Austrasia


Austrasia

Austrasia (rarely Austria, both meaning "eastern land") formed the north-eastern portion of the Kingdom of the Merovingian Franks, comprising parts of the territory of present-day eastern France, western Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Metz served as its capital, although some Austrasian kings ruled from Rheims, Trier, and Cologne also. Austrasia was also used as a term for northeast Italy, as opposed to Neustria, which meant the northwest.

History

After the death of the Frankish king Clovis I in 511, his four sons partitioned his kingdom amongst themselves, with Theuderic I receiving the lands that were to become Austrasia. Descended from Theuderic, a line of kings ruled Austrasia until 555, when it was united with the other Frankish kingdoms of Chlothar I, who inherited all the Frankish realms by 558. He redivided the Frankish territory amongst his four sons, but the four kingdoms coalesced into three on the death of Charibert I in 567: Austrasia under Sigebert I, Neustria under Chilperic I, and Burgundy under Guntram. These three kingdoms defined the political division of Francia until the rise of the Carolingians and even thereafter.

From 567 to the death of Sigbert II in 613, Neustria and Austrasia were almost constantly at odds, with Burgundy playing the peacemaker between them. These struggles reached their climax in the wars between Brunhilda and Fredegund, queens respectively of Austrasia and Neustria. Finally, in 613, a rebellion by the nobility against Brunhilda saw her betrayed and handed over to her nephew and foe of Neustria, Chlothar II. Chlothar then took control of the other two kingdoms and set up a united Frankish kingdom with its capital in Paris. It was during this period that the first "majores domus" or mayors of the palace appeared. These officials acted as mediators between king and people in each realm. The first Austrasian mayors were drawn from the Pippinid family, which was to experience a slow, but steady ascent until it eventually displaced the Merovingian on the throne.

In 623, the Austrasians asked Chlothar II for a king of their own and he appointed his son Dagobert I to rule over them with Pepin of Landen as regent. Dagobert's government in Austrasia was widely admired. In 629, he inherited Neustria and Burgundy. Austrasia was again neglected until, in 633, the people demanded the king's son as their own king again. Dagobert complied and sent his elder son Sigebert III to Austrasia. Sigebert is widely regarded by historians as the first "roi fainéant" or do-nothing king of the Merovingian dynasty. His court was dominated by the mayors. In 657, the mayor Grimoald the Elder succeeded in putting his son Childebert the Adopted on the throne, where he remained until 662. Thereafter, Austrasia was predominantly the kingdom of the Arnulfing mayors of the palace and their base of power. With the Battle of Tertry in 687, Pepin of Heristal defeated the Neustrian king Theuderic III and established his mayoralty over all the Frankish kingdoms. This was even regarded by contemporaries as the beginning of his "reign". It also signaled the dominance of Austrasia over Neustria which was to last until the end of the Merovingian era. In 718, Charles Martel, with Austrasian support in his war against Neustria, each struggling to unite Francia under their hegemony, appointed one Chlothar IV to rule in Austrasia. This was the last Frankish ruler who did not rule over all the Franks. In 719, Francia was united permanently under Austrasian hegemony.

Under the Carolingians and subsequently, Austrasia is sometimes used as a denominator for the east of their realm, the Carolingian Empire. It has been used as a synonym for East Francia, though this is somewhat inaccurate.

Rulers

Merovingian kings

* Theuderic I, 511–533
* Theudebert I, 533–548
* Theudebald, 548–555
* Chlothar I, 555–561
* Sigebert I, 561–575
* Childebert II, 575–595
* Theudebert II, 595–612
* Theuderic II, 612–613
* Sigebert II, 613
* Chlothar II, 613–623
* Dagobert I, 623–634
* Sigebert III, 634–656
* Childebert the Adopted, 656–661
* Chlothar III, 661–662
* Childeric II, 662–675
* Dagobert II, 675–679
* Theuderic III, 679–691
* Clovis IV, 691–695
* Childebert III, 695–711
* Dagobert III, 711–715
* Chilperic II, 715–717
* Chlothar IV, 717–720
* Chilperic II, 720–721 (again)
* Theuderic IV, 721–737
* Childeric III, 743–751

Mayors of the palace

* Parthemius, until 548
* Gogo, c.567–581
* Wandalenus, from 581
* Gundulf, from 600
* Landric, until 612
* Warnachar, 612–617
* Hugh, 617–623
* Pepin I, 623–629
* Adalgisel, 633–639
* Pepin I, 639–640 (again)
* Otto, 640–643
* Grimoald I, 643–656
* Wulfoald, 656–680
* Pepin II, 680–714
* Theudoald, 714–715
* Charles Martel, 715–741
* Carloman, 741–747
* Pepin III, 747–751

Sources

* Charles Oman. "The Dark Ages 476–918". London: Rivingtons, 1914.
* Thomas Hodgkin. "Italy and Her Invaders". Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1895.


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Austrasia — Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre …   Wikipedia Español

  • Austrasia — (Austrasie en francés y Austrasien en alemán) es el nombre bajo el que se conoce la parte nororiental del Reino Franco durante el periodo de los reyes merovingios, en contraposición a Neustria que era la parte noroccidental. Clodoveo I el Grande …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • AUSTRASIA — Germ. Westrick, regio Germaniae superioris inter Mosam, Mosellam, et Hellum flumina comprehensa; quo in spatio Lotharingia, cum parte Alsatiae, et Palatinatus continetur. Unde Lotharingia passim Latine Austrasia nominatur, fuitque olim regnum non …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Austrasia — [ôs trā′zhə] [ML < OHG ostarrih: see AUSTRIA] easternmost part of the kingdom of the Merovingian Franks from the 6th to the 8th cent., composed of what is now NE France, Belgium, and W Germany …   English World dictionary

  • Austrasia — /aw stray zheuh, sheuh/, n. the E part of the former kingdom of the Franks, comprising parts of what is now NE France, W Germany, and Belgium. Cap.: Metz. * * * or Ostrasia Early medieval European kingdom. During the Merovingian dynasty (6th–8th… …   Universalium

  • Austrasia — or Ostrasia geographical name the E dominions of the Merovingian Franks extending from the Meuse to the Bohemian Forest • Austrasian adjective or noun …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Austrasia — …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • AUSTRASIA —    or the East Kingdom, a kingdom on the E. of the possessions of the Franks in Gaul, that existed from 511 to 843, capital of which was Metz; it was celebrated for its rivalry with the kingdom of Neustria, or the Western Kingdom …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Austrasia — Aus•tra•sia [[t]ɔˈstreɪ ʒə, ʃə[/t]] n. anh geg the E part of the kingdom of the Franks of the 6th–8th centuries, composed of what is now NE France, W Germany, and Belgium …   From formal English to slang

  • Austrasia — /ɒsˈtreɪʒə/ (say os trayzhuh) noun the eastern part of the kingdom of the Franks comprising parts of what is now north eastern France, western Germany, and Belgium. Capital: Metz. –Austrasian, adjective, noun …   Australian English dictionary


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