from Persian Ashiyana (آشیانه)

;Azure (color) : from Medieval Latin "azura", from Persian "lājaward""azure", OED]

B

;Babouche : Etymology: from Persian papoosh (پاپوش), from pa "foot" + poosh "covering." a chiefly oriental slipper made without heel or quarters. [ "babouche." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] "babouche", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")] ;Babul: Etymology: Persian babul; akin to Sanskrit babbula, babbla (Acacia arabica). an acacia tree (Acacia arabica) that is probably native to the Sudan but is widespread in northern Africa and across Asia through much of India [ "babul." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Badian: Etymology: French badiane, from Persian baadiaan anise. [ "badian." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Baghdad : From Middle Persian "Bhagadad" "Gifted by God";Bakhtiar: Etymology: Persian Bakhtyr, perhaps from bakhtyr fortunate, rich, from bakht fortune, prosperity. a member of the Bakhtiari people. [ "bakhtiari." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Baksheesh : from Persian bakhshesh (بخشش), lit. "gift," from verb bakhshidan "to give.". a gift of money"baksheesh", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")] [ "baksheesh." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (14 Sep. 2006). ] ;Balaghat: Etymology: probably from Hindi, from Persian baalaa above (from Middle Persian) + Hindi gaht pass. tableland above mountain passes. [ "balaghat." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Balcony: Etymology: balaakhana from Persian balaa = above + khana = house, upperhouse [ A Dictionary of English Etymology By Hensleigh Wedgwood http://books.google.com/books?id=Hp8FAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA97&lpg=PA97&dq=balcony+etymology+persian&source=web&ots=mEFC9CJGqy&sig=JNyFUQ6dd54GRieHznoC7kOFbcs] ;Baluchi: Etymology: Persian Baluch, Baluchi. an Indo-Iranian people blended from a mixture of the Veddoid type isolated in the Hadhramaut and of the Irano-Afghan type and located in Baluchistan in the southwestern part of Pakistan. [ "baluchi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Baluchistan: Etymology: from Baluchistan, country of western Asia, from Persian Baluchistaan. a rug in somber colors (as mulberry and deep blue) woven by nomad tribes in Baluchistan and especially Seistan. [ "baluchistan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Ban (title) : "governor of Croatia," from Serbo-Croat. ban "lord, master, ruler," from Persian baan (بان) "prince, lord, chief, governor""ban, n.2", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")] ;Barbican: possibly from Persian (khāneh "house")."barbican", OED] ;Barsom: Etymology: Persian barsam, from Middle Persian barsum, from Avestan barsman. a bundle of sacred twigs or metal rods used by priests in Zoroastrian ceremonies. [ "barsom." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Bas: Etymology: Hindi bas, from Persian. The word means Enough, Stop. [ "bas." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Bazaar : from Persian بازار "bāzār" (="market"), from Middle-Persian "bahâ-zâr" ("The Place of Prices")."bazaar", OED] ;Bazigar: Etymology: Hindi bazigar, from Persian. literally means a player and it refers to a gypsylike nomadic Muslim people in India. [ "bazigar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Bedeguar: Etymology: Middle French bedegard, from Persian baadaaward. gall like a moss produced on rosebushes (as the sweetbrier or eglantine) by a gall wasp (Rhodites rosae or related species) [ "bedeguar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Begar: Etymology: Hindi begaar, from Persian bi-kaar. Meaning without work, forced labor. [ "begar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Begari: Etymology: Hindi begaar, from Persian. Meaning a person without work, a forced laborer. [ "begari." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Beige: Etymology: French, perhaps from Italian bambagia cotton, from Medieval Latin bambac-, bambax, from Middle Greek bambak-, bambax, probably from a Turkish word represented now by Turkish pamuk cotton, probably of Persian origin; akin to Persian pamba cotton. cloth (as dress goods) made of natural undyed wool. a variable color averaging light grayish yellowish brown. a pale to grayish yellow. [ "beige." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (14 Sep. 2006). ] "beige" /bazh/ may derive from "camBYSES" (Gk. "byssos" fine cloth, "bysses.byses" fine threads. Persian princes' robe)Belleric: Etymology: French, from Arabic balilaj, from Persian balilah. the fruit of the bahera. compare to MYROBALAN. [ "belleric." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Bellum: Etymology: modification of Persian balam. a Persian-gulf boat holding about eight persons and propelled by paddles or poles. [ "bellum." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Benami: Etymology: Hindi benaam, from Persian banaam in the name of + i. made, held, done, or transacted in the name of. [ "benami." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Bezoar : from "pād-zahr" (پادزهر) antidote. Also used in the following words BEZOAR, ORIENTAL BEZOAR, PHYTOBEZOAR, TRICHOBEZOAR, WESTERN BEZOAR. any of various concretions found in the alimentary organs (especially of certain ruminants) formerly believed to possess magical properties and used in the Orient as a medicine or pigment --"bezoar", OED] [ "bezoar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (14 Sep. 2006). ] ;Bheesty : Etymology: from Persian bihisht heavenly one. India : a water carrier especially of a household or a regiment. [ "bheesty." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Bhumidar : Etymology: Hindi bhumidar, from bhumi earth, land (from Sanskrit also Persian Bumi and Old Persian Bum) + dar holder (from Persian). India : a landholder having full title to his land. [ "bhumidar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Bibi : Etymology: Hindi bibi, from Persian. [ "bibi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Bildar : Etymology: Hindi beldar, from Persian bildaar, from bil spade + -dar holder. Digger, Excavator. [ "bildar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Biryani : Etymology: Hindi, or Urdu biryaan from Persian beryaan. roasted, grilled. Also an Indian dish containing meat, fish, or vegetables and rice flavored with saffron or turmeric. [ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?r=2&q=biryani] ] [ "biryani." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Bobachee : Etymology: Hindi babarchi, from Persian baawarchi. India : a male cook [ "bobachee." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Bombast : Etymology: modification of Middle French bombace, from Medieval Latin bombac-, bombax cotton, alteration of Latin bombyc-, bombyx silkworm, silk, from Greek bombyk-, bombyx silkworm, silk garment, probably of Persian origin; akin to Persian pamba cotton. 1) obsolete : cotton or any soft fibrous material used as padding or stuffing 2) a pretentious inflated style of speech or writing. [ "bombast." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Borax : Etymology: from Persian "burah". the best-known sodium borate Na2B4O7.10H2O [ "borax." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] "borax", OED] ;Bostanji : Turkish bostanci, literally, gardener, from bostan garden, from Persian bustaan flower or herb garden, from bo fragrance + -stan place. one of the imperial guards of Turkey whose duties include protecting the palace and its grounds, rowing the sultan's barge, and acting as imperial gardeners [ "bostanji." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Bronze : Etymology : Perhaps ultimately from Pers. birinj "copper.". [ Online Etymological Dictionary http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=bronze ] ;Brinjal : Etymology: from Persian badingaan, probably from Sanskrit vaatingana. Eggplant. [ "brinjal." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Buckshee : Etymology: Hindi bakhsis, from Persian bakhshish. [ "buckshee." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Budmash : Etymology: Persian badma'sh immoral, from bad bad (from Middle Persian vat) + ma'sh (Arabic) living, life. India : a bad character : a worthless person. [ "budmash." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Bukshi : Etymology: Persian bakhshi, literally, giver, from bakhshidan to give. India: a military paymaster. [ "bukshi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;bulbul : Etymology: Persian originally borrowed from Arabic. a Persian songbird frequently mentioned in poetry that is a nightingale. a maker or singer of sweet songs. [ "bulbul." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Bund : Etymology: Hindi band, from Persian. An embankment used especially in India to control the flow of water. [ "bund." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Bunder Boat : Etymology: Hindi bandar harbor, landing-place, from Persian. a coastal and harbor boat in the Far East. [ "bunder boat." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Bundobust : Etymology: Hindi band-o-bast, literally, tying and binding, from Persian. India : arrangement or settlement of details. [ "bundobust." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Burka : Etymology: Russian, probably from buryi dark brown (of a horse), probably of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish bur red like a fox; the Turkic word probably from Persian bur reddish brown; [ "burka." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Burkundaz : Etymology: Hindi barqandz, from Persian, from barq lightning (from Arabic) + andz thrower. an armed guard or policeman of 18th and 19th century India. [ "burkundaz." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Buzkashi : from Persian buz "goat" + kashi "dragging""buzkashi", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")]

C

;Caftan : Etymology: Russian kaftan, from Turkish, from Persian qaftan. an ankle-length coatlike garment, usually of cotton or silk, often striped, with very long sleeves and a sash fastening, common throughout the Levant. [ "caftan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Calabash : possibly from Persian "kharabuz", "Kharbuzeh" (خربزه) melon."calabash", OED] ;Calean : Etymology: Persian qalyaan. a Persian water pipe. [ "calean." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Calender : Etymology: Persian qalandar, from Arabic, from Persian kalandar uncouth man. one of a Sufic order of wandering mendicant dervishes. [ "calender." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Camaca: Etymology: Middle English, from Middle French camocas or Medieval Latin camoca, from Arabic & Persian kamkha, kimkha. a medieval fabric prob. of silk and camel's hair used for draperies and garments. [ "camaca." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Candy: from Arabic "qandi" "candied," derived from Persian "qand", meaning "sugar." "candy", OED http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=candy] ;Carafe :from Arabic "gharafa" (قرافه), "to pour"; or from Persian "qarabah", (قرابه) "a large flagon""carafe", OED] ;Caravan : Etymology: Italian caravana, carovana, from Persian kārawān. a company of travelers, pilgrims, or merchants on a long journey through desert or hostile regions : a train of pack animals. [ "caravan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Caravansary: Etymology: modification of Persian kārwānsarā, from kārwān caravan + sarā palace, large house, inn; an inn in eastern countries where caravans rest at night that is commonly a large bare building surrounding a court. [ "caravansary." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Carcass: Etymology: Etymology: Middle French carcasse, alteration of Old French carcois, perhaps from carquois, carquais quiver, alteration of tarquais, from Medieval Latin tarcasius, from Arabic tarkash, from Persian tirkash, from tir arrow (from Old Persian tigra pointed) + -kash bearing (from kashdan to pull, draw, from Avestan karsh-); [ "carcass." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Carcoon: Etymology: Marathi kaarkun, from Persian kaarkon manager, from kaar work, business + -kon doer. India : CLERK. [ "carcoon." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Cash: Etymology: from Sanskrit karsa, a weight of gold or silver but akin to Old Persian karsha-, a weight. a unit of value equivalent to one cash coin. [ "cash." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Cassock : Etymology: Middle French casaque, from Persian kazhaghand padded jacket, from kazh, kaj raw silk + aaghand stuffed. a long loose coat or gown formerly worn by men and women."cassock", OED] [ "cassock." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. ] ;Caviar : from Fr. caviar, from It. or Turk., from Pers. khaviyar (خاویار), from khaya "egg"+ dar "bearing, holder". [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=caviar&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary ] ] [ Etymological Online Dictionary [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=caviar] ] ;Ceterach : Medieval Latin ceterah, from Arabic shtaraj, from Persian shitarakh. A small genus of mainly Old World ferns (family Polypodiaceae) typified by the scale fern [ "ceterach." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Chador : Hindi caddar, from Persian chaddar. a large cloth used as a combination head covering, veil, and shawl usually by women among Muslim and Hindu peoples especially in India and Iran. [ "chador." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (4 Oct. 2006). ] ;Chakar : Hindi chakor, from Persian chaker. India : a person in domestic service : SERVANT; also : a clerical worker. [ "chakar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Chakari: From Chakar. India : domestic or more commonly clerical service. [ "chakari." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Chakdar: From Panjabi chakdar, from chak tenure (from Sanskrit cakra) + Persian -dar having. a native land tenant of India intermediate in position between the proprietor and cultivator. [ "chakdar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Chalaza: Old Slavic zledica frozen rain, Persian zhaala hail. Either of a pair of spiral bands of thickened albuminous substance in the white of a bird's egg that extend out from opposite sides of the yolk to the ends of the egg and are there attached to the lining membrane. [ "chalaza." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Chappow: Persian Chapu pillage or Chapaul raid. Word is Mongolian in Origin. Pillage/Raid. [ "chappow." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Charka: Hindi carkha, from Persian charkha, charkh wheel, from Middle Persian chark; akin to Avestan chaxra- wheel, Sanskrit cakra. Wheel. a domestic spinning wheel used in India chiefly for cotton. [ "charka." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (4 Oct. 2006). ] ;Charpoy: From Persian Char-pai. Literally meaning four-footed. a bed consisting of a frame strung with tapes or light rope used especially in India. [ "charpoy." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Chawbuck: Hindi cabuk, from Persian chabuk archaic, chiefly India : a large whip. [ "chawbuck." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (4 Oct. 2006). ] ;Check(and Cheque) :check (cheque)(n.) from O.Fr. eschequier "a check at chess," from eschec, from V.L. *scaccus, from shah "king," the principal piece in a chess game (see shah). 1st Sassanid Empire. When the king is in check a player's choices are limited. Meaning widened from chess to general sense of "adverse event, sudden stoppage" and by c.1700 to (from Persian 'chek' (چك)"a token used to check against loss or theft" (surviving in hat check) and "a check against forgery or alteration," which gave the modern financial use of "bank check, money draft" (first recorded 1798), probably influenced by exchequeur. Check-up "careful examination" is 1921, American English, on notion of a checklist of things to be examined."check, int. and n.1", OED] [ "check." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Checkmate: from Middle French "eschec mat", from Persian "shâh mât" (="the King cannot escape")"checkmate, int. and n.", OED] [ "checkmate." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Chess: from Russian "Shach", from Persian "shah" ("the King"), an abbreviation of Shâh-mât (Checkmate)."chess, n.1", OED] ;Cheyney: Etymology: probably from Persian chini literally meaning Chinese. a woolen fabric in use during the 17th and 18th centuries. [ "cheyney." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Chick: Hindi ciq, from Persian chiq. a screen used in India and southeast Asia especially for a doorway and constructed of bamboo slips loosely bound by vertical strings and often painted. [ "chick." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (4 Oct. 2006). ] ;Chillum: Etymology: Hindi cilam, from Persian chilam. [ "chillum." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Chilamchi: Etymology: Hindi cilamci, from Persian chilamchi. India : a metal wash basin. [ "chillumchee." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (4 Oct. 2006). ] ;China: Modification (influenced by China, the country) of Persian chn(Chinese) porcelain. [ "china." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Chinar: Hindi chinar, from Persian chanar. A type of Oriental Tree. [ "chinar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Chobdar: Hindi cobdar. From Persian chubar. from chub, chub staff, wood (from Middle Persian chup wood) + -dar having. [ chobdar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Cinnabar : probably from Persian "zanjifrah""cinnabar", OED] ;Coomb: Middle English combe, from Old English cumb, a liquid measure; akin to Middle Low German kump bowl, vessel, Middle High German kumpf bowl, Persian gumbed(Gonbad). an English unit of capacity equal to 4 imperial bushels or 4.13 United States bushels. [ "coomb." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Culgee; Etymology: Hindi kalg, from Persian kalgi jeweled plume. a jeweled plume worn in India on the turban. [ "culgee." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Cummerbund : from Hindi "kamarband" (كمربند), from Persian, from kamar (="waist") + band (="band")"cummerbund", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")] ;Cushy : modification of Hindi khush pleasant, from Persian khush. [ "cushy." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

D

;Daeva: daeva, deva from Avestan daevo; dev from Persian deev. Zoroastrianism : a maleficent supernatural being : an evil spirit. [ "daeva." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;dafadar: From Persian Daf'adaar. from Arabic daf'ah time, turn + Persian -dar holder. [ a noncommissioned officer in the former Indian army or police ] ;Daftar: Hindi, record, office, from Persian Daftar, from Arabic daftar, diftar, from Greek diphthera prepared hide, parchment, leather. [ "daftar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Daftardar: Etymology: Hindi daftardar, from Persian, finance officer, from daftar + -dar holder. [ "daftardar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Dakhma: Etymology: Persian, from Middle Persian dakhmak, from Avestan daxma- funeral place. [ "dakhma." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Daroga: Etymology: Hindi daroga, from Persian daaroga. India : a chief officer; especially : the head of a police, customs, or excise station. [ "daroga." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Darvesh: Persian darvish. [ "darvesh." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (4 Oct. 2006).] ;Darzi: Hindi darzi, from Persian Darzi. A tailor or an urban caste of tailors in Hindu society in India. [ "darzi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Das: Sanskrit daasa demon, enemy, infidel, slave; probably akin to Persian daah servant, Avestan dahyn-, dainhu-, danghu- land, Old Persian dahyn- land, province, Sanskrit dasyu demon, barbarian. a Hindu slave or servant. [ "das." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Dastur: Hindi dastur custom, from Persian Dastur. customary fee. [ "dastur." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Dastur: From Persian Dastur. a Parsi high priest. [ "dastur." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Dasturi: Hindi Dasturi from Persian Dastur. Gratuity. [ "dasturi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Defterdar: Turkish, from Persian daftardar finance officer. a Turkish government officer of finance; specifically : the accountant general of a province. [ "defterdar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Dehwar: Persian dehwar=Dih(land)+war (having possession of). : a member of the Dehwar racial type usually having the status of a laborer or slave. [ "dehwar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]
* del , delta heart, in Persian language;Dervish : from Persian Darvish Middle Persian Darweesh. a member of any Muslim religious fraternity of monks or mendicants noted for its forms of devotional exercises"dervish", OED] [ "dervish." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Dewan: Etymology: Hindi diwan, from Persian, account book. [ "dewan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Demitasse : from Fr., lit. "half-cup," from demi- + tasse, an O.Fr. borrowing from Arabic tassah, from Pers. "tasht" "cup, saucer".;Div: See the Entry Daeva above. [ "div." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Divan: from Persian "dēvān" (="place of assembly", "roster"), from Old Persian "dipi" (="writing, document") + "vahanam" (="house")"divan", OED] [ "divan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Doab: Etymology: Persian doab, from do two (from Middle Persian) + -ab water. a tract of land between two rivers : INTERFLUVE. [ "doab." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Dogana: Etymology: from Persian, account book. an Italian customhouse. [ "dogana." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Douane: Etymology: from Persian Divan. CUSTOMHOUSE. [ "douane." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Dubber: Etymology: from Persian Dabba. a large globular leather bottle used in India to hold ghee, oil, or other liquid. [ "dubber." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Duftery: Etymology: from Dafter (Record)+i. A servant in an office whose duty is to dust and bind records, rule paper, make envelopes. An office boy. [ "duftery." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Dumba: Etymology: Persian, from dumb tail. a fat-tailed sheep of Bokhara and the Kirghiz steppe that furnishes astrakhan. [ "dumba." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Durbar: Etymology: Persian, from dar door + baar door, admission, audience. admission, audience of the King. [ "durbar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Durwan: Etymology: Persian darwan, from dar door (from Middle Persian, from Old Persian duvar-) + Persian -wan keeping, guarding. [ "durwan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Dustuck: Etymology: Hindi dastak, from Persian Dastak (handle, related to hand). [ "dustuck." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

E

;Emblic: New Latin emblica, from Arabic amlaj, from Persian aamlah. an East Indian tree (Phyllanthus emblica) used with other myrobalans for tanning. ["emblic." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

;Enamdar: Hindi in'aamdaar, from Persian, from ina'm (originally Arabic meaning Gift) + -dar holder. the holder of an enam (Gifts). [ "enamdar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

;Euphrates: From OLd Persian "Ufratu" "Good to cross over"

F

;Farsakh : Arabic Farsakh from Persian Farsang - فرسنگ - . a Persian metric unit equal to 10 kilometers or 6.21 miles. [ "farsakh." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Farsi : - فارسی - the name for Persian in Arabic. Standard Arabic lacks the /p/ phoneme, as a result, the Arabs who invaded Persia slowly began to refer to the language and the people as "Farsi", rather than "Parsi"."Farsi, n. (a.)", OED] [ "farsi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Faujdar : Hindi Fawjdaar from Persian, from Arabic Fawj Host (troops) + Persian daar (holder). petty officer (as one in charge of police). [ "faujdar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Faujdari: from Persian, from fawjdar. a criminal court in India. [ "faujdari." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Ferghan: from Persian Ferghana. a region in Central Asia. a usually small heavy Persian rug chiefly of cotton having usually a web and a fringed end, a deep blue or rose field with an all over herati sometimes guli hinnai design and a main border with a turtle design, and being highly prized if antique. [ "feraghan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Feringhee : from Persian 'Farangi'- فرنگی - : from the word Frankish: a person from Europe. The first encounter with Western Europe was during Charlemagne who was King of Franks. From that time the word Farangi means European, especially Western European. Also after the first Crusade this word appeared frequently in Persian and Arabic literature. (in Arabic as 'Faranji' because they could not pronounce /g/) . The Ottoman Turks pronounced it as Feringhee."Feringhee", OED] ;Fers: Middle English, from Middle French fierce, from Arabic farzan, from Persian farzin. obsolete : a chess queen. [ "fers." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Fida'i: Arabic fida (sacrifice) plus Persian suffix 'i'. فدایی - a member of an Ismaili order of assassins known for their willingness to offer up their lives in order to carry out delegated assignments of murdering appointed victims. [ "fida'i." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Firman: from Persian ferman, - فرمان - from Old Persian framaanaa. a decree or mandate, order, license, or grant issued by the ruler of an Oriental country. [ "firman." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] "firman", OED]

G

;Gatch : from Persian گچ (Gach), a plaster used especially in Persian architectural ornamentation. ["gatch." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Ghee : from Persian grdan to mix;Galingale : from Persian خلنجان "khalanjan", a plant."galingale", OED] ;Gherkin : probably from Middle Persian angArah watermelon. a small oblong prickly cucumber of West Indian origin that is used chiefly for pickling -- called also bur gherkin [ "Gherkin." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Ghorkhar : from Persian گوره خر (Gureh Khar). a wild ass of northwestern India believed to be identical with the onager. ["ghorkhar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Giaour : from Pers. gaur, variant of gabr "fire-worshipper""giaour", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")] "Guebre", OED] ;Gigerium: from Latin gigeria, plural, entrails of fowl, perhaps of Iranian origin; akin to Persian jigar liver. [ "gigerium." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Gizzard: earlier gysard, alteration of gysar, from Middle English giser, gyser, from Old North French guisier liver (especially of a fowl), gizzard, modification of Latin gigeria (neuter plural) cooked entrails of poultry, perhaps of Iranian origin; akin to Persian jigar liver; ["gizzard." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Gul: Etymology: Persian Gol/Gul گل. Rose. ["gul." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Gulhinnai: Etymology: Persian guli hinna, from Persian gul flower, rose + Arabic hinna/henna. a Persian rug design consisting of a plant with central stem and attached star flowers. [ "guli hinnai." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. ] ;Gulmohar: Etymology: Hindi gulmohur, from Persian gul rose, flower + muhr seal, gold coin. ["gulmohar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.] ;Gunge: Etymology: Hindi gãj, of Iranian origin; akin to Persian ganj treasure. ["gunge." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Gymkhana: Etymology: probably modification (influenced by English gymnasium) of Hindi gend-khana racket court, from Persian khana house. a meet or festival featuring sports contests or athletic skills: as a : a horseback-riding meet featuring games and novelty contests (as musical chairs, potato spearing, bareback jumping). ["gymkhana." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com]

H

;Halalcor : Hindi halalkhor, from Persian, from Arabic halal + Persian khor eating. a person in Iran and India to whom any food is lawful. ["halalcor." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Havildar : Hindi hawaldar, from Arabic 'hawala' charge + Persian 'dar' having. a noncommissioned officer in the Indian army corresponding to a sergeant. [ "havildar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Hyleg : modification of Persian hailaj 'material body'. The astrological position of the planets at the time of birth [ "hyleg." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Hindi : Hind India, from Persian. literary language of northern India usually written in the Devanagari alphabet that is the official language of several states in India and is scheduled to become the official language of the republic. [ "Hindi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Hindu : from medieval Persian word Hindu (mod. Hendi), from ancient Avestan hendava ultimately from Sanskrit saindhava. "Indian""Hindu, Hindoo, n. and a.", OED] ["Hindu." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Hindustan : Hindi Hindustan, from Persian Hindustan (mod. Hendustan) India. ["Hindustani." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.] ;Hircarrah : Persian harkara, from har every, all (from Old Persian haruva-) + kaar work, deed, from Middle Persian, from Old Persian kar- to do, make. ["hircarrah." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Homa: hom from Persian hom, from Avestan haoma. a stylized tree pattern originating in Mesopotamia as a symbol of the tree of life and used especially in Persian textiles. [ "homa." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com]

I

;India: from Persian "Hind", from Sanskrit "Sindu", a river, in particular, the river Indus."India", OED] ;Iran: from Middle Persian Ir (Ary) + an (plural suffix) [ D. Mackenzie. Iran and Iranshahr in Encyclopedia Iranica [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v8f5/v8f545.html] ] ;Ispaghol: literally, horse's ear, from asp horse (from Middle Persian) + ghol ear. an Old World plantain (Plantago ovata) with mucilaginous seeds that are used in preparing a beverage. [ "ispaghul." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.]

J

;Jackal : from Persian "shaghāl", Any of several doglike mammals of the genus Canis of Africa and southern Asia that are mainly foragers feeding on plants, small animals, and occasionally carrion."jackal", OED] ["jackal." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.] ;Jagir : from Persian "Ja" (place) + "gir" (keeping, holding). a grant of the public revenues of a district in northern India or Pakistan to a person with power to collect and enjoy them and to administer the government in the district; [ Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.] ;Jama : from Persian Jama (garment). a long-sleeved cotton coat of at least knee length worn by men in northern India and Pakistan. Also used as suffix in the word Pajama. [ "jama." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Jasmine : from "yasmin", the name of a climbing plant with fragrant flowers."jasmine, -in, jessamine, -in", OED] ["jasmine." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.] ;Jemadar : Hindi jama'dar, jam'dar (influenced in meaning by Persian jam'at body of troops), from Arabic jam' collections, assemblage + Persian dar having. an officer in the army of India having a rank corresponding to that of lieutenant in the English army. any of several police or other officials of the government of India. [ "jemadar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Jezail : Persian jaza'il. a long heavy Afghan rifle . [ " Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. ] ;Jujube : Greek zizyphon, Persian zayzafun, an Asiatic tree with datelike fruit. [ "jujube." Online Etymology Dictionary, http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=jujube] ;Julep : from "gulab" (rose(gul)-water(ab))."julep", OED] ["julep." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.]

K

;Kabob : or kebab, possibly from Persian "kabab" کباب, or from identical forms in Arabic and Urdu"cabob", OED] ;Kabuli : : Persian kabuli, of or belonging to Kabul, Afghanistan. [ kabuli." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.] ;Kaftan : from Persian خفتان "khaftân"."caftan", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")] ;Kajawah: from Persian کجاوه (Kajavah/Kajawah). a pannier used in pairs on camels and mules especially in India . ["kajawah." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. ] ;Kala-Azar: from Hindi kala (black) + Persian āzār (disease, pain). a severe infectious disease chiefly of eastern and southern Asia that is marked by fever, progressive anemia, leukopenia, and enlargement of the spleen and liver and is caused by a flagellate (Leishmania donovani) which is transmitted by the bite of sand flies (genus Phlebotomus) and which proliferates in reticuloendothelial cells -- called also visceral leishmaniasis. [ "kala-azar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. ] ;Kamboh: Etymology: Unabridged Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines Kamboh as "a member of a low caste in the Punjab engaged chiefly in agriculture". [ "Kamboh." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002 ] [At the very outset, it is important to state that this definition of "Kamboh" by the Unabridged Merriam-Webster Dictionary is very defective and faulty. The term Kamboh or Kamboj refers to a well-known ancient Indo-Iranian Aryan tribe or clan, rather than to a caste term as the great Dictionary erroneously tries to define. Obviously, the person who contributed this definition to the Merriam Webster Dictionary group seems to be grossly ignorant and unknowledgeable about ancient Indian and Iranian history as well as about their tribal structure.] This definition of Webster for Kamboh is based on a Persian proverb, reportedly of modern origin, according to which, the Afghans, the Kambohs and the Kashmiris are all rogues. This proverb, though very popular, also has several versions, across the length and breadth of north-west region, some of which name the Sindis and/or the Jatts in place of Kambohs. [ :Agar kahat ul rijal uftad, azeshan uns kamgiri :Eke Afghan, doyam Kamboh soyam badzat Kashmiri| : (Roebuck’s Oriental Proverbs, Part I. p. 99).

Trans: Of the Afghan, Kamboh and rascal Kashmiri, all three are rogues (degraded people).

However, Richard F. Burton (Arabian Nights, Vol. 10, pp. 178-219) presents this proverb in the following form:

:Agar kaht-i-mardurn uftad, az ín sih jins kam gírí;:Eki Afghán, dovvum Sindí,siyyum badjins-i-Kashmírí:

Trans: Of the Afghan, Sindi and rascal Kashmiri, all three are rogues (degraded people).

:{Note that for "Kamboh, Richard F. Burton prsents Sindi. Others vary the saying ad libitum}

Yet, in another version of the same proverb, the three rogues stated are the Sindis, the Jats and the Kashmiris (See: Lady Burton, Arabian Nights, Vol IV, p 92; Also: Tribes and Castes of North-western Province and Oudh, p 120, William Crooke).] According to H. Blochman, this proverb is of recent origin since it was indeed a matter of honour to belong to the Kamboh lineage during the reigns of Mughal emperors like Akbar and Jahangir etc. [Aina-i-Akbari, Abu-al-Fazal, English Trans by H. Blochman, Part I, p 614 .] [ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1899, Govt. Central Press, p 14, Sir James MacNabb Campbell, Reginald Edward Enthoven.] [The Tribes and Castes of the north-western Provinces and Oudh, Vol III, p 120, William Crooke.] According to Encyclopedia Britannica, the Sayyids and the Kambohs, from among the Indians, were specially favored for high civil and military positions during muslim rule in India. [See: The Composition of the Mughal Nobility, Online Encyclopedia of Britannica; Mughal Nobility under Aurangzeb, 2002, p 21, M Athar Ali; Some Aspects of Afghan Despotism in India, 1969, pp 23, 59, Iqtidar Hussain Siddiqui; Medieval India, A Miscellany, 1969, p 154, Aligar University Department of History, Center of Advanced Studies; cf: Cultural History of India, 1975, p 261, prof A. L. Basham; See also quote in: Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1899, Govt. Central Press, p 14, Sir James MacNabb Campbell, Reginald Edward Enthoven.]

:The Kambohs are modern representatives of ancient Kambojas (q.v.), [ See: "An Inquiry into the Ethnography of Afghanistan", 1891, pp. 2, 146, 150, H. W. Bellew; Literary History of Ancient India, 1952, p 165, Dr Chandra Chakraverty; Problems of Indian Society, 1968, p 69, Dr D. Bose; BHartiya Itihaas ki Mimamsa, p 230, Dr J. C. vidyalankar; Bani Kanta Kakati Memorial Lecturers , p 21, Gauhati University; India and the World, 1964, p 154, Dr Buddha Prakash; Geographical Data in Early Purana, A Critical Study, 1972, p 168, Dr M. R. Singh; Report on the Settlement of Land Revenue of Sultanpur Distt. (With) Accompaniement; 1873, p 88, A. F. Millet; Tribes of Ancient India, 1977, p 322, Dr M. Choudhury; Supplementary Glossary of Tribes, 1844, p 304, H. M. Ellot; The Tribes and Castes of North-western and Oudh, 1906, pp 119-120, 458, William Crooke; Early History of India, 1942, p 2, Roshan Rai; History of Poros, 1967, p 12, Dr Buddha Prakash; Kirata-Kriti: The Indo-Mongloloids, Their Contribution to History and Culture of India, 1974, p 113, Dr S. K. Chatterjee; cf: Indo-Aryans: contributions towards the elucidation of their ancient and mediæval history, 1881, p 187, Rājendralāla Mitra etc etc.] a famous Kshatriya (warrior) clan of Indo-Iranian affinities [See: Vedic index of names & subjects by Dr. Arthur Anthony Macdonnel, Dr Arthur. B Keath, I.84, p 138; Ethnology of Ancient Bhārata, 1970, p 107, Dr Ram Chandra Jain; The Journal of Asian Studies, 1956, p 384, Association for Asian Studies, Far Eastern Association (U.S.); Balocistān: siyāsī kashmakash, muz̤mirāt va rujḥānāt, 1989, p 2, Munīr Aḥmad Marrī; India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī, 1953, p 49, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala; Afghanistan, p 58, W. K. Fraser, M. C. Gillet; Afghanistan, its People, its Society, its Culture, Donal N. Wilber, 1962, p 80, 311 etc.] who find numerous references in ancient Sanskrit and Pali tesxts as well as in many ancient inscriptions, including those of king Ashoka. :Numerous Indologists have connected name Kamboja to royal name Cambyses or Kambujiya (q.v.) of the Old Persian Inscriptions. [See: Ramayana of Valmiki, Canto No VI, The King, p 14, fn 13:6, Ralph T. H. Griffth: i.e "Name Kamboja is etymologically connected with Cambyses which in the cuneiform inscription of Behistun is written Ka(m)bujia" ; "Der Name Kambyses (Kanbuji­ya)", ZII 2, 1923, pp. 140-52, Dr. J. Charpentier; "L'Inde aux temps des Maurya, p. 15 and 40". La Valle Poussin; "Early Zoroastrian, 2005, p 45", James Hope Moulton, Kessinger Publishing; "Ancient Kamboja, Iran and Islam, 1971, p 68-71", Dr H. W. Bailey; "Kyros, Beitrage zur Namen-forschung, II (1964), p 210," Dr. W. Eiler; "Aryan and Non-Aryan Names in Vedic India, Data for Linguistic situation, C 1900-500 BC, footnote 24", Dr Michael Witzel; "The Home of the Aryan, p 6, footnote 11", Dr Michael Witzel, Harvard University. Other prominent scholars include Dr C. Lassen, Dr. A. A. Macdonnel, Dr A. B. Keith, Dr G. Kuhn, Dr A Hoffman, Dr G. K. Nariman, Dr S. Levi, H. W. Bellew, Dr Markwart, Dr S. Sen, Dr D. R. Bhandarkar, Dr V. S. Aggarwala, Musa Khan Jalzai etc.]

:The Manusmriti, [ Manusmriti X.43-44.] and Indian epic Mahabharata [Mahabharata 13.23.20-23.] etc. attest that the Kambojas, Sakas, Pahlavas etc were "originally noble Kshatriyas", but on account of their defiance of Brahmanical authority and their refusal to follow Hindu rituals & codes of conduct, these foreign conquerors were socially punished by the wrathful Brahmananical clergy "who assigned them to a degenerate Kshatriya status (i.e. vrishaltam) in the Brahmanical caste system of India". [ See: Indian Caste, 2000, p 419, John Wilson; Ancient Indian Republics: From the Earliest Times to the 6th Century A.D., 1976, p 101, Shive Nandan Misra; Vikrama Volume, 1046,p 599, Vikramāditya Śakāri; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1841, p 426, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland; The Pāradas: A Study in Their Coinage and History , 1972, p 53, Bratindra Nath Mukherjee; Society and Religion: From Rigveda to Puranas, 1996, p 134, Jayant Gadkari; Hindu Superiority: An Attempt to Determine the Position of the Hindu Race in the Scale of Nations, 1922, p 158, Har Bilas Sarda.] [NOTE: "Vrishaltah "was an epithet used for the high caste Kshatriyas who had ceased to obsertve brahmanical codes and rituals stipulated in the Hindu Religious Books" (See: Chandragupta Mauriya, National Book Trust India, pp 57-58, Gopal Lalanji).] . Brahmanical text Harivamsa [ Harivamsa 14.1.19.] and numerous Puranas [Vishnu Purana 5.3.15-21, Vayu Purana 18.127-43, Brahma Purana 8.35-51, Brahamanda Purana 3.63.123-141; Shiva Purana 7.61.23; Vishnu Purana 5.3.15-21, Padama Purana 6.21.16-33 etc etc.] also attest that the Kambojas, Yavanas, Sakas, Pahlavas etc were originally "high-class Kshatriyas", but it was Vedic king Sagara, the ruler of Kosala, who had forbidden these invaders from performing "Svadhyayas" and "Vasatkaras" ("Vedic rituals") and thereby, divested them off their noble Kshatriya status, because these Kshatriyas had wrested Kosala kingdom from his father, king Bahu [ Ancient Indian Historical Traditions, p 268-69, Dr F. E. Pargiter.] . Harivamsa rather, describes these Kshatriya invaders as "Kshatriya pungavas" i, e "foremost among the Kshatriyas". Bhishama Parava of Mahabharata delineates the Kamboja lineage as a very high lineage [MBH 6.65.31-33.] . "Bombay Gazetteer" maintains that the Kambojas etc lost their original high Kshatriya status because of their famed staunchness to Buddhism over Brahmanism [ See: Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, 1901, pp 447-448, Sir James MacNabb Campbell, Reginald Edward Enthoven.] . Dr Romila Thapar maintains that the Kamboj etc clans lost their noble Kshatriya status because of their switching to republican constitution [A History of India, Vol I, p 51.] . :A section of Kambojas or Kambohs ruled in Saurashtra, Bengal, and also colonised Sri Lanka & Cambodia. See: Kamboja Colonists of Sri Lanka & Kambojas and Kambodia.;Karez: Etymology: kârez an underground irrigation tunnel bored horizontally into rock slopes in Baluchistan. a system of irrigation by underground tunnels. [ karez." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.] ;Kemancha: Etymology: from Persian Kamancheh. a violin popular in Middle East, Caucus and Central Asia. It has usually a single string and a gourd resonator and is held vertically when played. [ "kemancha." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. ] ;Kerana : Etymology: modification of Persian karranâi کرنای, from nâi, reed, reed pipe. a long Persian trumpet. ["kerana." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.] ;Kenaf : Etymology: Persian. a valuable fiber plant (Hibiscus cannabinus) of the East Indies now widespread in cultivation. [ "kenaf." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Khaki : from "khaki" (="made from soil", "dusty" or "of the colour of soil"), from "khak" (= "soil")"khaki", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")] ;Khakhsar : Etymology: Hindi khâksâr, from Persian khâkâsr خاکسار humble, probably from khâk dust + -sâr like. a member of a militant Muslim nationalist movement of India. [ "khaksar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.] ;Khan: Arabic khân, from Persian. (not to be confused by the Altaic Khan). a caravansary or rest house in some Asian countries . ["khan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. ] ;Khankah: Etymology: Hindi khânaqâh, from Persian khâna house + gâh place. [ "khankah." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Khidmatgar: from Arabic khidmah service + Persian -gar (suffix denoting possession or agency). In India: a male waiter ["khidmatgar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. ] ;Khoja: Etymology: originally from Persian khâwja خواجه. used as a title of respect. ["khoja." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Khuskhus: Etymology: Persian & Hindi khaskhas. an aromatic grass (Andropogon zizamoides) whose especially fragrant roots yield an oil used in perfumery and are also made into mats in tropical India -- called also vetiver. [khuskhus." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. ] ;Kincob: Etymology: Hindi kimkhab, kamkhwab, from Persian. an Indian brocade usually of gold or silver or both. ["kincob." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.] ;Kiosk : from "kushk" (="palace, portico, pavilion") or Middle Persian gōšak "corner""kiosk", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")] ["kiosk." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.] ;Koftgari: Hindi koftgar, from Persian koftgari, from koft blow, beating + -gar doing. Indian damascene work in which steel is inlaid with gold. ["koftgari." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Koh-i-noor : from Pers. koh کوه "mountain" + Arabic Noor (light)." famous diamond that became part of the British crown jewels after the annexation of Punjab by Great Britain in 1849, from Persian Kh-i-nr, literally, mountain of light"koh-i-noor", OED (marked as "not naturalized, alien")] ["koh-i-noor." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Kotwal : Hindi kotwal, from Persian. a chief police officer or town magistrate in India . [ kotwal. Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Kotwalee: Hindi kotwal, from Persian, from kotwalee. a police station in India. [ "kotwalee." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Kran: Persian qran. the basic monetary unit of Persia from 1826 to 1932. a silver coin representing one kran. ["kran." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Kurta : Hindi & Urdu kurta, from Persian kurtâ. a loose-fitting collarless shirt. ["kurta." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Kusti : Persian kusti, kushti, from kusht waist, side, from Middle Persian kust, kustak. the sacred cord or girdle worn by Parsis as a mark of their faith -- compare. [ "kusti." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com]

L

;Lac: Persian lak and Hindi lakh. Resinous substance secreted by the lac insect and used chiefly in the form of shellac. any of various plant or animal substances that yield hard coatings resembling lac and shellac. [ "lac." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Lamasery: French lamaserie, from lama + -serie (from Persian sarāi palace, large house). ["lamasery." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Larin: Etymology: Persian lārī. a piece of silver wire doubled over and sometimes twisted into the form of a fishhook that was formerly used as money in parts of Asia. ["larin." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Lascar: Urdu lashkarī < Pers, equiv. to lashkar army + -ī suffix of appurtenance] . an East Indian sailor. Anglo-Indian. an artilleryman. [Random House Unabridged Dictionary, Random House, Inc. 2006. [http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/lascar] ] ;Lasque: Etymology: perhaps from Persian lashk bit, piece. a flat thin diamond usually cut from an inferior stone and used especially in Hindu work . [lasque." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Leucothoe: legendary Persian princess supposed to have been changed by Apollo into a sweet-scented shrub. a large genus of American and Asiatic shrubs of the family Ericaceae with herbage that contains a poisonous substance similar to that found in shrubs of the genus Kalmia and with flowers in terminal and axillary one-sided racemes. ["leucothoe." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Lemon : Origin: 1350–1400; 1905–10 for def. 4; < ML lemōnium; r. ME lymon < ML līmō, (s. līmōn-) < Pers līmū, līmun. Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006. [Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.] . the yellowish, acid fruit of a subtropical citrus tree, Citrus limon. According to www.dictionary.com: "Although we know neither where the lemon was first grown nor when it first came to Europe, we know from its name that it came to us from the Middle East because we can trace its etymological path. One of the earliest occurrences of our word is found in a Middle English customs document of 1420-1421. The Middle English word limon goes back to Old French limon, showing that yet another delicacy passed into England through France. The Old French word probably came from Italian limone, another step on the route that leads back to the Arabic word laymūn or līmūn, which comes from the Persian word līmūn.";Lilac : from Pers. "lilak", variant of nilak "bluish," from nil "indigo""lilac", OED] ;Lungī: Hindi lungī, from Persian. a usually cotton cloth used especially in India, Pakistan, and Burma for articles of clothing (as sarongs, skirts, and turbans). ["lungi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Laari: Etymology: probably from Divehi (Indo-Aryan language of the Maldive Islands), from Persian lr piece of silver wire used as currency, from Lārī, town in S Persia where the currency was first minted. a Maldivian monetary unit equal to 1/100 rufiyaa. a coin representing one laari. ["laari." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

M

;Magic: Middle English magik, from Middle French magique, from Latin magicus, from Greek magikos, from magos magus, wizard, sorcerer (of Iranian origin; akin to Old Persian magush sorcerer). of or relating to the occult : supposedly having supernatural properties or powers ."magic." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Magus, magi : from "magus", from Old Persian "maguš" "mighty one", Priest of Zoroastrianism. A member of the Zoroastrian priestly caste of the Medes and Persians. Magus In the New Testament, one of the wise men from the East, traditionally held to be three, who traveled to Bethlehem to pay homage to the infant Jesus. "Magus", OED>] ;Malguzar : Hindi malguzar, from Arabic mal property, rent + Persian guzar payer. Equivalent to Malik in India. ["malguzar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.] ;Manichean: Latin Manichaeus member of the Manichean sect (from Late Greek Manichaios, from Manichaios Manes died ab276A.D. Persian sage who founded the sect) + English -an. of or relating to Manichaeism or the Manichaeans. characterized by or reflecting belief in Manichaeism. Manicheanism was founded by Mani. ["manichaean." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.] ;Manticore : from O. Pers. word for "man eater," cf. martiya- "man" + root of khvar- "to eat". a legendary animal having the head of a man often with horns, the body of a lion, and the tail of a dragon or scorpion."manticore", OED] ["manticore." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Markhor : Persian mār(snake)+khōr(eating), consuming (from khōrdan to eat, consume). a wild goat (Capra falconieri) of mountainous regions from Afghanistan to India. ["markhor." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Mazdak: Name of Persian reformer of Zoroastrian Faith.;Mazdakite: from Mazdak (of belonging to Mazda), 5th century A.D. Persian religious reformer + English ite. a member of the sect of Mazdak. ["mazdakite." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Mazdoor: Hindi mazdur, from Persian muzdur. an Indian laborer. ["mazdoor." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Mehmandar: Persian mihmāndār, from mihmān guest (from Middle Persian mehmān) + -dār holder. an official in India, Persia, or Afghanistan appointed to escort an ambassador or traveler . ["mehmandar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. ] ;Mehtar: Persian mihtar prince, greater, elder, from mih great (from Middle Persian meh, mas) + -tar, comparative suffix (from Middle Persian, from Old Persian -tara-). A groom [ "mehtar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Mesua: New Latin, from Johannes Mesuë (Arabic Yuhanna ibn-Masawayah) died 857 Persian Christian physician Masawayah in the service of the Caliph. a genus of tropical Asiatic trees (family Guttiferae) having large solitary flowers with a 2-celled ovary. ["mesua." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Mezereon: Middle English mizerion, from Medieval Latin mezereon, from Arabic mazariyun, from Persian. a small European shrub (Daphne mezereum) with fragrant lilac purple flowers that appear before the leaves, an acrid bark used in medicine, and a scarlet fruit sometimes used as an adulterant of black pepper. ["mezereon." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Mirza: Persian mirza, literally, son of a lord. a common title of honor in Persia prefixed to the surname of a person of distinction. ["mirza." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Mithra: from the name of the Persian God Mithra."mithras", OED] ;Mithraeum: from Persian Mithra"Mithraeum", OED] ;Mithraism: from Persian Mithra"Mithraism", OED] ;Mobed: a Parsi priest. The word is cognate with Magian and Magus. [ "mobed." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Mogul : from "mughul" (="Mongolian")"Mogul, n.1 and a.", OED] ;Mohur: Hindi muhur, muhr gold coin, seal, from Persian muhr; an old gold coin of the Moguls that circulated in India from the 16th century. any one of several gold coins formerly issued by Indian states (as Bikaner, Gwalior, Hyderabad) and by Nepal and Tibet. ["mohur." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Mummy: Middle English mummie, from Middle French momie, from Medieval Latin mumia, from Arabic mumiyah mummy, bitumen, from Persian mum wax. a concoction formerly used as a medicament or drug containing powdered parts of a human or animal body. ["mummy." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.] ;Murra: Etymology: Latin, probably of Iranian origin like Greek morrhia murra; akin to Persian mori, muri little glass ball. a material thought to be of semiprecious stone or porcelain used to make costly vessels in ancient Rome. ["murra." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Musk : ultimately from Middle Persian "musk", from Sanskrit "muska" (="testicle") from diminutive of "mus" (="mouse"). a substance that has a penetrating persistent odor, that is obtained from a sac situated under the skin of the abdomen of the male musk deer, that when fresh in the pods is brown and unctuous and when dried is a grainy powder, that varies in quality according to the season and age of the animal, and that is used chiefly in the form of a tincture as a fixative in perfumes"musk, "n.", OED] ["musk." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. ] ;Musth : Hindi mast intoxicated, ruttish, from Persian mast; akin to Sanskrit madati he rejoices, is drunk . a periodic state of murderous frenzy of the bull elephant usually connected with the rutting season and marked by the exudation of a dark brown odorous ichor from tiny holes above the eyes- on must also in must : in a state of belligerent fury -- used of the bull elephant. ["musth." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Mussulman : from Persinan musulman (adj.), from Arabic Muslim (q.v.) + Persian adj. suffix -an."Mussulman, "n." and "a.", OED]

N

;Nakhuda : Etymology: Persian nākhudā, from nāv boat (from Old Persian) + khudā master, from Middle Persian khutāi. a master of a native vessel. ["nakhoda." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Namaz : Etymology: Persian namāz. akin to Sanskrit namas obeisance . Islamic worship or prayer. [namaz." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Naphtha : Latin, from Greek, of Iranian origin; akin to Avestan napta moist, Persian neft naphtha; from Persian "naft" "naphtha". perhaps akin to Greek nephos cloud, mist. petroleum especially when occurring in any of its more volatile varieties. [naphtha." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Nargil: Origin: 1830–40; < Turk nargile < Pers nārgīleh, deriv. of nārgīl coconut, from which the bowl was formerly made. ["nargil." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. ] [Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.] ;Nauruz: Persian nauruz. literally, new day, from nau new + ruz. the Persian New Year's Day celebrated at the vernal equinox as a day of great festivity. [nauruz." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Nay: Etymology: Arabic nay, from Persian. a vertical end-blown flute of ancient origin used in Muslim lands . ["nay." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Neftgil: Etymology: German, from Persian naftdagil naphtha clay ["neftgil." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Numdah: Etymology: Hindi namda, from Persian namad, from Middle Persian namat; akin to Avestan namata. "a thick felted rug of India and Persia usually made of pounded goat's hair and embroidered with bird or floral designs in colored wool yarn " ["numdah." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Naan: Etymology: Hindi + Urdu + Persian nan bread; Hindi + Urdu nan, from Persian nan; akin to Baluchi nayan bread, Sogdian nyny. a round or oblong flat leavened bread especially of the Indian subcontinent . ["naan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Nuristani: Etymology: Persian nuristan (Arabic Nur+Persian Istan(Place)), from Nuristan, region of northeastern Afghanistan. ["nuristani." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] [ Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.]

O

;orange : from Milanese "narans", from Arabic "nāranj", from Persian "nārang", from Sanskrit "nāraṅga", from some Dravidian language, possibly Tamil or Malayalam"orange, "n.1" and "a.1", OED]

P

;Padishah: Origin: 1605–15; < Pers (poetical form), equiv. to pādi- (earlier pati) lord + shāh. More on Etymology:Persian pādishah, from Middle Persian pātakhshah, from Old Persian pati + xshay- to rule; akin to Avestan xshayeti. great king; emperor (a title applied esp. formerly to the shah of Iran, the sultan of Turkey, and to the British sovereign as emperor in India). [.1) Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006] [padishah." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Pagoda : via Portuguese pagode, from a corruption of Pers. "butkada", from "but" "idol" + "kada" "dwelling." [Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.] ;Pahlavi : Etymology: Middle Persian "Pahlavi". The Middle Persian language of Sassanid Persia. a script used for writing Pahlavi and other Middle Iranian languages. ["pahlavi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Pajama: from Hindi "paajaama", from Persian "pāë (pāÿ) jāmah", from "pAy" (="leg") + "jAma" (="garment"). of, pertaining to, or resembling pajamas: a pajama top; a lounging outfit with pajama pants ["pajama." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.] [The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition] [Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.] ;Paneer: Hindi & Urdu panir, from Persian (Cheese). a soft uncured Indian cheese . ["paneer." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Papoosh: earlier papouch, from French, from Persian pāpush. BABOUCHE . [papoosh." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Para: Etymology: Turkish, from Persian pārah. a Turkish monetary unit equal in modern Turkey to 1/4000 of a lira. any one of several units of value formerly used in countries at one time under the Turkish Empire. ["para." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Paradise : from Greek "paradeisos" (=enclosed park"), from the Avestan word "pairidaeza" (a walled enclosure), which is a compound of "pairi-" (around), a cognate of the Greek "polytonic|περί" "peri-," and "-diz" (to create, make), a cognate of the English "dough". An associated word is the Sanskrit word "paradesha" which literally means "supreme country". [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/Paradise Paradise - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary ] ] [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=paradise Online Etymology Dictionary ] ] ;Parasang : Latin parasanga, from Greek parasanges, of Iranian origin; akin to Persian farsung parasang: any of various Persian units of distance; especially : an ancient unit of about four miles (six kilometers) [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/Parasang Parasang - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary ] ] [parasang." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] [The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition] ;Pargana : Etymology: Hindi pargana, from Persian. a group of towns in India constituting an administrative subdivision of the zillah. ["pargana." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Parsee : Etymology: from O.Pers. parsi "Persian." In M.E., Parsees from "Pârsi". Meaning Persian. Also Zoroastrian of India descended from Persian refugees fleeing Islam in the 7th century and settling principally at Bombay [ Online Etymological Dictionary http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Parsee ] ["parsi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Parthia :from Latin< Old Persian "parthava-", variant form of the stem "Parsa-", from which Persia derives [Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006] ;Parthian : see Parthia;Parting Shot : from "Parthian Shot", originally a reference to the Parthian tactic of firing arrows at the enemy even when retreating. It has come to mean a verbal salvo given by the person leaving the area.;Pasar: : Malay, from Persian bāzār. See bazar. an Indonesian public market . ["pasar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Pasha : Turkish paşa possibly from Persian pādshāh; see Padishah. [The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition] ;Pashm : Etymology: pashm, pashim from Persian pashm wool; pashmina from Persian pashmn woolen, from pashm. the under fleece of upland goats of Kashmir and the Punjab that was formerly used locally for the production of rugs and shawls but is now largely exported. ["pashm." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Pashmina : from "Pashmineh", made from pashm; pashm (= "wool"). the fine woolly underhair of goats raised in northern India. [ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/Pashmina Webster's New Millennium Dictionary of English, Preview Edition (v 0.9.6)Copyright © 2003-2005 Lexico Publishing Group, LLC ] ;Pashto: Persian pashtu, from Afghan. According to Morgenstein the word is akin to Parthava, Persian, Pahlav. The Iranian language of Pathan people and the chief vernacular of eastern Afghanistan, North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan, and northern Baluchistan [pashto." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (11 Apr. 2007).] ;Peach : a corruption of the Latin word "Persicum." Peaches are called in Latin "malum Persicum" (Persian apple) "prunum persicum" (Persian plum), or simply "persicum" (pl. "persici"). This should not be confused with the more modern Linnaean classification "Prunus persica", a neologism describing the peach tree itself (from the Latin prunus, -i which signifies "plum tree").peach, OED.] ["peach." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Percale: Persian pargālah. a firm smooth cotton cloth closely woven in plain weave and variously finished for clothing, sheeting, and industrial uses . ["percale." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Percaline: French, from percale (from Persian pargālah) + -ine. a lightweight cotton fabric made in plain weave, given various finishes (as glazing, moiré), and used especially for clothing and linings; especially : a glossy fabric usually of one color used for bookbindings. ["percaline." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Peri : Persian peri fairy, genius, from Middle Persian parik. Persian folklore : a male or female supernatural being like an elf or fairy but formed of fire, descended from fallen angels and excluded from paradise until penance is accomplished, and originally regarded as evil but later as benevolent and beautiful . Also a beautiful and graceful girl or woman . ["peri." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Persepolis : from "Pârsa"+ Greek "polis".;Persia: from Old Persian Pârsa ;Persis : from Old Persian Pârsa;Peshwa: Hindi & Marathi pesva, from Persian peshwa leader, guide, from pesh before. the chief minister of a Maratha prince . ["peshwa." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Pilaf Origin: 1925–30; < Turk pilâv < Pers pilāw. a Middle Eastern dish consisting of sautéed, seasoned rice steamed in bouillon, sometimes with poultry, meat or shellfish. [Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006.] ;Pir : Etymology: Persian Pir (Old Man). a religious instructor, esp. in mystical sects. [ Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.0.1)Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006. [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=pir] ] ["pir." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Pistachio : from Latin "pistācium", from Greek "πιστάκιον", from Persian "pistah". small tree (Pistacia vera) of southern Europe and Asia Minor having leaves with 3 to 5 broad leaflets, greenish brown paniculate flowers, and a large fruit. the edible green seed of the pistachio tree . ["pistachio." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Posteen: Persian pustin of leather, from pust skin, from Middle Persian. an Afghan pelisse made of leather with the fleece on. [posteen." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Popinjay : from O.Fr. papegai (12c.), from Sp. papagayo, from Ar. babagha', from Pers. babgha "parrot,";Prophet Flower: translation of Persian guli paighmbar flower of the Prophet (Muhammad died A.D.632 Arabian prophet and founder of Islam). an East Indian perennial herb (Arnebia echioides) having yellow flowers marked with five spots that fade after a few hours; also : a related annual [ "prophet flower." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. ] ;Punjab : via Hindi Panjab, from Pers. panj "five" + ab "water.". of or relating to the Punjab or its inhabitants. [Punjabi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Purwannah: Hindi parwana, from Persian. a written pass or permit. ["purwannah." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Pyke: Hindi pāyik, pāyak messenger, from Persian dialect England : a civilian at whose expense a soldier is treated or entertained. ["pyke." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ]

R

;rank : from Persian "rang" meaning "color", as the Sassanid army was ranked and dressed by color [ Heritage of Persia, Richard Nelson Frye, Professor of Iranian Hravard University, 1963 The World Publishing Company ] ;roc : from Persian "rukh" (name of a legendary bird);rook : from Middle English "rok", from Middle French "roc", from Arabic "rukhkh", from Persian رخ "rukh" (=chess piece) [rook." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;rose : from Latin "rosa", probably from ancient Greek "rhodon", possibly ult. from Pers. *varda-. [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=Persia&searchmode=none Zie] . ["rose." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;roxanne : fem. proper name, from Fr., from L. Roxane, from Gk. Rhoxane, of Pers. origin (cf. Avestan raoxšna- "shining, bright"). [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=roxanne&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary ] ]

;Sabzi: Etymology: Hindi sabz, literally, greenness, from Persian. a green vegetable [ "sabzi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Saffian: Etymology: Russian saf'yan, from Turkish sahtiyan, from Persian sakhtiyn goatskin, from sakht hard, strong. a leather made of goatskins or sheepskins tanned with sumac and dyed with bright colors. [ "saffian." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Samosa: Etymology: Hindi samosa from Persian sambusa. a small triangular pastry filled with spiced meat or vegetables and fried in ghee or oil [ "samosa." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Sandal: Etymology: Arabic sandal, from Persian sandal skiff. [ "sandal." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Saoshyat: Etymology: Avestan, savior. one of three deliverers of later Zoroastrian eschatology appearing at thousand year intervals and each inaugurating a new order of things and a special period of human progress. ["saoshyant." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com] ;Sapindales : from Persian Spand (اسپند);Sarangousty: Etymology: Persian sar-angushti thin paste for painting the tips of fingers, from sari angusht fingertip, fromsar head + angusht finger, toe. stucco made waterproof for protection against dampness. [ "sarangousty." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 Sep. 2006). ] ;Sard from Persian زرد "Zard".;Sarod: Etymology: Hindi sarod, from Persian. [ "sarod." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 Sep. 2006).] ;Sarwan: Etymology: Persian saarbaan. a camel driver. [ "sarwan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Satrap: "governor of a province of ancient Persia", from Latin "satrapes", from Greek "satrapes", from Old Persian "kshathrapavan-", lit. "guardian of the realm," [ [Online Etymological Dictionary http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=satrap&searchmode=none] ] ;scarlet : from Pers. "saqalat" "a type of red cloth". a rich cloth of bright color. a vivid red that is yellower and slightly paler than apple red [ "scarlet." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Scimtar: Etymology: Middle French cimeterre, from Old Italian scimitarra, perhaps from Persian shamshir. a type of blade. [ "scimitar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. ] ;Sebesten: Etymology: Middle English, from Arabic sibistn, from Persian segpistan. an East Indian tree (Cordia myxa) with white flowers in loose terminal panicles. [ "sebesten." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Seer: Etymology: Hindi ser; perhaps akin to Persian seer. a unit of weight. [ "seer." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Seerpaw: Etymology: Sar(head)+paa(feet). head to foot. [ "seerpaw." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Seersucker : from Hindi sirsakar, E. Indian corruption of Pers. shir o shakkar "striped cloth," lit. "milk and sugar". [ "seersucker." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 Sep. 2006). ] ;Sepoy: Etymology: modification of Portuguese sipai, sipaio, from Hindi sipah, from Persian, horseman, soldier of the cavalry, from sipah army. a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power; especially : one serving in the British army. [ "sepoy." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Serai: Etymology: from Persian saraay, palace, mansion, inn. [ "serai." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 Sep. 2006). ] ;Seraglio : from "sarây" "inn" [Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.0.1) Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006. [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=Seraglio] ] ;Serang: Etymology: Persian sarhang commander, boatswain, from sar chief + hang authority. boatswain. the skipper of a small boat. [ "serang." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 Sep. 2006). ] ;Serdab: Persian sardab ice cellar, from sard cold + ab water. a living room in the basement of a house in the Near East that provides coolness during the summer months [ "serdab." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Serendipity : from the Persian fairy tale "The Three Princes of Serendip" "سه شاهزاده‌ى سرانديپ", from Persian "Sarandip" "سرانديپ"(="Sri Lanka"), ;Sesban: Etymology: French, from Arabic saisabaan, from Persian sisabaan. Either of two East Indian plants of the genus Sesbania (S. aculeata and S. aegyptiaca). [ "sesban." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Setwall: Etymology: from Persian zaadwar. [ "setwall." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Shabundar/Shabandar: Etymology: From Persian shahbandar, from shah King + bandar city, harbor. [ "shabunder." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 Sep. 2006). ] ;Shah : Etymology: from "shāh", from Old Persian "χšāyaþiya" (="king"), from an Old Persian verb meaning "to rule" [ "shah." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Shahi: Etymology: Persian shahi. a former Persian unit of value equal to 1/20 silver kran; also : a corresponding coin of silver or copper or nickel [ "shahi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 Sep. 2006). ] ;Shahidi: Etymology: Arabic Shahid (one who bears witness) + Persian suffix i. [ "shahidi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 Sep. 2006). ] ;Shahin: Etymology: Persiah Shahin (Falcon). an Indian falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinator) having the underparts of a plain unbarred ferruginous color, being related to the peregrine falcon, and used in falconry [ "shahin." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Shahzada: Etymology: Hindi shah-zada, from Persian, from shah king + zada son. The son of a Shah. [ "shahzada." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 Sep. 2006). ] ;shame:from SHARM in Persian language.;Shamiana: Etymology: Hindi shamiyana, from Persian shamyanah. a cloth canopy [ "shamiana." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Shawl : Etymology: from Persian "shāl". [ "shawl." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 Sep. 2006). ] ;Sherristar: Etymology: from Hindi sarrishtadr, from Persian sarrishta(sarreshteh) record office + daar having. Registrar. [ "sheristadar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 Sep. 2006). ] ;Sherry : According to one theory, it is from Jerez in Spain, which itself comes from Pers Shiraz during the time of Rustamid empire in Spain. [ A Sherry Primer By Darrin Siegfried [http://www.brooklynpapers.com/ads/redwhitebubbly/_vol29/29_34redwhite.html] ] The theory is also mentioned by Professor. T.B. Irving in one of his book reviews [ T. B. Irving, Journal of Islamic Studies 1990 1: 164-167 ] ;Sherryvallies: Etymology: modification of Polish szarawary, from Russian sharavary, from Greek sarabara loose trousers, probably of Iranian origin; akin to Persian shalwar, shulwar loose trousers. overalls or protective leggings of thick cloth or leather formerly worn for riding on horseback [ "sherryvallies." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Shikar: Etymology: Hindi sikar, from Persian shikaar, Middle Persian shkaar. The word means hunting. [ "shikar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (14 Sep. 2006).] ;Shikargah: Etymology: Hindi sikaargaah, from Persian shikrgaah, from shikaar hunting + -gah place. A grame preserve. [ "shikargah." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (14 Sep. 2006). ] ;Shikari: Etymology: From Persian Shikar+Persian suffix (i) denoting possession. a big game hunter. [ "shikari." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Shikasta: Etymology: Persian shikasta broken, from shikastan شكستن to break, from Middle Persian shikastan. [ "shikasta." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Shikra: Etymology: from Persian shikara bird trained to hunt. a small Indian hawk (Accipiter badius) sometimes used in falconry. [ "shikra." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Simurgh : Etymology: from Pers. simurgh, from Pahlavi sin "eagle" + murgh "bird." Cf. Avestan saeno merego "eagle," Skt. syenah "eagle," Arm. cin "kite.". a supernatural bird, rational and ancient, in Pers. mythology. [ Online Etymological Dictionary. [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=simurgh] ] ;Sipahis: See Spahi and Sepoy.;Sircar: Etymology: Hindi sarkaar, from Persian sarkaar. a district or province in India under the Mogul empire. the supreme authority . used also as a title of respect. in Bengal a domestic servant having the functions of a steward. [ "sircar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (14 Sep. 2006). ] ;Sitar : Etymology: via Hindi sitar, from Pers. sitar "three-stringed," from sih/seh "three" (O.Pers. thri-) + Persian. tar "string". an Indo-Iranian lute with a long broad neck and a varying number of strings whose various forms are used in Iran, Afghanistana and the Indian subcontinent. [ Online Etymological Dictionary http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=sitar] ] ;Softa : Etymology: Turkish, from Persian sukhtah burnt, kindled (with love of knowledge). [ "softa." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Sogdian : Etymology: Latin sogdianus, from Old Persian Sughuda. of, relating to, or characteristic of ancient Sogdiana. [ "sogdian." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Soorki:: Etymology: Hindi surkh, from Persian surkh, literally, redness, from surkh red, from Middle Persian sukhr; akin to Avestan suXra- bright, Sanskrit sukra [ "soorkee." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Sowar: Etymology: Persian suwar rider, from Middle Persian asbar, aspwar, from Old Persian asabra- horseman, from asa- horse + -bra- carried by, rider. a mounted orderly. Lancer. [ "sowar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Spahi: Etymology: Middle French spahi, from Turkish sipahi, from Persian سپاه from Pahlavi spāh, from Old Persian taxma spāda, from Avestan spādha, meaning army, military. one of a corps of Algerian native cavalry in the French army normally serving in Africa. one of a corps of largely irregular Turkish cavalry disbanded after the suppression of the Janissaries in 1826. [ "spahi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (14 Sep. 2006). ] Dehkhoda Dictionary ] ;Spinach : Etymology: Middle French espinache, espinage, from Old Spanish espinaca, from Arabic isbnakh, isfinaakh, from Persian aspanakh. [ "spinach." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;-Stan : meaning "land" or "country", source of place names such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, etc., from Pers. -stan "country," from Indo-Iranian *stanam "place," lit. "where one stands," [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=-stan Online Etymology Dictionary ] ] ;Subahdar: Etymology: Persian subadar, from suba province + -dar having, holding, from Old Persian dar- to hold. the chief native officer of a native company in the former British Indian army having a position about equivalent to that of captain [ "subahdar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Sugar : Etymology: The word is Sanskrit which is an Indo-Iranian language of the Indo-Aryan branch but Persian played a role in transmitting it. Middle English sugre, sucre, from Anglo-French sucre, from Medieval Latin saccharum, from Old Italian zucchero, from Arabic sukkar, from Pahlavi shakar, ultimately from Sanskrit sarkara [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/sugar sugar - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary ] ] ;Suclat: Etymology: Hindi suqlaa, from Persian saqalaat a rich cloth. In India any of various woolens; specifically European broadcloth. [ "suclat." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Surma: Etymology: Persian Surma. native antimony sulfide used in India to darken the eyelids. [ "surma." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Surnay: Etymology: Persian Surnaay. a Middle Eastern and Central Asian oboe. [ "surnay." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;syagush: Persian siyah-gush, literally, black ear. Caracal. [ "syagush." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Samosa: Etymology: Hindi samos & Urdu samosa, sambsa, from Persian sambusa. [ a small triangular pastry filled with spiced meat or vegetables and fried in ghee or oil ]

T

;Tabasheer: Etymology: Hindi tabshr, from Persian. a siliceous concretion in the joints of the bamboo valued in the East Indies as a medicine. [ "tabasheer." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Tabor: Etymology: Middle English tabur, from Old French, alteration of tambur. See tambour. [ Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.0.1)Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006. http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=tabor ] ;Taffeta : Etymology: from Persian taftah meaning woven. [ "taffeta." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Tahsildar: Etymology: Hindi tahsildar, from Persian, from Arabic tahsil + Persian -dar. a revenue officer in India. [ "tahsildar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Taj: Etymology: Arabic taj, from Persian taj, crown, crest, cap. a cap worn in Muslim countries; especially : a tall cone-shaped cap worn by dervishes. [ "taj." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Taj Mahal : from Pers., lit. "the best of buildings;" or "the Crown's Place".;Tajikistan : Tajik combined with Persian suffix -stan."stan", OED] Literally meaning "Land of Tajiks" in Persian.;Talc : from Pers. "talk" "talc.";Tambour: Etymology: French, drum, from Middle French, from Arabic tanbur, modification (influenced by tunbur, a lute) of Persian tabir. [ "tambour." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Tambourine : See above.;Tanbur: Etymology: Persian Tambur. [ "tanbur." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Tangi: Etymology: Persian Tangi. a narrow gorge [ "tangi." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Tandoori : from tannur "oven, portable furnace,"+Persian suffix i. ;Tapestry : probably from an Iranian source (cf. Pers. taftan, tabidan "to turn, twist"). [ Online Etymological Dictionary [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=tapestry] ] ;Tar: Etymology : Persian. An oriental lute. [ "tar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Tarazet : from "(Shahin-e Tarazu)" شاهین ترازو;Tass: Etymology: Middle French tasse, from Arabic tass, tassah, from Persian tast. a drinking cup or bowl. [ "tass." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Tebbad: Etymology: perhaps from Persian tab fever + bad wind, from Middle Persian vat; akin to Avestan vata- wind, Sanskrit vata. [ "tebbad." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Temacha: Etymology: Persian tamakhra joke, humor. a Persian comic or farcical interlude performed by traveling players. [ "temacha." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Thanadar: Etymology: Hindi thandar, from than + Persian -dar having. the chief officer of a thana. [ "thanadar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Tiara : via Latin "tiara" from Persian تاره tara;Timar: Etymology: Turkish timar attendance, care, timar, from Persian tmr sorrow, care. a Turkish fief formerly held under condition of military service. [ timar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Tiger : via Greek "tigris" from an Iranian source;Tigris : From Middle Persian "Tigr" "arrow", originally from Old Persian "Tigra" "pointed" or "sharp";Toque : from O. Pers. "taq" "veil, shawl.";Tranky: Etymology: Persian dialect tranki. an undecked bark used in the Persian gulf. [ "tranky." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Trehala: Etymology: probably from French tréhala, from Turkish tgala, from Persian tighal. [ "trehala." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Tulip : Etymology: any of various plants belonging to the genus Tulipa. from French "tulipe", from Persian "dulband". [ Online Etymological Dictionary. [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=tulip&searchmode=none] ] ;Turan : from Persian "توران";Turanian: Etymology: Persian Turan Turkistan, the region north of the Oxus + English -ian. A member of any of the peoples of Ural-Altaic stock. [ "turanian." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Turanite: Etymology: from Persian Turan + Russian -it' -ite. a basic vanadate of copper prob. Cu5(VO4)2(OH)4. [ "turanite." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Turanose: Etymology: German turanos, from Persian Turan + German -os -ose; obtained by the partial hydrolysis of melezitose; 3-α-glucosyl-fructose [ "turanose." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Turban : from Persian "dulband" Band = To close, To tie. [ "turban." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Turkmenistan : Turkmen combined with Persian suffix -stan."stan", OED] Literally meaning "Land of Turkmens" in Persian.;Typhoon : Etymology: from Persian word Toofaan ( طوفان )

U

;Uzbekistan : Uzbek combined with Persian suffix -stan."stan", OED] Literally meaning "Land of Uzbeks" in Persian.

V

;Vispered: Avestan vispa ratavo meaning all the lords. one of the supplementary ritual texts included in the Avestan sacred writings. [vispered." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;vizier : وزير etymology disputed; general references often derive it from Arabic "wazir", "viceroy", lit. "one who bears (the burden of office)", lit. "porter, carrier", from Arabic "wazara", "he carried". However, Jared S. Klein derives it from Middle Persian "vichir", from Avestan "vicira", "arbitrator, judge".

X

;Xerxes : Gk. form of O. Pers. Kshayarshan-, lit. "male (i.e. 'hero') among kings," from Kshaya- "king" (cf. shah) + arshan "male, man."

Y

;Yarak : Etymology: From Persian yaraki power, strength. good flying condition : FETTLE -- used of a hawk or other bird used in hunting "eagles ... are difficult to get into yarak" -- Douglas Carruthers. [ "yarak." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Yasht: Modern Persian یشت from Avesta. Avestan yashtay adoration. one of the hymns to angels or lesser divinities forming part of the Avesta ["yasht." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] .;Yuft: Etymology: Russian yuft', yukht', perhaps from Persian juft pair. [ "yuft." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (12 Sep. 2006). ]

Z

;Zamindar : Etymology: zamindar, from Persian, from zamn land + -dar holder meaning "Possessor of real estate" in Persian. A collector of revenues from the cultivators of the land of a specified district for the government of India during the period of Muslim rule [ "zamindar." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Zamindari: Etymology: from Persian, from zamindar. [ "zamindari." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Zanza : Etymology: Arabic sanj castanets, cymbals, from Persian sanj. an African musical instrument consisting of graduated sets of tongues of wood or metal inserted into and resonated by a wooden box and sounded by plucking with the fingers or thumbs. [ "zanza." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Zarathushtra or Zarathustra : the Persian prophet;Zedoary: Etymology: Middle English zeduarie, from Medieval Latin zeduria, from Arabic zadwr, from Persian. an East Indian drug consisting of the rhizome of either of two species of curcuma, Curcuma zedoaria or C. aromatica, used as a stimulant. [ Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006. http://dictionary.reference.com/search?r=2&q=zedoary] ] ;Zenana: Etymology: From Persian zan woman. The literal meaning is Women-related. The part of a dwelling in which the women of a family are secluded in India and Persian. [ "zenana." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Zena : feminine given name from Persian "Zan" (woman).;Zerda: Etymology: Arabic zerdaw, probably of Persian origin. Fennec. [ "zerda." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com ] ;Zircon : from Persian "zargun" "زرگون", "gold-colored" [ Online Etymological Dictionary [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=zircon] ] ;Zirconate: zircon + the suffix "-ate", from Latin "-atus";Zirconia: zircon + the New Latin "-ia" suffix;Zirconium: zircon + the New Latin suffix "-ium";Zoroaster : from Persian Zarathushtra;Zoroastrianism : The religion brought forth by Zoroaster. ;Zumbooruk: from Persian zanburah. [ "zumbooruk." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com . ]

References

ources

* [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=pers.&searchmode=none&p=0 Online etymology dictionary]
* Persian in English: Interaction of languages and cultures. by Mirfazaelian A., published by Farhang Moaser, Tehran, Iran 2006. (in Persian)

External links

* [http://www.krysstal.com/borrow_farsi.html English words borrowed from Persian]


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