Second International


Second International

The Second International (1889-1916) was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on July 14, 1889. At the Paris meeting delegation from 20 countries participated. [Rubio, José Luis. "Las internacionales obreras en América". Madrid: 1971. p. 42] It continued the work of the dissolved First International, though excluding the still-powerful anarcho-syndicalist movement and unions, and was in existence until 1916.

Among the Second International's most famous actions were its (1889) declaration of May 1 as International Workers' Day and its (1910) declaration of March 8 as International Women's Day. It initiated the international campaign for the 8-hour working day. [Rubio, José Luis. "Las internacionales obreras en América". Madrid: 1971. p. 43]

The International's permanent executive and information body was the International Socialist Bureau (I.S.B.), based in Brussels and formed after the International's Paris Congress of 1900. Emile Vandervelde and Camille Huysmans of the Belgian Labour Party were its chair and secretary. Lenin was a member from 1905.

The Second International dissolved during World War I, in 1916, as the separate national parties that composed it did not maintain a unified front against the war, instead generally supporting their respective nations' role. French socialist leader Jean Jaurès's assassination, a few days before the beginning of the war, symbolized the failure of the antimilitarist doctrine of the Second International. In 1915, at the Zimmerwald Conference, anti-war socialists attempted to maintain international unity against the social patriotism of the social democratic leaders. The International continued in skeleton form in neutral Switzerland through the war, as the Berne International.

In 1920, the defunct Second International was reorganized. However, some European socialist parties refused to join the reorganized international, and decided instead to form the International Working Union of Socialist Parties (IWUSP) ("Second and a half International" or "Two-and-a-half International"), heavily influenced by Austromarxism. In 1923, IWUSP and the Second International merged to form the social democratic Labour and Socialist International. This international continued to exist until 1940. After World War II, the Socialist International was formed to continue the policies of the Labour and Socialist International, and it continues to this day.

Congresses of the Second International

# 1889 - Paris
# 1891 - Brussels
# 1893 - Zürich
# 1896 - London
# 1900 - Paris
# 1904 - Amsterdam
# 1907 - Stuttgart
# 1910 - Copenhagen
# 1912 - Basel (Extraordinary Congress)

Prominent Members of the Second International

Germany:
*August Bebel
*Hugo Haase
*Karl Kautsky
*Karl Liebknecht
*Wilhelm Liebknecht
*Rosa Luxemburg
*Clara Zetkin

France:
*Jean Allemane
*Jules Guesde
*Jean Jaurès
*Gustave Hervé
*Édouard Vaillant

Russia:
*Vladimir Lenin
*Georgi Plekhanov
*Pavel Axelrod

Austria:
*Victor Adler
*Karl Renner

The Netherlands:
*Anton Pannekoek
*Pieter Jelles Troelstra

Belgium:
*Camille Huysmans
*Emile Vandervelde

Switzerland:
*Robert Grimm

Ireland:
*James Connolly

In Latin America

In Latin America, the International had two affiliates; the Socialist Party of Argentina and the Socialist Party of Uruguay. [Rubio, José Luis. "Las internacionales obreras en América". Madrid: 1971. p. 49]

See also

*First International
*Socialist International
*International Working Union of Socialist Parties ("Second and a half international"/"Two-and-a-half International")
*Third International (Comintern)
*Fourth International and Trotskyist internationals
*"Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière" (SFIO, the French section of the Second International)

References

External links

* [http://www.marxists.org/history/international/social-democracy/index.htm The Second International] , at Marxists.org
* [http://www.minkoff-editions.com/histoire/pages/histoire_de_la_iie__internationale.htm History of the Second International (in French and English)]
* [http://fractal-vortex.narod.ru/International/Second_International.htm German social-democratic party and the Second International] by Fractal-vortex


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Second International —    Founded at the International Workers’ Congress in Paris in 1889, the Second International was a loose association of socialist and workers’ political parties and trade unions. It was dominated by the very strong German social democratic… …   Historical dictionary of Marxism

  • Second International — an international association formed in 1889 in Paris, uniting socialistic groups or parties of various countries and holding international congresses from time to time: in 1923 it joined with the Vienna International to form the Labor and… …   Universalium

  • Second International — an international association formed in 1889 in Paris, uniting socialistic groups or parties of various countries and holding international congresses from time to time: in 1923 it joined with the Vienna International to form the Labor and… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Second International — /sɛkənd ɪntəˈnæʃnəl/ (say sekuhnd intuh nashnuhl) noun → International (def. 2) …   Australian English dictionary

  • Second International Congress on Education of the Deaf — The Second International Congress on Education of the Deaf was (despite the name) the first international conference of deaf educators held in Milan, Italy in 1880. It is commonly known as The Milan Conference . After deliberations from September …   Wikipedia

  • Second International Congress on World Evangelization — The Second International Congress on World Evangelization, often called Lausanne II or Lausanne 89 was held in Manila.The conference is noted for producing the Manila Manifesto, a renewed and expanded commitment to the Lausanne Covenant, an… …   Wikipedia

  • Second International Islamic Unity Conference — From August 2nd through the 4th, 1996, some 7,000 attendees and over 125 speakers from around the globe attended a three day marathon of lectures, parallel workshop sessions, prayer, praise of Muhammad and Islamic social interaction. Officially… …   Wikipedia

  • The Second International Congress of Composers and Music Critics 1948 — The Second International Congress of Composers and Music Critics was held in Prague between May 20th and May 29th in 1948, and was an important moment in the development of musical life in post war Czechoslovakia. It was also a significant… …   Wikipedia

  • International Workers' Day — (a name used interchangeably with May Day ) is a celebration of the social and economic achievements of the international labour movement. May Day commonly sees organized street demonstrations and street marches by millions of working people and… …   Wikipedia

  • International Women's Day — Poster for Women s Day, March 8, 1914 Observed by Men and Women worldwide Type International …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.