- T-6 Texan
name =T-6 Texan/SNJ/Harvard
type =Trainer aircraft
North American Aviation
first flight =
primary user =
more users =
number built =15,495
unit cost =
variants with their own articles =
The T-6 Texan was a single-engine advanced
trainer aircraftdesigned by North American Aviation, used to train fighter pilots of the United States Army Air Forces, United States Navy, Royal Air Forceand other air forces of the British Commonwealth during World War II. The T-6 is known by a variety of designations depending on the model and operating air force. The USAAC called it the "AT-6", the US Navy, the "SNJ", and British Commonwealth air forces, the Harvard. It remains a popular warbirdaircraft.
The T-6 originated from the
North American NA-16prototype (first flown on April 1, 1935) which, modified as the NA-26, was submitted as an entry for a USAAC"Basic Combat" aircraft competition in March, 1937. The first model went in to production and 180 were supplied to the USAAC as the BC-1 and 400 to the RAF as the Harvard I. The US Navy received 16 modified aircraft, designated the SNJ-1, and a further 61 as the SNJ-2 with a different engine.
A further 92 BC-1A and three BC-2 aircraft were built before the shift to the "advanced trainer" designation, AT-6, which was equivalent to the BC-1A. The differences between the AT-6 and the BC-1 were new outer wing panels with a swept forward trailing edge, squared-off wingtips and a triangular rudder, producing the definitive Texan appearance. After a change to the rear of the canopy, the AT-6 was designated the Harvard II for RAF/RCAF orders and 1,173 were supplied by purchase or
Lend Lease, mostly operating in Canadaas part of the Empire Air Training Scheme.
Next came the AT-6A which was based on the NA-77 design and was powered by the Pratt & Whitney R-1340-49 Wasp radial engine. The USAAF received 1,549 and the US Navy 270 (as the SNJ-3). The AT-6B was built for gunnery training and could mount a .30 in
machine gunon the forward fuselage. It utilised the R-1340-AN-1 engine which was to become the standard for the remaining T-6 production. Canada's Noorduyn Aviation built a R-1340-AN-1 powered version of the AT-6A which was supplied to the USAAF as the AT-16 (1,500 aircraft) and the RAF/RCAF as the Harvard IIB (2,485 aircraft), some of which also served with the Fleet Air Armand Royal Canadian Navy.
In late 1937 Mitsubushi purchased two
NA-16's as technology demonstrators and possibly a licence to build more. However the aircraft developed by Watanabe/Kyushu as the K10W1 (Allied code name "Oak") bore no more than a superficial resemblance to the North American design. It featured a full monocoquefuselage as opposed to the steel tube fuselage of the T-6 and NA-16 family of aircraft, as well as being of smaller dimensions overall and had no design details in common with the T-6. It was used in very small numbers by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1942 onwards. The IJA did not operate any, as they had other aircraft that they used for training.After the war the Japanese Air Self Defense Forceoperated Texans.
The NA-88 design resulted in 2,970 AT-6C Texans and 2,400 as the SNJ-4. The RAF received 726 of the AT-6C as the Harvard IIA. Modifications to the electrical system produced the AT-6D (3,713 produced) and SNJ-5 (1,357 produced). The AT-6D, redesignated the Harvard III, was supplied to the RAF (351 aircraft) and Fleet Air Arm (564 aircraft). Subsequently the NA-121 design with a completely clear rearmost section on the canopy, gave rise to 25 AT-6F Texans for the USAAF and 931, as the SNJ-6 for the US Navy. The ultimate version, the Harvard 4, was produced by
Canada Car and Foundryduring the 1950s, and supplied to the RCAF, USAF and Bundeswehr.
A total of 15,495 T-6s of all variants were built.
Korean Warand to a lesser extent, the Vietnamwar, T-6s were pressed into service as forward air controlaircraft. These aircraft were designated T-6 "Mosquito"s. [http://www.nationalmuseum.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=287 AF Museum - North American T-6D "Mosquito"] ] The RAF used the Harvard in Kenya against the Mau Mauin the 1950s where they operated with 20 lb bombs and machine guns against the gangs. Some operations took place at altitudes around 20,000 ft asl. A Harvard was the longest-serving RAF aeroplane, with an example, taken on strength in 1945, still serving in the 1990s (as a chase plane for helicopter test flights - a role the Shorts Tucano's high stall speed was ill-suited for). The T-6G was also used in a light attack or counter insurgencyrole by France during the Algerian warin special Escadrilles d'Aviation Légère d'Appui (EALA), armed with machine guns, bombs and rockets. At its peak there were 38 EALA's active. The largest unit was the Groupe d'Aviation Légère d'Appui 72, which consisted of up to 21 EALAs. Portugal also used ex-French aircraft during the Portuguese Colonial War.
Since the Second World War, the T-6 has been a regular participant at air shows, and was used in many movies. For example, in "
Tora! Tora! Tora!" and "The Final Countdown", converted single-seat T-6s painted in Japanese markings represent Mitsubishi Zeroes. The New ZealandWarbirds "Roaring 40s" aerobatic team use ex- Royal New Zealand Air ForceHarvards. The Reno National Air Races also has a class specifically for the T-6 during the National Air Races each year.
Austrian Air Force;BEL
* Belgian Air Force;flag|Biafra
* Biafran Air Force;BOL
* Bolivian Air Force;BRA
Brazilian Air Force;flag|Canada|1921
* Royal Canadian Air Force
* Royal Canadian Navy;ROC /
Republic of China Air Force;CHI
Chilean Air Force;COL
Colombian Air Force;COG
Congolese Air Force;CUB
* Cuban Air and Air Defense Force;DNK
Royal Danish Air Force;DOM
* Dominican Air Force;ESA
* Air Force of El Salvador;FRA
French Air Force;GAB
* Gabon Air Force;GER
Hellenic Air Force;flag|Hong Kong|colonial
Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force;HON
* Honduran Air Force;IND
Royal Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force;ISR
Israeli Air Force;ITA
Japan Air Self-Defense Force;flag|Katanga;KOR
Republic of Korea Air Force;MEX
Mexican Air Force;MAR
Royal Moroccan Air Force;NLD
Royal Netherlands Air Force;MOZ
* Mozambique Air and Air Defense Forces;NZL
Royal New Zealand Air Force
No. 1 Squadron RNZAF
No. 2 Squadron RNZAF
No. 3 Squadron RNZAF
No. 4 Squadron RNZAF
No. 14 Squadron RNZAF
No. 15 Squadron RNZAF
No. 16 Squadron RNZAF
No. 17 Squadron RNZAF
No. 18 Squadron RNZAF
No. 21 Squadron RNZAF
No. 22 Squadron RNZAF
No. 25 Squadron RNZAF
No. 30 Squadron RNZAF
No. 42 Squadron RNZAF;NOR
Royal Norwegian Air Force;PAK
Pakistan Air Force;PAR
* Paraguayan Air Force;PHI
Philippine Air Force;POR
Portuguese Air Force
Portuguese Navy;flag|South Africa|1928
South African Air Force;flag|Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesian Air Force;flag|South Vietnam
Vietnam Air Force;ESP
Spanish Air Force;USSR
Soviet Air Forces;SWE
Swedish Air Force;THA
Royal Thai Air Force;TUN
Tunisian Air Force;UK
Royal Air Force
Royal Navy;flag|United States|1912
United States Army Air Corps/Army Air Forces
United States Air Force
United States Navy
United States Marine Corps
* United States Coast Guard;URU
Uruguayan Air Force;VEN
Venezuelan Air Force;YUG
SFR Yugoslav Air Force;ZAI
plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop
ref=Jane’s Fighting Aircraft of World War IIRef Jane's|The North American Texan|251]
crew=two (student and instructor)
length main=29 ft
length alt=8.84 m
span main=42 ft
span alt=12.81 m
height main=11 ft 8 in
height alt=3.57 m
area main=253.7 ft²
area alt=23.6 m²
empty weight main=4,158 lb
empty weight alt=1,886 kg
loaded weight main=5,617 lb
loaded weight alt=2,548 kg
max takeoff weight main=
max takeoff weight alt=
Pratt & Whitney R-1340-AN-1 Wasp
type of prop=
number of props=1
power main=600 hp
power alt=450 kW
max speed main=208 mph at 5,000 ft
max speed alt=335 km/h at 1,500 m
cruise speed main=145 mph
cruise speed alt=233 km/h
range main=730 miles
range alt=1,175 km
ceiling main=24,200 ft
ceiling alt=7,400 m
climb rate main=ft/min
climb rate alt= m/s
loading alt= kg/m²
*Provision for up to 3× 0.30 in (7.62 mm)
* IAe.22 DL
* Kyushu K10W1
List of military aircraft of the United States
List of aircraft of the RAF
List of aircraft of the RNZAF
T-6 Texan II
* Becker, Dave and Brent, Winston. "AT-6 Harvard in South African Service (African Aviation Series No.1)". Nelspruit, South Africa:, Freeworld Publications CC, 2000. ISBN 0-95838-802-4.
* Bergése, Francis. "North American T-6" (in French). Rennes, France: Ouest France, 1979. ISBN 2-85882-183-6.
* Davis, Larry. "T-6 Texan in Action (Aircraft Number 94)". Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc., 1989. ISBN 0-89747-224-1.
* Fletcher, David C. and MacPhail, Doug. "Harvard! the North American Trainers in Canada". San Josef,BC/Dundee,Ont: DCF Flying Books, 1990. ISBN 0-96938-250-2.
* Hagedorn, Dan. "North American NA-16/AT-6/SNJ (WarbirdTech Volume 11)". North Branch, MN: Speciality Press, 1997. ISBN 0-93342-476-0.
* Hamlin, John F. "The Harvard File". Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1988. ISBN 0-85130-160-6.
* Jesse. William. "T-6 Texan, the Immortal Pilot Trainer". London: Osprey Publishing Ltd., 1991. ISBN 1-85532-154-8.
* Kohn, Leo J. "The Story of the Texan (American Flight Manuals)". Aviation Publications Co., 1975. ISBN 0-87994-034-4.
* MacPhail, Doug and Östberg, Mikael. "Triple Crown BT-9: The ASJA/Saab Sk 14, A Pictorial Essay" (in English/Swedish). San Josef,BC/Dundee,Ont: DCF Flying Books, 2003.
* Marchand, Patrick and Takamori, Junko. "North American T-6 et derives" (in French). Le Muy, France: Editions d’Along, 2004. ISBN 2-914403-21-6.
* Morgan, Len. "Famous Aircraft Series: The AT-6 Harvard". New York: Arco Publishing Co., Inc., 1965.
* Olrich, Walter and Ethell, Jeffrey L. "Pilot maker; the Incredible T-6". North Branch, MN: Specialty Press, 1982. ISBN 0-93342-434-5.
* Smith, Peter Charles. "North American T-6: SNJ, Harvard and Wirraway". Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK: The Crowood Press Ltd., 2000. ISBN 1-86126-382-1.
* Smith, Peter Charles. "T-6: The Harvard, Texan & Wirraway - A Pictorial Record". North Branch, MN: Speciality Press, 1995. ISBN 0-7603-0191-3.
* Spring, Ivan and Rivers, Reg. "Colour schemes and special markings of the North American "Harvard" in service with the SAAF 1940 to 1995". Pretoria, SOuth Africa: Spring Air Publishers, 1996. ISBN 0-9583977-3-2.
* Starkings, Peter. "From American Acorn to Japanese Oak - The tale of an unsung Japanese training aircraft with roots extending across the Pacific Ocean". Arawasi International, Asahi Process, Sept-Dec 2007, Issue 7.
* Wache, Siegfried. "CCF Harvard Mk. IV (T-6) (series F-40 - Die Flugzeuge der Bundeswehr Nr.09)" (in German). Buchholz, Germany: Buchholz Medien Verlag, 1989. ISBN 3-935761-09-0.
* [http://www.harvards.com/ The Canadian Harvard Aircraft Association]
* [http://www.aviation.technomuses.ca/collections/artifacts/aircraft/NorthAmericanHarvard4.shtml Backgrounder on the Harvard 4 (includes photographs)]
* [http://www.canadianharvards.com/ Canadian Harvard Aerobatic Team]
* [http://www.airbum.com/pireps/PirepT-6.html AT-6: School Marm With an Attitude (pilot report)]
* [http://www.warbirdalley.com/t6.htm Warbird Alley: T-6/SNJ/Harvard page - History, photos, specs, and links]
* [http://mosquitokorea.org Mosquito Korea website]
* [http://ww2db.com/aircraft_spec.php?aircraft_model_id=144 WW2DB: T-6 Texan - 14 pics, 3 in color]
* [http://www.warbirdexperiences.co.uk/harvard.html History of our UK based T-6G Texan "Mike Victor"]
* [http://www.condorsquadron.org VNY-based Condor Squadron, flying the legendary T-6/SNJ]
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