- 28 Bolsheviks
The 28 Bolsheviks were a group of Chinese students who studied at the
Moscow Sun Yat-sen Universityfrom the late 1920s until early 1935, also known as the "Returned Students". The university was founded in 1925 as a result of Kuomintang's founder Sun Yat-Sen's policy of alliance with the Soviet Union, and was named after him. The university had an important influence on modern Chinese history by educating many prominent Chinese political figures. The most famous of these were collectively called the 28 Bolsheviks. [citebook|title=Women of the Long March |author= Lily Xiao Hong Lee, Sue WilesSummary|year= 1999|publisher=Allen & Unwin|id=ISBN 1864485698|pages=123|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=PkVVaQe7uhoC&pg=PA123&ots=UiZiYPmfj1&dq=%2228+Bolsheviks%22&ie=ISO-8859-1&output=html&sig=lLEXc2yq5xyw3l9acgrSjDdt8xo]
Names of Members
There are several rival lists of the 28. One lists 29 active members, including:
Wang Ming(王明), and his wife Mèng Qìngshù (孟庆树); Bo Gu(博古); Zhang Wentian(张闻天); Wang Jiaxiang; Yang Shangkun; Chén Chānghào (陈昌浩) with his wife Dù Zuòxiáng (杜作祥); Shěn Zémín (沈泽民) and his wife Zhāng Qínqiū (张琴秋); Hé Kèquán (何克全) or Kǎi Fēng (凯丰); Xià Xī (夏曦); Hé Zǐshù (何子述); Shèng Zhōngliàng (盛忠亮); Wáng Bǎolǐ (王宝礼); Wáng Shèngróng (王盛荣); Wáng Yúnchéng (王云程); Zhū Āgēn (朱阿根); Zhū Zìshùn (朱自舜, female); Sūn Jìmín (孙济民); Sòng Pánmín (宋盘民); Chén Yuándào (陈原道); Lǐ Zhúshēng (李竹声); Lǐ Yuánjié (李元杰); Wāng Shèngdí (汪盛荻); Xiāo Tèfǔ (肖特甫); Yīn Jiàn (殷鉴); Yuán Jiāyōng (袁家镛), Xú Yǐxīn (徐以新). The extra person can be attributed to Xú Yǐxīn because of his pendulous left and right stances, and thus this group is also known as "28 and a half Bolsheviks".
Rise and fall
With support from their mentor
Pavel Mif, president of Sun Yat-sen University and envoy of Comintern at that time, they returned to China after graduating. This provoked a struggle with Li Lisanand his allies, who controlled the Chinese Communist Party(CCP). Dissidents against Li inside the Party also objected to their return, but, in the 4th Plenary Meeting of the Communist Party's 6th National Congress, and with the presence and direct support of Pavel Mif, Wang Mingand his group won a landslide victory. Wang was elected to the Communist Party's politburoand Bo Gu, while Zhang Wentiantook up other, equally important, positions.As a result, the conflict between the Central Committee and Mao Zedong's fledgling Chinese Soviet Republicbegan once again. Although Wang Mingreturned to Moscowafter a short stay in Shanghai, Bo Guand Zhang Wentianboth took the position of General Secretary of Central Committee of the Party in turn, and led the Chinese revolution in a radical manner.
Chiang Kai-shek's 1927 blood purge, the CCP went deep underground in Shanghai and other cities. By the early 1930s, even that was unsafe and leaders began to converge at Mao Zedong's Jiangxi Soviet. Among the first to arrive, and to begin dismantling Mao's power, was Zhou Enlai. In 1933, when Bo Gu arrived, the job was mostly finished.
After a seriew of successful defenses against Nationalist Army attacks, Chiang's German advisers switched tactics and began building concentric circles of fortified positions closer and closer to the communist base. This forced the party to embark in the famous
Long March. Shortly after the march began, party leaders held an enlarged congress to determine the direction and leadership of the revolution. At the Zunyi Conferencein 1935, the 28 Bolsheviks were defeated by Mao Zedongand his allies, primarily due to the backing of Zhou Enlai and Zhu De. Bo Gustood by with the Cominternmilitary advisor Otto Braun (Li De), while Zhang and Wang Jiaxiang, General Commissar of the Red Army, and Yang Shangkun, Commissar of the Third Field Army of Red Army at that time, defected to Mao. This led to the disintegration of the 28 Bolsheviks. Wang Mingwas exiled to Moscowwhere he later died. Zhang was demoted to the field of ideological research in Yan'an, and later appointed Deputy Foreign Ministerafter 1949. He died during the Cultural Revolutionafter forming an "counterrevolutionary group" with Peng Dehuai. Bo Gudied in an air crash in the 1940s when he returned to Yan'an.
The standard Western interpretation is that the group neglected the contribution of peasants who contributed to the success of Mao's success
Mobile Warfare. That, and as proteges of Pavel Mif, they thought they were destined to take charge of the Chinese revolution.
Though there definitely was a group by this name, Thomas Kampen's "
Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlaiand the Evolution of the Chinese Communist Leadership" argues that they were only a coherent group in Moscow, opposed to both Kuomintangand Trotskyistinfluences among Chinese students. It's also claimed that they did return to China at various times, but failed to form an effective faction. Additionally, there are questions as to whether the entire group gained notoriety only by association with the theories of the most prominent member, Wang Ming.
The 28 Bolsheviks became pawns in the power struggle between their mentor, Pavel Mif, and the Communist Party of China. The group's members were relatively innocent in the ways of revolution, despite their collective power. Although its members had different fates, as a group the 28 Bolsheviks were destined to fail. Today in China, "the 28 Bolsheviks" is a code name for dogmatism.
Wang Jiaxiangwas later demoted to Minister of the Outside Communication Department and Chinese Ambassador to the Soviet Union. He died in the Cultural Revolution.
* Chen Changhao worked with
Zhang Guotaowhen he returned from Moscowand became Zhang's Commissar, but lost power and influence in the struggle between Zhang and Mao. Chen Changhao went on to become a Communist Party historian, and also died in the Cultural Revolution.
* He Kequan was General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Youth League, and later Vice Minister of the Propaganda Department, and died in 1954.
* Xia Xi was sent to
Hunanand carried out the purges which took the lives of more than forty thousand Red Army soldiers. He was later regarded as a public enemy. Perhaps because of this, no one came to his aid when he fell into a river and drowned during the Long March.
Yang Shangkunsurvived the purges, including the Cultural Revolution. He later became the President of the PRCin the 1980s.
* Shen Zemin, the younger brother of writer Shen Yanbin, worked for
Zhang Guotaoand the 4th Red Army. When Zhang's army was defeated, Shen took up guerilla warfare and died in battle.
* Zhang Qinqiu，Shen Zemin's wife, later married Chen Changhao and became the Red Army's only female divisional Commander. After 1949, she was appointed Deputy Minister of the textile industry, but died in the
* Ying Jian was arrested by
Kuomintangwhen he mobilized workers in Northern China, and was subsequently executed.
* Li Zhusheng was promoted to the
Politburoafter Wang Ming's return to Moscowin 1931, and put in charge of the daily affairs of the Communist Party in Shanghai. He was later arrested, but defected to the Kuomintang, and informed on many of his former compatriots.
* Chen Yuandao was appointed as senior leader for the
Jiangsuand HenanDivision of the Communist Party, but was later arrested and executed by the Kuomintangin Nanjing.
* Xu Yixin worked for Zhang Guotao's 4th Red Army and became his vice general commissar, surviving war and party purges. After the establishment of the
People's Republic of China, Xu held the position of ambassador under the Secretary of the Foreign Ministry. He died in the 1990's.
* Yuan Jiayong was appointed General Secretary of the Jiangsu Division in the Communist Party. Following his arrest in 1934, he defected to the
Kuomintangand worked for the secret police.
* He Zishu worked for the
Northern ChinaBureau of the Communist Party, and was executed by the Kuomintangin 1929.
* Wang Shengrong, a member of the first Central Military Commission of the
Chinese Soviet Republic, survived both war and purges. He died on September 1, 2006at the age of 99.
* Wang Yuncheng succeeded
Wang Mingas General Secretary of the Jiangsu Division in the Communist Party. He was kidnapped by the Kuomintangand forced to work with Li Zhusheng in the secret police.
* Sheng Zhongliang was senior leader of the Shanghai Division in the Communist Party, and was sold out by Li Zhusheng. He was coerced into informing for the
Kuomintang's secret police. Sheng, after moving to the US, later wrote memoirs of his time at the Sun Yat-sen University and with the 28 Bolsheviks.
* Song Panmin also worked for Zhang Guotao, but was executed when he objected to the purges being carried out by Xia Xi.
* Sun Jiming, a senior Communist Party leader, was arrested and defected to the
Kuomintangtogether with Wang Yuncheng.
* Wang Shengdi and Zhu Ageng left the Communist Party, though both had held senior positions.
* Wang Baoli, Zhu Zisun, Li Yuanjue, and Du Zuoxian left public life and their fates are currently unknown.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Bolsheviks — The group of Marxist revolutionaries who carried out the Russian Revolution of October 1917 under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin. The group originated in a larger organization of Marxists called the Russian Social Democratic Worker’s Party,… … Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914
Bolsheviks — The name Bolsheviks derives from the Russian word bol’shinstvo meaning the majority, and refers to the faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party led by Vladimir Ilich Lenin that achieved a majority on the Central Committee of the… … Historical dictionary of Marxism
Bolsheviks — BolÂ·sheÂ·vik || bÉ™ÊŠlÊƒÉªvÉªk / bÉ’l n. member of the Social Democratic party in Russia (from 1903 1917); member of the Russian Communist party (in the former Soviet Union) … English contemporary dictionary
Communist Party (bolsheviks) of Lithuania and Belorussia — The Communist Party (bolsheviks) of Lithuania and Belorussia ( ru. Коммунистическая партия (большевиков) Литвы и Беларуси, abbreviated КП(б)ЛиБ, translit. KP(b)LiB) was a communist party in the Lithuanian Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic,… … Wikipedia
Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Lithuania and Belorussia — The Communist Party (bolsheviks) of Lithuania and Belorussia (Russian: Коммунистическая партия (большевиков) Литвы и Беларуси; Lithuanian: Lietuvos ir Baltarusijos komunistų partija (bolševikai) abbreviated КП(б)ЛиБ, translit. KP(b)LiB) was a… … Wikipedia
All-Union Communist Party Bolsheviks — The All Union Communist Party Bolsheviks (Всесоюзная Коммунистическая партия большевиков,ВКПБ, Vsesoyuznaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya bol shevikov, VKPb ) is a Marxist Leninist and anti revisionist political party operating in Russia and other… … Wikipedia
All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) — (in Russian: Всесоюзная Коммунистическая партия (большевиков) , abbreviated ВКП(б)) is a political party operating in the former Soviet Union. ВКП(б) was formed in 1995, following a split from the All Union Communist Party Bolsheviks (VKPB). The… … Wikipedia
Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine — For the post Soviet party, see Communist Party of Ukraine and Communist Party of Ukraine (renewed). The Communist Party (Bolshevik) of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Комуністична Партія (більшовиків) України Komunistychna Partiya (bilshovykiv) Ukrayiny,… … Wikipedia
The Bolsheviks — Infobox Wrestling team article name=The Bolsheviks type=T caption= members= Nikolai Volkoff Boris Zhukov heights= Volkoff: height|ft=6|in=2 Zhukov: height|ft=6|in=0 weights= convert|575|lb|kg|abbr=on|lk=on names= former members= billed=The Soviet … Wikipedia
Memorial to the People Killed by Bolsheviks — Location Răzeni Designer Tudor Cataraga Completion date 2009 Opening date February 21, 2009 Dedicated to Victims of the Răzeni Massacre The Stone cross in the memory of the people killed by Bolsheviks (Romanian … Wikipedia