- Closely related key
In music, a closely related key is one sharing many common tones with an original key, as opposed to a distantly related key (or "close key" and "distant key"). In music harmony, such a key shares all, or all except one, pitches with a key with which it is being compared, and is adjacent to it on the circle of fifths and its relative majors or minors.
Such keys are the most commonly used destinations or transpositions in a modulation, because of their strong structural links with the home key. Distant keys may be reached sequentially through closely related keys by chain modulation, for example C to G to D or C to C minor to E♭ major. For example, "One principle that every composer of Haydn's day kept in mind was over-all unity of tonality. No piece dared wander too far from its tonic key, and no piece in a four-movement form dared to present a tonality not closely related to the key of the whole series."
Given a major key tonic (I), the related keys are:
- vi (submediant or relative minor): same key signature
- IV (subdominant): one less sharp (one more flat) around circle of fifths
- V (dominant): one more sharp (one less flat) around circle of fifths
- i (parallel minor): same tonic, different key signature
Major Relative Minor Subdominant and dominants C Am F, G, Dm, Em G Em C, D, Am, Bm D Bm G, A, Em, F♯m A F♯m D, E, Bm, C♯m E C♯m A, B, F♯m, G♯m B G♯m E, F♯, C♯m, D♯m F♯ D♯m B, C♯, G♯m, A♯m G♭ E♭m C♭, D♭, A♭m, B♭m D♭ B♭m G♭, A♭, E♭m, Fm A♭ Fm D♭, E♭, B♭m, Cm E♭ Cm A♭, B♭, Fm, Gm B♭ Gm E♭, F, Cm, Dm F Dm B♭, C, Gm, Am
Another view of closely related is that there are six closely related keys, based on the tonic and the remaining triads of the diatonic scale, excluding the dissonant leading-tone diminished triad. Four of which differ by one accidental, one with the same key signature, and the parallel modal form. In the key of C major these would be: D minor, E minor, F major, G major, A minor, and C minor.
In modern music, the closeness of a relation between any two keys or sets of pitches may be determined by the number of tones they share in common, which allows one to consider modulations not occurring in standard major-minor tonality. For example, in music based on the pentatonic scale containing pitches C, D, E, G, and A, modulating a fifth higher gives the collection of pitches G, A, B, D, and E, having four of five tones in common. However, modulating up a tritone would produce F♯, G♯, A♯, C♯, D♯, which shares no common tones with the original scale. Thus the scale a fifth higher is very closely related, while the scale a tritone higher is not. Other modulations may be placed in order from closest to most distant depending upon the number of common tones.
Another view in modern music, notably in Bartok, a common tonic produces closely related keys, the other scales being the six other modes. This usage can be found in several of the Mikrokosmos piano pieces.
When modulation causes the new key to traverse the bottom of the circle of fifths this may give rise to a theoretical key, containing eight (or more) sharps in its notated key signature; in such a case, notational conventions require re-casting the new section to its enharmonically equivalent key.
- ^ a b c d e Schonbrun, Marc (2006). The Everything Music Theory Book, p.76. ISBN 1593376529.
- ^ George T. Jones (1994). HarperCollins College Outline Music Theory, p.217. ISBN 0064671682.
- ^ Ulrich, Homer (1966). Chamber Music, p.175. ISBN 9780231086172.
- ^ a b Barry, Barbara R. (2000). The Philosopher's Stone: Essays in the Transformation of Musical Structure, p.19. ISBN 1576470105.
- ^ a b c Jones (1994), p.35-36.
- Howard Hanson, Harmonic Materials of Modern Music. Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc, 1960.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Key (music) — Scale degree names (C major scale). In music theory, the term key is used in many different and sometimes contradictory ways. A common use is to speak of music as being in a specific key, such as in the key of C major or in the key of F sharp … Wikipedia
key to — ˈkey to [transitive] usually passive [present tense I/you/we/they key to he/she/it keys to present participle keying to past tense keyed to … Useful english dictionary
key — key1 /kee/, n., pl. keys, adj., v., keyed, keying. n. 1. a small metal instrument specially cut to fit into a lock and move its bolt. 2. any of various devices resembling or functioning as a key: the key of a clock. 3. See key card. 4. something… … Universalium
Key — /kee/, n. Francis Scott, 1780 1843, U.S. lawyer: author of The Star Spangled Banner. * * * I In music, system of pitches and harmonies generated from a scale of seven tones, one of which is predominantly important. Keys are a basic element of… … Universalium
Key of Solomon — For other uses, see Key of Solomon (disambiguation). One of the pentacles found in the Key of Solomon manuscripts. This one is identified as The Great Pentacle and appears in Bodleian Library Michael MS. 276, a 17th century Italian manuscript. An … Wikipedia
Public-key cryptography — In an asymmetric key encryption scheme, anyone can encrypt messages using the public key, but only the holder of the paired private key can decrypt. Security depends on the secrecy of that private key … Wikipedia
Single-access key — A key in Biology is a modeling method used for categorizing species using logical choices. A single access key (Dichotomous key also called sequential key , analytical key , or pathway key ) is a key where the sequence and structure of… … Wikipedia
Glossary of education-related terms (A-C) — This glossary of education related terms is based on how they commonly are used in Wikipedia articles. This page contains terms starting with A – C. Select a letter from the table of contents to find terms on other pages. NOTOC MediaWiki:Toc: Top … Wikipedia
Nuclear receptor related 1 protein — Nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2 PDB rendering based on 1cit … Wikipedia
Unique key — In relational database design, a unique key can uniquely identify each row in a table, and is closely related to the Superkey concept. A unique key comprises a single column or a set of columns. No two distinct rows in a table can have the same… … Wikipedia